the “natural patchouli” of the mass like that of the sheep. billy-goat. Whether the use of Microscopically the fibres this somewhat strained euphem- much smoother and more compact, ism be due to respect for a na- and lack the saw-like edges of true tional emblem of the Welsh, or wool. In fact the silky fleece of whether the learned and gentle the Angora goat reminds one of Professor desires to lessen the in- the soft locks which grow on the evitable shock to our feelings which head and beneath the coarser hair must ensue from his further asser- of the Skye terrier. Man has tion that that most worthy and found that this special adaptation respectable female, the nanny-goat, of the goat's natural covering to takes a gross pleasure in the efflu- bear friction among rocks and vium, I cannot say.

Professor thorns is a most opportune fact Lloyd Morgan's statements when he uses the wool for his own worthy of all respect; but, if I purposes. Some of the very toughhave any choice in the matter, I est and most durable fabrics we would much rather believe that have (such as that now largely feminine taste, however capricious, used for umbrellas) are made of could never sink to such abyssmal goat's hair. For long ages the depravity. Needless to say, this Cashmere goat has been shorn to wild trait in the goat is not one

make the beautiful materials which man has studiously culti- woven by natives of that counvated. There may have been cir- try. The history of the introcumstances under which it took duction of mohair (which is the its place among the virtues— wool of the Angora goat) is one where, in fact, it contributed to of the well-known romances of the that “odour of sanctity" demanded history of commerce. It is now by hircine moral ideals. But we used in enormous quantities in the will avoid the risk of mental over- manufacture of soft wear-resisting strain by not striving to explain fabrics. or imagine how such could ever A comparison of the horns of have been the case.

the sheep with those of the goat The goat being a mountain also reveals to us the difference of animal is well protected against habit which has so affected the the cold, and we find that in some fleece in the two animals. The varieties there is a most abundant spiral horns of the wild sheep are fleece of soft, silk-like wool. But exceedingly ill adapted for passing the wool of the goat differs ma- through thickets, because it is obterially from that of the sheep, and vious that they would constantly the reason is not difficult to explain. become entangled and hinder the Goats, from their habit of browsing progress of the animal. Among among shrubs, need to be able to some


ancient records of force their way through thickets human affairs we find an example without injury either to their coats of this—for did not Abraham find or to their skin; whereas the sheep, “a am caught in

thicket by living on the open hillside, is en- his horns " when he was about to veloped in a covering which is sacrifice Isaac ? The very fact merely calculated for warmth, and that a sheep usually is unable to is not fitted to stand much tear disentangle himself if hung up in and wear. Hence we find that the the bushes proves that the position wool of the goat does not "felt” is an unaccustomed one; although and become tangled together in it does seem rather odd that fight




ing rams, whose horns have become not likely to decline for a very hooked together, and who, one long time. On the exposed and would think, would be well used parched tablelands of South Africa, to such an accident, seldom have where at one time antelopes inthe sense to make the half turn of numerable found sustenance, goats, their corkscrew-like weapons which probably because of their kinship would suffice to set both prisoners to the antelope family, thrive far of war at liberty. Instances have better than do any other domestic been known of sheep having per animals. The thorny shrubs and ished, head to head, because they brown shrivelled herbage of the had not sufficient wit—or possibly Karroo, which seems to the too much obstinacy -- to detach European traveller to be of the themselves from one another. most unpromising character Now the horns of the goat are fodder, afford


abundant never curled so as to make it nourishment. dangerous for him to pass through Not long ago, it may be retangled briers or closely set under- membered, a well-known South wood. He has merely to lift his African statesman went nose and his horns lie back on each mysterious visit to the Sultan of side of his spine or curve down his Turkey. As this gentleman is shoulders and serve as a protection popularly supposed to be always for his body when he is forcing his engaged in some deep and dreadful way among the thorny scrub of the plot, sundry disquieting rumours hillside.

got afloat as to the purport of his As regards the future of the goat mission. At last some keen-witted

can now speak rather more journalist wormed out the awful cheerfully than would have been secret. It was this : His Highpossible before the hidden excel- ness the Padishah happened to lences of his fleece were discovered.

possess some particularly fine AnUntil comparatively lately the gora goats, and the statesman in general tendency has been for the question was desirous of "doing a goat to act merely as a kind of deal” with him, so as to improve temporary stop-gap among domestic the output of Cape mohair. animals, for we find that advancing Although, when this Machiavelcivilisation has almost always re- lian piece of statecraft was laid placed him by others whose service- bare, some people laughed and able qualities have proved better said that the newspaper men had adapted to human needs. In fact, found another mare's nest, the his fate has been that of the “jack- future will probably show that of-all-trades” who is “master of this patriarchal piece of traffic has none" all the world over. But done more for the permanent prosthere are

some regions of the perity of South Africa than "all earth where his star is decidedly the gold of the Rand." in the ascendant, and where it is



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The most significant thing about ate world never ceases to interest this batch of books is that they itself.

