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operation, and went through it with the same firmness of mind which he had manifested in the former operations. By this means the deformity of the bone was removed.

The contraction of the leg was in some degree relieved by other applications, and especially by certain machines, with which during many days, and with great and continual pain, it was stretched ; nevertheless it could not be so extended, but that it always remained something shorter than the other.” Ribadeneira, Vita S. Ignatii Loyola, Acta SS. Jul. t. 7. p. 659.

A close-fitting boot seems to have been as fashionable at one time as close-fitting innominables of buckskin were about the year 1790: and perhaps it was as severe an operation to get into them for the first time. “ The greasy shoemaker,” says Tom Nash, “ with his squirrel's skin, and a whole stall of ware upon his arm, enters, and wrencheth his legs for an hour together, and after shows his tally. By St. Loy that draws deep. Nash's Lenten Stuff. Harl. Miscel. vol. ii. p. 289. 8vo. edition.

The operation of fitting a Spanish dandy with short-laced quarter boots is thus minutely described by Juan de Zavaleta, who was historiographer at the commencement of Carlos the Second's reign.

Entra el zapatero oliendo á cansado. Saca de las hormas los zapatos, con tanta dificultad como si desollara las hormas. Sientase en una silla el galan ; hincase el zapatero de rodillas, apoderase de una pierna con tantos tirones y desagrados, como si le embiaran a que le diera tormento. Mete un calzador en el talon del zapato, encapillale otro en la punta del pie, y luego empieza a guiar el zapato por encima del calzador. Apenas ha caminado poco mas que los dedos del pie, quando es menester arrastrarle con unas tenazas, y aun arrastrado se resiste. Ponese en pie el paciente fatigado, pero contento de

que
los zapatos

vengan angostos; y de orden del zapatero da tres o quatro patadas en el suelo, con tanta fuerza, que pues no se quiebra, deve de ser de bronze.

Acozeados dan de si el cordovan y la suela ; pellejos en fin de animales, que obedecen a golpes. Buelvese a sentar el tal señor, dobla ázia fuera el copete del zapato, cogele con la boca de las

le

tenazas, hinca el oficial junto a el entrambas rodillas, afirmase en el suelo con la mano izquierda, y puesto de bruzas sobre el pie, hecho arco los dos dedos la mano derecha que forman el jème, va con ellos ayudando a llevar por el empeine arriba el cordovan, de quien tira con las tenazas su dueño. Buelve a ponerse en una rodilla, como primero estava ; empuña con la una mano la punta del pie, y con la palma de la otra da sobre su mano tan grandes golpes como si los diera con una pala de jugar a la pelota ; que es la necessidad tan discreta, que se haze el pobre el mal a si mismo, por no hazersele a aquel de quien necessita.

Ajustada ya la punta del pie, acude al talon ; humedece con la lengua los remates de las costuras, porque no falseen las costuras de secas por los remates. Tremenda vanidad, sufrir en sus pies un hombre la boca de otro hombre, solo por tener aliñados los pies ! Desdobla el zapatero el talon, dase una buelta con el calzador a la mano, y empieza a encaxar en el pie la segunda porcion del zapato. Manda que se baze la punta, y hazese lo que manda. Llama ázia a si el zapato con tal fuerza, que entre su cuerpo, y el espaldar de la silla abrevia torpe y desaliñadamente al que calza. Dizele luego que haga talon, y el hombre obedece como un esclavo. Ordenale despues que en el suelo una patada, y el la patada, como se le ordena. Buelve a sentarse ; saca el cruel ministro el calzador del empeine, y por donde salió el calzador mete un palo, que llaman costa, y contra el buelve 'y rebuelve el sacabocados, que saca los bocados del cordovan, para que entren las cintas ; y dexa en el empeine del pie un dolor, y unas señales, como si huviera sacado de alli los bocados. Aguijerea las orejas, passa la cinta con una aguja, lleva las orejas a que cierren el zapato, ajustalos, y da luego con tanta fuerza el nudo, que si pudieran ahogar a un hombre por la garganta del pie, le ahogara. Haze la rosa despues con mas cuydado que gracia. Buelve a devanarse a la mano el calzador, que está colgando del talon ; tira del como quien retoca, con la otra mano palmadas en la planta, como quien assienta, y saca el calzador, echandose todo ázia atrás. Pone el galan el pie en el suelo, y quedase mirandole. Levantase el zapatero, arrasa con el dedo el sudor de la frente, y queda respirando como si huviera corrido. Todo esto se ahorrava con hazer el zapato un poco

mayor que el pie. Padecen luego entrambos otro tanto con el pie segundo. Llega el ultimo y fiero trance de darle el dinero. Recoge el oficial sus baratijas. Recibe su estipendio, sale por la puerta de la sala mirando si es buena la plata que le han dado, dexando á su dueno de movimientos tan torpes como si le huviera echado unos grillos.

Si pensaràn los que se calzan apretado que se achican el pie. Si lo piensan se engañan. Los huessos no se pueden meter unos en otros : con esto es fuerza que si le quitan de lo largo al zapato, se doble el pie por las coyunturas, y crezca ázia arriba lo que le menguan de udelante.

