Ma(>., Arcuunt cf a ycttng

ther was encouraged and kept up by frequent visits, authorised by both their parents, who observed with pleasure the disposition* ot their children exactly suited t j the intention they had of making (hem husband and wife. A marriage was accordingly on the point of being concluded between them, when a rich collector of the king's revenues made his addresses to the young lady. The delusive charms of a superior fortune soon induced her parents to change their resolution of bestowing her on their neighbour's son; and the lady's aversion to her new lover being surmounted by her filial duty, Ihe married the collector: but the engagement was fatal to her happiness, and brought on a melancholy, which threw her into a disorder whereby her senses were so locked up that Qie was taken for dead, and accordingly interred.— The affecting news soon renclied the ears of her first lover, who remembring that file had once been seized with a violent paroxysm of a lethargy, flattered himself that her late misfortune might be produced by the fame cause. This opinion alleviated his sorrow, and induced him to bribe the sexton, by whose assistance he raised her from* the grave, and conveyed her to a proper chamber, wher?, by the use of all the expedients he could possibly think of, he happily reliored her to life.—We may imagine the lady was in no small surprize, when she found herself in a strange house, saw her darlin-g lover standing by her bed, and heard the detail of all that had befallen her. The love that she had alwayi bore him, and a grrueful

Lady s returning to List. 525

fense of the obligation (he was now •under l» him as her deliverer, pleaded strongly in his bchaK; and (he justly concluded, that her life belonged to him who h d preferred it To convince him therefore of her affection, when file was perfectly recover* ed Ihe went alongwith him to England, uhere they lived sevtral years in all the happiness resulting fiom mutual love.—However, about ten years afterwards they returned to> Paris, imagining that nobody would ever fufprct what had happened; but one day the collector unfortunately met the lady in a public walk, and not only accosted her, but, notwithstanding the discourse) she used in order to decei>>- him, parted from her fullv perfua.'cd that she was the very uoman whe m he had married, and for whose death he had gone into mourning. In a word, he soon discovered her apartments, in spite of all the precauti ins she had taken to conceal herieif, and claimed her as his wife in a court of judicature.— In vain did her lover insist on the right he had to her, arising from the care he had taken to preserve her; in vain did he urge, that without the measures he had used, the lady would have been rotten, in her grave; that his adversary had renounced all claim to her* by ordering her to be interred; and all the other arguments that the sincerest love could suggest: so that perceiving the court was not like to prove favourable to him, ho resolved not to stay 'or i(> decision, andaccordingly made his escape with the lady to a foreign country, where their love continued sacred an 1 in« vioSable as long as life remained.

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T/"1NG John, who was a very voluptuous prince, had repudiated Havise, ihe daughter of the carl of Gloucester; and having seen Isabel d'Angoulesrae, who was contracted, if not married, to Hugucs le Bns.'>, count of March, caused her to be carried away fiom liij house, and, by the consent of her father, married her. As this lady was neaily related to king Philip, he carried her to Paris, where they were treated with the utmost magnificence, and dismissed with all possible demonstrations of the molt cordial affection. This situation of things very suddenly changed; the count of March resenting the injury done to him, and drawing mariy of the nobility to whom he was allied in blood to his party, began some troubles; which John, with great severity, suppressed. Complaints were made upon this to king Philip, who wrote in strong terir.s to the king of England; who promised to render justice more readily than he performed it. From these small sparks a great flame ensued. Philip, Who had mighty things in view, encouraged the young prince Arthur to set himself at' the head of the malecontents, conferred upon him the honour of knighthood, and furnished liim with a large sum os money to raise forces. The first exploit this young prince attempted with his half-formed army, was the siege of Mirebeau, where his grandmother the old queen dowager resided. King John, already ljnded in Normandv, marched with gre:t forces to her relief, tou'ed those of his nephew, and took him prifoner.This success, which mi<jlit have

been highly advantageous to his affairs, proved his ruin ; for having first transferred the poor young prince to Falaife, and from thence to the Castie of Rouen, when he found it utteily impossible to detach him from the French interest, either murdered him, as some historians fay, with his own hand, or caused him to be murdered, as almost all writers agree. This cruel act rendered him justly odious to all his subjects in France; and his mother applying herself for justice to Philip, who summoned him to appear and answer to this charge before the court of peers at Paris; and, upon his refusal or delay, declared him, according to the ordinary course of justice, convicted of felony, and all the lands he held as fiefs from the crown of France confiscated. King John was at this time in a most deplorable situation; the old queen his mother lately dead, most of his nobility in arms- against him, some of his ancient allies employed in the fourt'h croisade in Syria, some dead, and the rest detached fiom him; so that Philip had the fairest opportunity, as well as the most plausible pretence, for depriving him of Normandy, and the rest of his dominions in France, under colour of executing the sentence of the court of peers; and he was not a prince capable of letting flip even a less promising occasion. But he did nothing precipitately; he took care to have all the forms of law on his side, and, while he was taking these precautions, he astern' bled a numerous army, with w hich he undertook the conquest of Normandy.