But until a very


years should exist at all. Ten years ago ago there was no spark of interest their appearance would have been in admirals as such. It would a portent; they could never have have been hopeless to ask people appeared at all. Here, published to concern themselves with a dead within six months of each other, admiral merely because in time of are five volumes, all of them deal- peace he did good work for the ing more or less directly with our service. It is true that Hornby maritime defence. Among their and Tryon, each in his day, was authors representatives of the real, if not the nominal, leader navy, army, and marines, along of the Navy. But Tryon never with two male civilians and a wo- saw powder burned in earnest man. The books and their authors after the Crimean War, when he are of themselves an indisputable was under twenty - four, while testimony to the existence in this Hornby's one experience of active country of some degree of public service was the operations in Syria knowledge and a vast deal of pub- against Ibrahim Pasha when he lic interest in naval affairs, which was a midshipman of fourteen. certainly did not exist as late as Later, each became in turn the 1887. That, to begin with, is foremost tactician of his daymatter for sincere national self- but who cared about naval tactics? gratulation. If our Navy is not

If our Navy is not Each became the idol, almost the yet all it ought to be, at least infallible Pope, of the service—but ignorance no longer affords any who cared what naval officers valid excuse for apathy. The na- thought of their leaders ? To-day, tion is to-day more widely awake most happily, we have changed all to its fundamental interest than it that. The Navy is healthier, and has ever been without the harsh so is the popular attitude towards admonition of actual war.

it. And the sole interest of the Of this strange, but wholly com- two books—which interest, we are mendable, direction of public at- assured, will be wide and deeptention towards the Navy, the most is that the two men here pictured striking evidence, no doubt, is did more, probably, to promote furnished by the two biographies this healthier habit than any which we here place at the head others of their time. Because of our list. In the adventures of are beginning to appreciate fighting men, so long as they are the Navy, we are also able to fighting, a persistently unregener- appreciate its makers.


Admiral of the Fleet Sir Geoffrey Phipps Hornby, G.C.B. A Biography. By Mrs Fred. Egerton. Edinburgh and London : Wm. Blackwood & Sons.

The Life of Admiral Sir George Tryon. By Rear-Admiral C. C. Penrose Fitzgerald. Edinburgh and London : Wm. Blackwood & Sons.

Naval Policy. By G. W. Steevens. London: Methuen & Co. The Effect of Maritime Command on Land Campaigns since Waterloo. By Major C. E. Callwell, R.A. Edinburgh and London : Wm. Blackwood & Sons.

The Navy and the Nation. By James R. Thursfield and Lieut. -Col. Sir George Sydenham Clarke, K.C.M.G. London: John Murray.


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To attempt a nice comparison any of them some faint twinges of between the biographies would be jealousy, it was but the usual tribute rather difficult and quite profitless. which mediocrity pays to exceptional As the presentation of a man Mrs

ability.” Egerton's life of her father is not Mrs Egerton's book contains no unnaturally the more successful; such formal appreciation of its as an estimate of work done for subject; but the great number of the Navy Admiral Fitzgerald's book private and public letters leaves as naturally displays the more very distinct impression of mastery. But this does not mean “Uncle Geoff's” character. Modthat either is deficient on the side est, though without that affected where it is excelled by the other. self-depreciation which is immodQuite the contrary. Nothing, foresty under a mask ; buoyant yet example, could be much better cautious; keen but always considthan the portrait of Tryon which erate; in dead earnest about his Admiral Fitzgerald draws in his work, but genial and charitable introductory chapter: in the terse even to First Lords of the Addignity and rhythm of its language miralty; knowing his own mind, it rather recalls North's Plutarch but always remembering that other than the weaker biographies of to people had minds too; passionately day :

