with which he marched to Kan- to the fall of Kabul and the relief dabar. During the latter part of of Kandahar there is compressed it, after crossing the Shutargardan, within a quarter of a century

a he was in the midst of quite as enough of daring achievement and hostile tribes, "entirely dependent determined conflict with on the country for supplies, heavily powering numbers of brave and handicapped by want of transport, resolute enemies to convince the and practically as completely cut world that a nation which can off from communication with India produce such men has not entered as I was a year later on the march yet on the period of its decline, has to Kandahar." Before him was not yet had its energies and spirit Kabul, with its large and well- sapped by peace and prosperity, equipped arsenal and a highly but is still capable of vindicating organised army; around him were its empire in all parts of the tribesmen hurrying to defend its globe. Amongst the many heroes approaches; within his camp a which that space of time brought

a traitor in the form of the Ameer, to the front, Lord Roberts has won posing as the friend to the British a foremost place, and every one Government and a refugee seeking must rejoice at the honours which our protection, while in reality he have been showered upon him, and was a deadly foe.

which he has so richly deserved. The destruction of the British There is an amusing glimpse of force in 1842 brought home to the the way in which our Indian heroes English mind the perils of Afghan regarded the actions of their counwarfare. Lord Roberts' successes try and compatriots in South Africa. ought not to diminish the caution Lord Roberts, after the Afghan with which military operations in campaigns, went home more or less that country should be attempted. invalided before entering upon his They give one the impression of duties in Madras. “Six weeks being hazardous to the last degree, out of these precious months of not to be undertaken without the leave,” Lord Roberts says, utmost precautions to ensure suc- spent in a wild-goose chase to the cess, or without the most urgent Cape of Good Hope and back, upon requirements of political necessity. 'my being nominated by Mr GladLord Roberts cannot be suspected stone's Government Governor of of unduly magnifying their diffi- Natal and Commander of the culties. But the desperateness of Forces in South Africa, on the the whole proceeding, the peril of death of Sir George Colley, and annihilation in case of hesitation, the receipt of the news of the are shown by his remark with re- disaster at Majuba Hill.” Naturgard to the prospects of his small ally enough, he expected a brisk force when surrounded by foes business, having usually up to that and approaching Kabul : “Had time been selected for command there been on our part the small- when some dangerous and desperest hesitation or delay, we should ate enterprise was on foot. Mathave found ourselves opposed by ters on this occasion took a turn as formidable a combination as we to which he was not accustomed. had to deal with two months later " While I was on my way out to at Sherpur. Nothing could then take up my command peace was have saved the force, not one man made with the Boers in the most of which, I firmly believe, would marvellously rapid and unexpected have ever returned to tell the tale manner.” A peace without honour in India." From the fall of Delhi or the semblance of honour! Lord





Roberts does not seem, from the money, arms, and ammunition. tone of his allusion to the whole Everything was in readiness for remarkable business, to have re- “A change of Government, garded his selection for this par. however,” says Lord Roberts, ticular command as being in the “took place just in time to prevent nature of a distinguished compli- the war. Lord Salisbury's determent worthy of his acceptance. mined attitude convinced Russia His stay at Cape Town lasted that no further encroachments on twenty-four hours, "the Govern- the Afghan frontier would be ment being apparently as anxious permitted : she ceased the 'game to get me away from Africa as of brag' she had been allowed to they had been to hurry me out play, and the Boundary Commission there."

were enabled to proceed with the After a stay in Madras, Lord work of delimitation.” The most Roberts again visited Calcutta in satisfactory incident of the whole March 1885, while Lord Dufferin of these proceedings was the loywas Viceroy. It was shortly be- alty of the native chiefs who were fore the affair at Panjdeh, which present, and their profuse proso nearly led to war with Russia, mises of help in case a recourse and which the immediate to arms became necessary. Simioccasion of a vote of credit of lar demonstrations of loyalty were several millions by the House of made by distant native rulers. Commons. Public affairs

