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Recent Naval Biography and Criticism, [March mean that the fleet in being, when questions. We see it every day. properly handled or when there Men who bave read the great is an expectation that it will be works of Captain Mahan and properly handled, must debar opera- Admiral Colomb with the imtiong. No doubt there are oppon- mediate acceptance that they canents in dealing with whom it may not fail to command, who, it may be safe to neglect any rule of be, will remember these very strategy ever formulated. The essays in the form of their original true leader reckons up his oppon- publication—these same men, when ent, and according to that reckon- they are left to themselves to ing he takes risks or he does not. speak or write of national defence, But whether the risks turn out are constantly found forgetting well or ill, the principles of strategy their lesson and reverting to the remain as true as ever.

fallacious theories on which they In a masterly introduction the were brought up. They will catch joint authors of The Navy and themselves thinking of Malta as the Nation' explain the purport commanding" the central Mediof their book. What that is the terranean, of a squadron in the references we have already made Channel as necessary to defend to its teaching will have explained.

our southern coasts and our seaThe vital dependence of our coun- borne trade. But if he will take try and our empire on the com- down the "The Navy and the mand of the sea; the truth that Nation,' here is an ever-present this can only be exerted by a su- reminder of the real facts. Withperior fleet at sea; the certainty out a fleet Malta commands noththat, so long as we possess that, ing, not even itself. The Channel no mortal hurt can befall us at the Squadron may easily be defending hands of any assailant,--these su- our coasts and our merchantmen preme principles of true British off Toulon far more effectively policy are insisted upon again and than it could do at Portland; and again, variously and in various the only defensive influence it contexts, but always with convinc- exerts at Portland lies in the ing lucidity and force. To some knowledge that it may, and, if readers the iteration may appear need be, will, go somewhere else. superfluous, especially as the two Perhaps the best corrective of writers have wittingly allowed such persistent misapprehensions their views, and almost their ex- will be found in a brilliant essay pressions, to overlap. But to the by Sir George Clarke, entitled, reader who thinks the repetitions "The German Strategist at Sea." superfluous, we should advise half The German strategist is at sea an hour with this book whenever indeed, though not perhaps worse he feels disposed to reflect on than many a Briton. But it is safe questions of defensive policy and to say that nobody who has read of strategy. He will then perceive Sir George Clarke's caustic and that though it is comparatively witty commentary on him will ever easy to state the principles which be quite so hopelessly at sea again. underlie these essays, and per- Space is coming to an end, so fectly easy to see their cogency that we are constrained to leave when they are stated for him, it this altogether admirable volume is yet a matter of some difficulty with a less detailed examination to get them so clearly and deeply than it deserves. If we have into his head that they shall colour selected one essay as peculiarly his whole habit of thought on such instructive, it is only because

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error is more effectively refuted in We can find but one contention a concrete instance than by the in this book which, as it is stated, mere exposition of the true doctrine. appears to us open to some quesBut of the chapters of The Navy tion. In the domain of national and the Nation' we may say that, policy, our authors argue,whether they discuss the naval history of the past or the naval “The necessity of maintaining naval conditions of the future, whether supremacy-vital to us alone among they deal with the central problem dominate every other consideration.

the Powers of the world—ought to of defence or with such side-issues

Did

the inevitable advance of as national insurance, the training Russia from the Caspian to the of naval officers, or the proper frontier of India imperil our naval function of submarine mines, they supremacy? If not, of what use are always sound and always en

were the flood of declamation and lightening The whole book is

the protracted diplomatic warfare, knit together by the firm grasp of which the sole result was the estrange

each alike undignified and futile, of both its authors upon the unalter- ment of two nations, which have able first principles of naval war. no real cause of disagreement. Is

One of the most interesting the military occupation of Egypt passages in the book explains the essential to the command of the sea? increased validity—if we may use

Would a Russian occupation of Cona paradox : perhaps it is better to

stantinople, some twenty-six hours' say, the wider and fuller applica- our naval position?