I 202.

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■ It is not our business to enter into a detail of the campaign, it is sufficient for our purpose to say, that, in less than six months, he either obtained,, .by intelligence of the principal inhabitants, or reduced by force, all the great towns in the Higher Normandy, while John remained at Caen in such a Hate of inaction, as not only amazed that but all succeeding ages. The strong fortress of Chasleau Gaillard made a gallant defence; and John, as if he had waked out of a sleep, assembled a firons fleet ar.d armv for its rcljef; but a concurrence of unfortunate accidents rendering his efforts ineffectual, he, in a fit of distraction, returned, to England, and seemed to abandon all. 1'hilip, taking advantage of ,thi_Sy -reduced all Lower Normandy with the fame facility; insomuch that John had nothing left but the city os Rouen, the inhabitants of which, from a true spiiit of loyalty and independency, defended themselves bravely; neither did they surrender, till, acquainting John with their distress, he returned them for answer, that, being able to afford them no relief, they must: make the b:st terms tor themselves they could: and thus, after a separation of three hundred J years, Normandy was again united to the crown of France. This success, far from satisfying, served only to raise and inflame the ambition of Philip, who carried the war into the countries of Maine, Anjou, and Touraine, the best part of which lie subdued with the same ease that he had done Normandy. He saw clearly the superiority he had, and resolved to press it to the utmost. The count of Flanders was in Syria, the count of Champagne a child uodtr his tutelage, the count of

Thoulouse embarrassed with . the court of Rome, who treated him as a heretic; in short, he was free from all the restraints by which his predecessors were in a manner tied down, and he thought the best use he could make of it, was to transmit that liberty which himself enjoyed to his posterity and successors. The only rrror he committed was sliewing his sentiments l2°4too plainly, and behaving towards some of the nobility as if that was already done, which was only in a fair way of being done; a thing inexcusable in a politician; but afier all, even wife men are but men. Guy de Tours, who was become duke of Eretagne by the marriage of Constance the mother of prince Arthur, and the. heiress of that duchy, had, during her life, acted as warmly as any against the English; but that princess being dead, and perceiving plainly what was the intention of Philip, he laboured as much as in him lay to make king John sensible of the weak part he had acted, and to persuade him not to desert such of his subjects as yet remained faithful, and were willing to risk all to preserve what was still remaining of his dominion sin France. Moved by these remonstrances, and encouraged by his promises, that monarch came with a fleet and army to Rochelle; but the fortune of Philip prevailed. John received at the beginning various checks, which made him glad to accepi a truce for two years, and the duke of Dretagne, being left to the king's mercy, was forced to make peace upon the best; terms he could obtain; which was an event highly acceptable to Philip, who desired nothing so much as an opportunity ospunisliing or humbling his vassals.

J28 CctnptndicutHijioryefVtinte. Biitifh

In the midst of these transactions, them : upon all which Philip lockfd

a new and very extraordinary scene opened itself in Fiance. The popes having found a way to raise armies, ■when, where, and against whom they pleased, by the preaching of a few hair-brained furious monks, resolved to make tiial of ir in Europe against those t'oey (filed heretics, as the.; had done in Alia against the in fidcls. Raymond, count of Thoulouse, who was a man of free principle, p^imitred persons of all opinions 10 reside in his tenitoiies, provided iheii morals were found, and ihty did nothing uga.nst 'he pu lie [/tare. Thtse heretic?, as they wt-re itiled, did not agree entiie(y in letitiments, and it was no *voni!er, since, in ie<.!iry, they were driven out o! the chuuh of Rome ■by a clear fense of her corruptions,' Or were'the remains of the ancient Gothic churches, who were never infected with them. To Uiese people, because they lived about AIbi, they gave the name of Albigeois; a^ai ;if whom, at the instance of Dominic and his disciples, pope Innocent the third published a croisade, in order to exterminate with the swotd such as wotild not be converted with preaching- This pious commission was offered to king Philip, who refused i:, but connived at the execution of ir, or perhaps durst not oppose ir. Eudes duke of B ir^undy, and afterwards Simon de Montfort, wtre at the head of these micreatits, 'who stiled themselves she armv of the church, and most t>la phemouily imitied God to all the hcrilrges, robberies, and murder*, witch they committed; desolating all the fine provinces in the south of Frame, destroying not only those they lliled heretics, hut also the catholics that lived amongst

with silence, believing that the miserits the people luffeted, and rhe destruction of the nobility in those parts, would pave the wayfor extending his authority, the only object ot" which he nevei loft sight.