Lord Roberts says that the greatunsettled. Russia was very active est enthusiasm prevailed, and the in the valley of the Oxus, Skobe- various camps at Rawul Pindi leff's victories having given her were crowded with men desirous Merv and Sarakhs, thus making of joining the ranks of our army. the Caspian the base of any future We were able in the height of the operations, Turkestan being also Mutiny to rely on the firm supin direct communication by rail port of many of the most promiand steamer with St Petersburg. nent native races, and it seems The army in the Caucasus was now highly probable that that support easily transportable to the bound- would be still more general and aries of Afghanistan, and accord- even more enthusiastic in the deingly Russia was dictating terms fence of their country against a a to the Boundary Commission, and foreign invader. And every ten ejecting an Afghan garrison from years that pass over our heads Panjdeh under the eyes of British tend to consolidate the empire, officers. Meetings took place be- and to confirm the acquiescence of tween Lord Dufferin and Abdur native feudatories and allies in a Rahman at Rawul Pindi. The rule to which they have become former declared that England was accustomed, and which gives them resolved that a Russian advance security without impairing their on Herat should be met by a dignity and independence. declaration of war, and the latter In 1885 Lord Roberts succeeded was required to choose finally Sir Donald Stewart as Commanderwhich of his two powerful neigh-in-Chief in India. He went with bours he would have for his ally. Lord Dufferin to Rangoon, and As far as words went

the Ameer then to Mandalay, where the Vicechose Great Britain. The Viceroy roy formally announced the annexratified Lord Ripon's promise to ation by England of all that part defend his kingdom against foreign of Upper Burmah over which King aggression, and presented him with Thebaw had held sway. The chief subject which still interested him so far satisfied with the attention in his high position was the security paid to his requirements that he of our North-West frontier, having writes :regard to the near approach of Russia, and our consequent prom

“Seven years later, when I gave up ise to the Ameer to preserve the my command of the army in India, Í integrity of his kingdom, a promise ing that I left our North-West frontier

had the supreme satisfaction of knowwhich rendered us responsible for

secure so far as it was possible to make the northern as well as the southern it so, hampered as we were by want boundary of Afghanistan. Lord of money. The necessary fortificaRoberts, contrary to the opinions tions had been completed, schemes for of the majority of the Defence the defence of the various less importCommittee, laid greater stress on

ant positions had been prepared, and the maintenance of lines of com

the roads and railways, in my estima

tion of such vast importance, had munication than on the construc- either been finished or

were well tion of numerous fortifications. advanced.” His aim was to have the means of bringing all the strategical Thus Lord Beaconsfield's wellpoints on the frontier into direct known policy for the construction communication with the Indian of a scientific frontier to the northrailways, so as to be able to mass west of our Indian empire has been our troops rapidly. The offensive carried out. The declaration of and defensive requirements of that policy was at the time derided Quetta and the Bolan Pass were by the party hacks and political to be provided for, and a spot was nincom poops of the time; but sucselected on the right bank of the cessive Viceroys have given Kabul river between Khairabad thought and attention to it, realand the Indus, and commanding ising that so long as invasion rethe latter river, on which the gar- mains a remote risk we could not risons of Peshawur and Noushera look unconcernedly on, while Ruscould fall back if necessary and sia crept step by step closer to our await reinforcements. This is dominions. Lord Lytton's forward with a view to the probable hos- movement was the first step in tility of the warlike tribes, who carrying out this policy, and from in case of invasion would, so long first to last Lord Roberts has been as they remain hostile, combine a main instrument in its execution. against us from Chitral to Balu- It must not be supposed that all chistan, and into India. The occasion for anxiety has been reKhyber Pass was the chief pass moved, but at least the plans have to be defended, for it alone de- been adopted and executed to an bouched directly on cultivated extent which was satisfactory. country and on roads leading to Rawul Pindi on the right and the chief Punjab cities. Too Quetta on the left marked the many forts had to be avoided, boundaries of the frontier line, on grounds both of finance and Multan having been rejected. of the difficulty of garrisoning There was also a scheme for utilthem. Lord Roberts also pre- ising the armies of native States scribed the defensive works which as an auxiliary force for the sershould be taken in hand without vice of the empire. Lord Roberts delay, and the roads and railways was at first doubtful of the wisdom which should be constructed. And of encouraging a high state of it is worth noting that he was efficiency amongst the troops of VOL. CLXI.- NO. DCCCCLXXVI.



