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ward movement on the part of a for his reports seemed so good, relieving force, a retreat from and I am truly glad to have such Khartúm will practically mean a splendid fellow." the dissolution of the retiring Before leaving Stewart received force.” He held strongly that written instructions to accompany “ without fighting - men it was Gordon. His position, which has hopeless to expect to do any- been often misunderstood, was thing," and advocated the despatch that of staff - officer to a British of a force from India to Kassala general ordered to Egypt on Imto secure the Khartúm-Kassala- perial service. One who saw him Massowa road, and overawe the at this time writes: “I shall never Eastern Súdán.

forget his simple, frank, soldierOn the 17th, Stewart felt so like, dutiful acceptance of the certain that nothing would be orders given him. I have a strong done that he accepted a delicate personal feeling of admiration for mission from Government which a man who did his duty without was expected to last about two exalted (if I may so term them) months. “Ministers," he writes, feelings." Stewart, throughout his

appear to stand shivering on the brief career, attached the greatest brink, afraid to take the respon- importance to implicit obedience sibility of ordering the retreat of to orders. When he received an the garrison for fear they should order he considered it his duty to be massacred on the homeward carry it out to the best of his march, and on the other hand ability, without question and withafraid to take measures to hold out regard to personal risk. Knowthe Eastern Súdán."

ing the state of the Súdán, he was The next day was to see doubtful of success; but, having complete change in the situation. once received his orders from GovGeneral Gordon reached London ernment, he devoted his whole in the morning, and afterwards energies to the work, and served had an interview with Ministers. his chief, often under trying cir“I was asked,” he writes, “if I cumstances, with a loyalty beyond would go to Súdán to carry out all praise. evacuation of Súdán which Govern- On the evening of the 18th, ment had decided upon I said, with kindly good wishes from the Yes, if Government were decided Duke of Cambridge and Lord on it; so it was settled, and I left Wolseley, who were at Charing that night.” One of his first acts Cross to bid them what proved to was to apply for Stewart's services. be a last farewell, Gordon and At 3.30 P.M. Stewart was sum- Stewart started on their perilous moned to the War Office and mission. The two men who were introduced to Gordon. He was thus speeding to their fate were in then told that Government wished some respects much alike, in others him to accompany that officer to widely different. Both were ani. the Súdán, and that they were to mated by the highest sense of honstart by the Indian mail at 8 P.M. our and duty ; both were fearless that night.

The two men had in the face of danger, and had the never met before.

"I had never

same contempt of death ; both disseen Stewart,” Gordon writes from liked carrying arms ;1 both had Port Said, “but asked for him, the kindliest feelings towards na

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I Stewart, when remonstrated with, used to compromise matters by putting a small empty pistol into his pocket.

tives, the same horror of oppres- ently a sharp discussion. Stewart sion and cruelty, the same deter- held that an officer who had acmination to see justice done at all cepted a special mission from Govhazards. Gordon was hasty, im- ernment should on all occasions pelled by his active mind and im- state his views openly and fearagination to be always doing some- lessly, and loyally accept their thing, quick of temper, prone to decision. He was prepared to take offence at any fancied slight, act on his own responsibility, but open to the verge of indiscretion, he did not think it right for an a man who sought guidance from officer to employ the Press to force above, and earnestly tried to fol. his views upon Ministers who low, in great matters and small, might be guided by knowledge what he believed to be the path which he did not possess, or by indicated by the Almighty in motives of Imperial policy. Goranswer to his prayers. “This is don strongly dissented from this my strength," he writes from view. In a letter written soon Khartúm, " because I am a born after the discussion he expresses idiot God will work by me. his fondness of Stewart, but conStewart, on the other hand, was siders him to be deeply imbued calm, with an evenly balanced with official reserve.

He thinks mind capable of seeing the true that if any one sees Government proportion of things, not easily taking a vicious course, he is bound stirred to wrath, discreet without to warn them, and if they will not undue reticence, methodical yet listen, then to utilise the Press. quick. He believed others to be Stewart kept a journal of the as honest and straightforward as progress of the mission, and wrote himself, considered his religious openly to friends and relations. opinions as a matter that did not The journal, as we have it, ends concern the public, and had none on the 11th March 1884. The of the crusading or missionary continuation, which fell into the spirit of his chief. He was rather hands of the Mahdi, is described animated by love of country, and by Gordon as a

The ima desire for distinction. "If,” he pression produced by Stewart's once said, “I could make myself correspondence, no less than by a name by doing something that that of Gordon, is that the two would be of service to my country, men, differing as they sometimes I should die happy."

did in regard to the policy to be On one point, the relations of pursued, thoroughly understood Gordon to the Government, they and appreciated each other. There differed widely in their views ; were at times heated discussions, and, though in none of Stewart's but Stewart was ever loyal in letters is there a single disloyal thought and deed, and Gordon word, it is easy to see that, on had a high regard for the sterling several occasions, he was far from qualities of his gifted staff-officer. approving the line taken by his When Gordon left England, his chief. When Gordon tried to policy was to restore the Súdán bring pressure on the Government to the representatives of the petty through Mr Power, the Times' sultans who had been dispossessed correspondent, there was appar- by Muhammad Ali, and he in

66

gem.”