Si le estrechan lo ancho, es preciso que se alargue aquella carne oprimida. Con la misma cantidad de pie que se tenian, se quedan los que calzan sisado. Lo que hazen es atormentarse, y dexar los pies de peor hechura. El animal á quien mas largos pies diò la naturaleza segun su cantidad, es el hombre; porque, como ha de andar todo el cuerpo sobre ellos, y no son mas de dos, quiso que anduviesse seguro. El que se los quiere abreviar, gana parece que tiene de caer, y de caer en los vicios, donde se hará mayor mal, que en las piedras. La parte que le puso Dios al hombre en la fabrica de su cuerpo mas cerca de la tierra, son los pies : quiso sin duda que fuera la parte mas humilde de su fabrica : pero los galanes viciosos les quitan la humildad con los aliños, y los ensobervecen con el cuydado. Enfada esto a Dios tanto, que aviendo de hazer al hombre animal que pisasse la tierra, hizo la tierra de tal calidad, que se pudiesse imprimir en ella la huella del hombre.

Abierta dera su sepultura el pie que se levanta, y parece que se levanta de la sepultura. Tremendad crueldad es enloquecer con el adorno al que se quiere tragar la tierra a cada passo. — El dia de Fiesta. Obras de D. Juan de Zavaleta, p. 179–180.

“ In comes the shoemaker in the odour of haste and fatigue. He takes the shoes off the last with as much difficulty as if he were skinning the lasts. The gallant seats himself upon a chair; the shoemaker kneels down, and takes possession of one foot, which he handles as if he were sent there to administer the

He puts one shoeing-skin * in the heel of the shoe,

torture.

* A piece of hare's-skin is used in Spain for this purpose, as it appears by the former extract from Tom Nash that squirrel's-skin was in England.

fits the other upon the point of the foot, and then begins to guide the shoe over the shoeing skin. Scarcely has it got farther than the toes when it is found necessary to draw it on with pincers, and even then it is hard work. The patient stands up, fatigued with the operation, but well pleased that the shoes are tight; and by the shoemaker's directions he stamps three or four times on the floor, with such force that it must be of iron if it does not give way.

“ The cordovan and the soles being thus beaten, submit; they are the skins of animals who obey blows. Our gallant returns to his seat, he turns up the upper leather of the shoe, and lays hold on it with the pincers; the tradesman kneels close by him on both knees, rests on the ground with his left hand, and bending in this all-four's position over the foot, making an arch with those fingers of the right hand which form the span, assists in drawing on the upper part of the cordovan, the gallant pulling the while with the pincers. He then puts himself on one knee, lays hold of the end of the foot with one hand, and with the palm of the other strikes his own hand, as hard as if he were striking a ball with a racket. For necessity is so discreet that the poor man inflicts this pain upon himself that he may give none to the person of whose custom he stands in need.

“ The end of the foot being thus adjusted he repairs to the heel, and with his tongue moistens the end of the seams, that they may not give way for being dry. Tremendous vanity, that one man should allow the mouth of another to be applied to his feet that he may have them trimly set out! The shoemaker unfolds the heel, turns round with the shoeing skin in his hand, and begins to fit the second part of the shoe upon the foot. He desires the gallant to put the end of the foot down, and the gallant does as he is desired. He draws the shoe towards him with such force that the person who is thus being shoed is compressed in an unseemly manner between the shoemaker's body and the back of the chair. Presently he tells him to put his heel down, and the man is as obedient as a slave. He orders him then to stamp upon the ground, and

costa. *

the man stamps as he is ordered. The gallant then seats himself again; the cruel operator draws the shoeing-skin from the instep, and in its place drives in a stick which they call

He then turns upon it the punch, which makes the holes in the leather, through which the ribands are to pass ; he again twists round his hand the strip of hare's-skin which hangs from the heel, and pulls it as if he were ringing a bell, and leaves upon the upper part of the top such pain and marks as if he had punched the holes in it. He bores the ears, passes the string through with a bodkin, brings the ears together that they may fasten the shoe, fits them to their intended place, and ties the knot with such force, that if it were possible to strangle a man by the neck of his foot, strangled the gallant would be. Then he makes the rose, with more care than grace. He goes then to take out the shoeing-skin which is still hanging from the heel; he lays hold of this, strikes the sole of the foot with his other hand as if settling it, and draws out the skin, bringing out all with it. The gallant puts his foot to the ground, and remains looking at it. The shoemaker rises, wipes the sweat from his forehead with his fingers, and draws his breath like one who has been running. All this trouble might have been saved by making the shoe a little larger than the foot. Presently both have to go through the same pains with the other foot. Now comes the last and terrible act of payment.

The tradesman collects his tools, receives his money, and goes out at the door, looking at the silver to see if it is good, and leaving the gallant walking as much at his ease as if he had been put in fetters.

“ If they who wear tight shoes think that thereby they can lessen the size of their feet, they are mistaken. The bones cannot be squeezed one into another; if therefore the shoe is made short, the foot must be crooked at the joints, and grow upward if it is not allowed to grow forward. If it is pinched in the breadth, the flesh which is thus constrained must extend

* Which is used to drive in upon the last to raise a shoe higher in the instep.

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