loving the sea and the service, but “ Sir George Tryon was a man of loving his home and trees, his tall stature and of a commanding horses and dogs, hardly less, -we presence ; latterly he was also broad may say confidently that biography and stout-in fact, a portly figure: has hardly revealed a more combut it was significantly remarked of pletely lovable temperament. Mrs him that his heart was big enough Egerton has drawn the portrait for his body. Some thought his with a due tempering of tendermanners brusque ; some said they were imperious; but none ever denied

ness and dignity which it is the the kindness of his heart, or his great happiness of few biographers to generosity, in the most universal and attain. best sense of the word. . . . There This said, we may leave the was generally a merry twinkle in personal traits of both men to the Tryon's eye, and he was very fond appreciation of those who love of a joke, but he never allowed his love of fun to interfere with the

loyalty, duty, and kindliness, strict performance of his duty. He whether it be found in admiral was of a restless and energetic dis

or peasant. On the professional position, but although he never spared side the one was the direct suchimself he showed great consideration

of the other. Hornby for the comfort of others. · : He bridged the gulf between sails and was undoubtedly ambitious, with the steam, wooden frigates and comworthy ambition of genius : he knew pound - armoured barbette ships. he was clever-most clever men doand he was not only content, but Tryon entered in the flower of his proud, to devote his talents entirely life into the age of ironclad steamto the development, the organisation, ers; he was the first commander and the improvement of every detail of the Warrior, the first Britof his beloved profession. . . . By his ish sea-going ironclad. Hornby contemporaries he was almost uni

stands for the transition ; Tryon versally beloved, and he was dear

for the development. In Hornby old George' to them; and if perhaps his brilliant qualities, and the devo- you find the gracious regret for tion with which he was generally the days of sails and spars ; in regarded, excited in the breasts of Tryon the frank, clear-sighted ac



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ceptance of the new conditions, of Hornby's traditions needed thus and the vigorous grapple with the to bridge the past and the future. new problems. Yet in Hornby Sir Geoffrey Hornby's life was you detect no trace of the passive, not, in the ordinary acceptation half-sulky obstruction with which

of the term,

eventful one. some of the older officers of our After his one brief glimpse of own, and still more of foreign active service in the Mediterservices, have chosen to meet the ranean he served on the Cape growing domination of the inven- station, and afterwards as flag. ter in naval warfare. Indeed it lieutenant to his father in the says more than any volume could Pacific. He was captain of the say for the candour and elasticity Tribune at Vancouver Island in of his mind that the man who 1889 when the San Juan boundary clung to sail to the last, and never question arose with the United ceased to lament its disappearance, States, and it was due largely to became none the less the prime his happy combination of dignity master of steam tactics in his and tact that war was averted on later days.

Being obliged to that occasion. After a commission resort to steam, which always in the Mediterranean, he was Comgoes against the grain with me; modore on the West African station. All I can say is, 'More's the pity While there he strongly advocated that it should be so rare a thing the combination of all the African to see a ship come into harbour stations into one command, so as under sail ""—such passages as to give the crews a change of clithese follow each other punctually. mate. Seeing that he lost twentyYet as early as 1863-only four two men by yellow fever in less years after the laying down of the than a month, it is perhaps less Warrior — we hear the note of wonderful that Hornby advocated sturdy common - sense.

“ When

the reform than that it was afterthese men sit down to plan a war- wards carried out. He next comship propelled by steam,” he manded the Flying Squadron on writes, after a visit to Glasgow, an eighteen months' voyage round " they make a steamship of her,

the world. The mention of this and don't go puddling on drawing suggests the question whether it large sailing-ships to put engines would not be advisable to resusciinto.” Three years before he had tate this squadron, and thus to written from the Mediterranean, train our officers and sailors in the where Sir William Martin was best possible school by sending making the first experiments in them round the world in the best steam tactics: “It is no use ships under the best superior officers fancying that steamships can only we can find. The present system form as sailing-ships used to do; of using for the so-called Training and by adhering to those ideas, Squadron old ships and old guns, instead of following the new which are fit for no other service systems, which have been shown in the world, is rather like teachto be possible under most circum- ing a soldier his business by casing stances, we are throwing away the him in plate armour and exercisadvantages that steam has given ing him with a bow and arrow. A us." Probably the men of this squadron of our newest cruisers generation can never appreciate steaming round the world would the degree of robust honesty, even train men in the sort of ships of self-abnegation, which a sailor and machines they may some day

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