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1 “Stewart was a man who did not chew the cud-he never thought of danger in perspective; he was not a bit suspicious (while I am made up of it).” Gordon's Journal, p. 281.

tended to proceed direct to Sawá- and that a large section of the kin. Once there he proposed to tribe was in rebellion under Osman reopen the Sawakin-Berber road Digna. There was now no question through Sheikh Músa of the Ha- of going to Sawakin, and on the dendoa, and Músa Akkad, a Súdán 25th a council was held at the merchant of great ability, who had British Agency, Cairo, to decide been implicated in the Arábi re- upon the action that should be bellion, and exiled. In this policy taken with regard to the Súdán. Stewart thoroughly concurred. On The evening of the same day the 20th Gordon suggested that Gordon met Zobeir at the house Zobeir should be sent to Cyprus, of Sherif Pasha, and afterwards and asked Sir E. Baring to meet wrote that when he saw him he him at Suez. On the 22d, whilst felt a “mystic feeling” that he “at sea,” he explained in a memo- could trust him, and that he randum the policy he proposed to would willingly undertake the repursue, and his objections to the sponsibility of taking him up to employment of Zobeir. On this Khartúm. and on subsequent occasions he On the 26th the council again paid Stewart the high compliment met, and Gordon's instructions, of asking him to record his inde- which had been prepared at his pendent views. Stewart cordially own request, and with his fullest agreed with the memorandum, and approval, were read over to him. also suggested that steps should be Then followed a remarkable intertaken to prevent any interference view between Gordon and Zobeir, by the Cairo Ministers with Gor- during which the latter displayed don's mission. Both wrote in so much animus against Gordon strong terms against the employ- that those who were present conment of Zobeir, believing that if sidered that it would not be desent to the Súdán he would con- sirable to allow Zobeir to go up solidate a vast State and become to the Súdán.

In the evening a formidable power.

Both dis- Gordon and Stewart left Cairo. trusted the Khedive, and dreaded Gordon took with him two firintrigues at Cairo more than the mans appointing him Governoropen hostility of the Súdánis. General of the Súdán, and two Stewart even thought that some proclamations from the Khedive of the Egyptian officials would not to the Súdánis. In one set the be sorry to hear that Gordon had evacuation of the Súdán was specibeen made away with; and he fically mentioned, in the other evidently watched over the safety there was no allusion to it. At of his chief, who wrote from Gordon's request the British GovKhartúm, “You have a wife to ernment was not mentioned, and look over your shoulder and see he and Stewart thus became in there is no treachery : Stewart is the eyes of the natives Englishas good for me here.”

men in the service of the Khedive. On the 24th Gordon and Stewart As a consequence it was decided reached Port Said, and were met that they were to wear the tarby Sir Evelyn Wood and Colonel búsh, and a few days later Stewart Watson.

Here they heard that was made a pasha. What Stewart's Government wished Gordon to go feelings were may well be imto Cairo, and that Zobeir could agined.

He had the strongest not be sent to Cyprus. At objection to service under an Ismailiya they learned that Sheikh oriental Government, and less Músa of the Hadendoa was dead, than a year previously he had

a

tives, the same horror of oppres- ently a sharp discussion. Stewart sion and cruelty, the same deter- held that an officer who had acmination to see justice done at all cepted a special mission from Govhazards. Gordon was hasty, im- ernment should on all occasions pelled by his active mind and im- state his views openly and fearagination to be always doing some- lessly, and loyally accept their thing, quick of temper, prone to decision. He was prepared to take offence at any fancied slight, act on his own responsibility, but open to the verge of indiscretion, he did not think it right for an a man who sought guidance from officer to employ the Press to force above, and earnestly tried to fol. his views upon Ministers who low, in great matters and small, might be guided by knowledge what he believed to be the path which he did not possess, or by indicated by the Almighty in motives of Imperial policy. Goranswer to his prayers. “ This is don strongly dissented from this my strength," he writes from view. In a letter written soon Khartúm, “because I am a born after the discussion he expresses idiot God will work by me.” his fondness of Stewart, but conStewart, on the other hand, was siders him to be deeply imbued calm, with an evenly balanced with official reserve.