The pope, having once got this new weapon in his hand, imagined hiirself to be invincible, rnd was consequently for employing it whereever he found the least resistance. John, kirg of England, had refused to admit cardinal Stephen Langton in quality of legate frem the holy see, because he looked upon him as a man wholly devoted to France; end this provoked the pope to such . a degree, that he put the kir.griom of England under an interdict. This brought a furious persecution on the bishops who obeyed it, insomuch that they were obliged to take refuge in France. Pope Innocent, upon this, resolved to keep no scrther measures, excommunirated the king, and gave his dominions to the frit occupier, assigning the fame indulgencics to such as fought against this prince, as if they had taken the cross against the infidels. The legates from Rome having proposed this expedition to Philip, he rc3ci!y accepted it, knowing thst some.line or other an attempt would be made to wrist Normandy from him, believing it rather his interest to carry the war into England than to expect if at home; ar.d besides, being desirous to emplo;: his son prince Lewis, who, without his knowlege, and contrary to his intention, had taken the cross against the Albigeois; which, he supposed, might be dispensed with by his service against the English. Many os the great lords, either out of vain-glory, the desire of obtaining estates in that itbnd,


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or out of pure caprice, applauded bis design, and promised to follow him. Philip spent much time in forming an army suitable to so great an undertaking, ant) in preparing a vast fleet, which, if the French authors are to be credited, consisted of no less than seventeen hundred sail. The king of England, on the other hand, made also great preparations, gathered together an army of sixty thousand men, and had also a formidable fleet at Portsmouth, upon which he might have relied; but either from his own suspicions of the fidelity of his subjects, or from the natural fickleness of his temper, he changed his scheme on a sudden, made the meanest submissions to the pope in the person of his legate, cardinal Pandolph, by which he procured absolution j and when Philip expected all the aflistance that the authority of the see of Rome could give him, he was threatened with an eveommunication if he proceeded in his attempt; but this was not the motive that induced him to desist.

The great peril he was in had awakened so much sense in king John, that, with great secrecy and much address, he had negotiated a league upon the continent for the destruction of France, and, as it was perfectly well concerted, they had proceeded to divide the bear's skin; Ferdinand count of Flanders was to have the city of Paris and the Ifle of France, the count of Cologne the Vermandois, John hi.-hself the provinces beyond the Loire, and his nephew the emperor Otho Burgundy and Champagne. Raymond count of Thouloufe, and the rest of the princes who had been so ill treated by the croisade, had likewise promised to make a diversion on their

side. Philip was no sooner acquainted wirh this confederacy than he turned all his forces against the count of Flanders, ravaged all the flat country, and laid siege to Ghent; to facilitate which he ordered his fleet to repair to the port of Dam. He was quickly obliged to raise the siege, by the news that the squadrons of king John had taken three hundred of his ships laden uith all sorts of ammunition and military stores, funk a hundred more, and blocked up all the rest in the haven and canal. They had likewise the boldness to debark a small body of troops, which, marching directly towards the French camp, Philip furprised and cut the best part of them to pieces; which ,*'I3* trivial success could not console him for the loss he had already sustained, and much less for that which followed; sine*, having no other way to keep them out of the hands of the English, he was constrained to order all the rest of his fleet to be burnt. King John, animated by this little gleam of prosperity, transported a considerable army to Rochclle, where he no sooner landed than the Toictevins revolted in his favour ; he afterwards made himself master of Angiers, the fortifications of which had been demolished, and were by him repaired: in fine, he rav.iged all the country as far as the frontiers of Bretagne. Philip, foreseeing the ill consequences that might attend this unexpected diversion, sent his son Lewis with a considerable force to oppose him. Some of the French historians fay, that, upon his approach, king J^hn decamped so precipitately, that he left his heavy baggage and engines of war behind him; but others assure us there were faults on both 2 (ides,

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