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independent States. But having native States, a policy which we
fought side by side with natives, hope will, before many generations
he had gained confidence in their have passed away, lead to the
desire to co-operate with us and in introduction of friendly senti-
their unmistakable loyalty. But ments and civilising agencies even
for the saving clause, “so long as amongst the hostile tribes who
our Government continues just hang like a dark cloud over our
and sympathetic,” we should infer North-Western frontier.
that he had at the close of his We lay down these volumes with
career fallen a victim to that ex- the feeling that they are the record
cessive trust in the natives which of the life not only of a brave and
he found so rife when he first capable soldier, but of a loyal
landed, and which was the prime friend and of a very kindly and
cause of the Mutiny. The chiefs modest-hearted gentleman. When

of course cordially responded to he succeeds, it is his "luck,” when
proposals of this kind, and steadily others fail, it is their "misfortune."
improved their armies under the There is not an unkind word from
guidance of carefully selected beginning to end, and when an
British officers. It is a policy adverse criticism is inevitable, it
which we must take on trust, is free from bitterness, and names
confiding in our experts. Sub. are withheld as far as possible.
stantial results are said to have Those who served under him in
been already obtained, the Chitral later life were made to feel that
expedition having had valuable his eye was on them, and that
help from the transport trains their actions would be appraised
organised by the rulers of Gwa- in an ungrudging and appreciative
lior and Jeypoor, and by the spirit. The record of his young
troops of the Maharajah of Kash- days is fresh and full of charm,
mir. Still for our part we rely recalling the bright young officer
with greater confidence in regard whose sobriquet « Bobs
to the future on this circumstance, throughout the service was the
that instead of British troops being Indian unerring sign of genial
in the proportion of less than 1 manners and personal popularity.
to 6, as they were in the days be- And throughout the book, from
fore the Mutiny, we have now, or the day when he "found his fate"
had in 1885 (vol. ii. p. 390), 70,000 to the hour when he penned its
British with 414 guns, and 128,636 dedication, have occasional
natives, a proportion of more than glimpses of the domestic senti-
1 to 2. So long as our trust in ment which Englishmen recognise
native loyalty and professions does as the basis of national greatness,
not lead us to tamper with this and without whose gilding this
proportion, and to take all the life of strenuous activity of Forty-
securities which a position, pre one Years in India' could not be
carious in spite of all our efforts, the happy retrospect it is. By
requires, there can be no political such men our Indian empire was
unwisdom in cultivating friend- won, and by such men it must be
ship and inspiring confidence in held.



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GENERAL GORDON's remarkable 1845, and was not quite thirtycareer and tragic end at Khartum nine when he was treacherously have frequently been described; murdered in the house of Fakri but the public know little of the Wad Etman at Hebba. He was man who, at a few hours' notice, an Ulsterman; and one of the most was ordered to accompany Gordon distinguished of living Ulstermen to the Súdán, and acted as his thus wrote of him :staff officer. It is evident, to any Amongst the many noble and one who studies the history of fine soldiers I have known, I have Gordon's mission, that Colonel met scarcely any one for whom Stewart's appreciation of the posi- I conceived a greater respect and tion created in the Súdán by the admiration. His charming mansuccesses of the Mahdi was juster ners, his high sense of duty, his than that of his chief.

And a

unselfishness, and his great ability, notice of his brief career and ser- impressed every one who came vices may not be without interest into contact with him.” at the present moment when the Stewart passed first out of reoccupation of Dongola, and the Sandhurst in June 1865, and declared intention of Government was gazetted ensign in the 12th to continue the advance southward Regiment.

In the following this year, have reawakened inter- month he was transferred to the est in the Súdán, and in the events 11th Hussars, in which regiment connected with General Gordon's he obtained his lieutenant-colonmission in 1884.

elcy on the 1st July 1881. The John Donald Hamill Stewart earlier years of his service were was born on the 15th October passed in India, and here he deVOL. CLXI.--NO. DCCCCLXXVII.


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