He thinks mind capable of seeing the true that if any one sees Government proportion of things, not easily taking a vicious course, he is bound stirred to wrath, discreet without to warn them, and if they will not undue reticence, methodical yet listen, then to utilise the Press. quick. He believed others to be Stewart kept a journal of the as honest and straightforward as progress of the mission, and wrote himself, considered his religious openly to friends and relations. opinions as a matter that did not The journal, as we have it, ends concern the public, and had none on the 11th March 1884. The of the crusading or missionary continuation, which fell into the spirit of his chief. He was rather hands of the Mahdi, is described animated by love of country, and by Gordon as a "gem.” The ima desire for distinction. “If,” he pression produced by Stewart's once said, “I could make myself correspondence, no less than by a name by doing something that that of Gordon, is that the two would be of service to my country, men, differing as they sometimes I should die happy."

did in regard to the policy to be On one point, the relations of pursued, thoroughly understood Gordon to the Government, they and appreciated each other. There differed widely in their views ; were at times heated discussions, and, though in none of Stewart's but Stewart was ever loyal in letters is there a single disloyal thought and deed, and Gordon word, it is easy to see that, on had a high regard for the sterling several occasions, he was far from qualities of his gifted staff-officer. approving the line taken by his When Gordon left England, his chief. When Gordon tried to policy was to restore the Súdán bring pressure on the Government to the representatives of the petty through Mr Power, the Times' sultans who had been dispossessed correspondent, there was appar- by Muhammad Ali, and he in

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1 “Stewart was a man who did not chew the cud-he never thought of danger in perspective; he was not a bit suspicious (while I am made up of it).”— Gordon's Journal, p. 281.

tended to proceed direct to Sawá- and that a large section of the kin. Once there he proposed to tribe was in rebellion under Osman reopen the Sawákin-Berber road Digna. There was now no question through Sheikh Músa of the Ha- of going to Sawákin, and on the dendoa, and Músa Akkad, a Súdán 25th a council was held at the merchant of great ability, who had British Agency, Cairo, to decide been implicated in the Arábi re- upon the action that should be bellion, and exiled. In this policy taken with regard to the Súdán.

, Stewart thoroughly concurred. On The evening of the same day the 20th Gordon suggested that Gordon met Zobeir at the house Zobeir should be sent to Cyprus, of Sherif Pasha, and afterwards and asked Sir E. Baring to meet wrote that when he saw him he him at Suez. On the 22d, whilst On the 22d, whilst felt a "mystic feeling" that he

“ "at sea,” he explained in a memo- could trust him, and that he

dum the policy he proposed to would willingly undertake the repursue, and his objections to the sponsibility of taking him up to

, employment of Zobeir. On this Khartúm. and on subsequent occasions he On the 26th the council again paid Stewart the high compliment met, and Gordon's instructions, , of asking him to record his inde- which had been prepared at his pendent views. Stewart cordially own request, and with his fullest agreed with the memorandum, and approval, were read over to him. also suggested that steps should be Then followed a remarkable intertaken to prevent any interference view between Gordon and Zobeir, by the Cairo Ministers with Gor- during which the latter displayed don's mission. Both wrote in so much animus against Gordon strong terms against the employ- that those who were present conment of Zobeir, believing that if sidered that it would not be desent to the Súdán he would con- sirable to allow Zobeir to go up solidate a vast State and become to the Súdán. In the evening a formidable power.

Both dis- Gordon and Stewart left Cairo. trusted the Khedive, and dreaded Gordon took with him two firintrigues at Cairo more than the

mans appointing him Governoropen hostility of the Súdánis.

Súdánis. General of the Súdán, and two Stewart even thought that some proclamations from the Khedive of the Egyptian officials would not to the Súdánis. In one set the be sorry to hear that Gordon had evacuation of the Súdán was specibeen made away with ; and he fically mentioned, in the other evidently watched over the safety there was no allusion to it. At of his chief, who wrote from Gordon's request the British GovKhartúm, " You have a wife to ernment was not mentioned, and look over your shoulder and see he and Stewart thus became in there is no treachery : Stewart is the eyes of the natives Englishas good for me here."

men in the service of the Khedive. On the 24th Gordon and Stewart As a consequence it was decided reached Port Said, and were met that they were to wear the tarby Sir Evelyn Wood and Colonel búsh, and a few days later Stewart Watson. Here they heard that was made a pasha. What Stewart's Government wished Gordon to go feelings were may well be imto Cairo, and that Zobeir could agined. He had the strongest not be sent to Cyprus. At

objection to service under Ismailiya they learned that Sheikh oriental Government, and less Músa of the Hadendoa was dead, than a year previously he had

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