steam from Sebastopol, compromise

" tion—which these principles bave derived from the modern technical These arguments appear to us conditions. Courage and coolness to raise the question, Was the remain a potent factor, as ever; Navy made for the nation, or the tactics strive, though by new nation for the Navy? No doubt means, towards the same endan we could give up Egypt and India, advantage in the use of the gun. and almost our whole empire, and But the telegraph and steam in- still maintain our naval supremacy. crease the swiftness with which The only difference would be that naval command can assert itself, in that case naval supremacy would and the area over which it takes find less work to do, although, of effect. The time required for such course, still essential to the invioloperations as an inferior fleet ability of the British Isles. No might venture against our islands doubt it is a strong argument

- landing of troops or bombard- against any foreign policy that it ments-has not been reduced in is antagonistic to naval supremacy, proportion to the time which will or increases the burden laid upon bring a superior fleet upon the it. But we do not think maritime landing or bombarding force. command can be made out the one Trading steamers are far less vul- end—hardly even the “basis”-of nerable than sailing-ships; they all British policy. That it is the can separate if attacked, while indispensable condition of British even a single ship lost sight of at policy, that we can do nothing night can change her course in without it, is the indisputable and any direction, and is virtually safe. invaluable principle of the book. So that, as our authors remind us, Assuredly we should regulate our “the command of the sea has now a imperial expansion by our Navy. significance which neither Raleigh But should we rot also fit our nor Nelson could have divined." Navy to our imperial expansion ?

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TRAVELLING JOE.

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It was Sunday: the mill was unconsciously to hear the "loosing silent, and the water pressed idly of the mill,” for the sound of the against the big dam, opposite which great waters leaping forth was to stood old Zam Tapp's cottage. Zam him as the rushing of the River of was seated in the dark kitchen, a Life. bucket of water between his knees, Zam's mind was occupied by the peeling potatoes; and lying in a thought of his dead wife.

“Eh ! truckle-bed was his grandson Tra- eh!” he exclaimed, suddenly, "hur velling Joe, a boy of about nine wez a windervul 'and at biling a years old, small, wizen, and partly tetty, wez my owld wuman, and paralysed. The tall clock in the when it coomed tu tha last hur corner of the room had struck mind dwelt on it painvul. Vatwelve, and groups of people ther,' hur zed, 'I reckon I've

, passed the cottage on their return cooked 'ee my last tetty. 'I from church and chapel. Zam,

Zam, reckon 'ee 'ave, moather,' I anwho did not “howld wi' zich swered. Hur wez zilent a bit, things,” eyed them with indiffer- then all-ta-wance hur zot up in ence, not unmixed with contempt. bed and ketched howldt o' me by He "reckoned,” he said, “thet ha tha weskit. Tull Jane' thic didn't want no praicher to teach wez yer pore moather—'tull Jane,' him tha way tu 'eaven; zalva- hur zed, 'twez tha zalt thet did it; tion wez a kooris thing, and, like twez all along o' tha zalt.' But, cream, let it alone and twid come law bless 'ee, zalt or no zalt, Jane's to 'ee: meddle and praying widn't tetties wez niver a patch on hurn. fetch it."

I reckon hur hand wull ba moast To the boy lying there, his heart out o' biling tetties by tha time I full of the spirit of adventure, and jines hur; but law, I doant comhis life bounded by the truckle-bed plain, moast like tez zweet stuff and the four walls of the small they lives on up ther: I niver cud kitchen, the thought of heaven stomach zich stuff mezulf; but bless was of piercing interest; it haunt- 'ee, glory hez tu be paid for the ed his dreams sleeping and wak- zame ez tha rest." ing, it was his New America, the A vision of his grandmother's land which he would one day ex- portly form arose in the child's plore. To him it never ceased mind he lay and listened. to be a matter of regret that the “Grandfer,” he said, “do 'ee Crystal Sea lay in front of the reckon thet grandmoather took tu throne of God; he would have wings natrel fust along?" wished it might have been in what Zam stopped peeling the potahe called the “dimmet l part o' toes. “Many's tha time I've 'eaven”; a far border - land un- thought on thic, Joe," he answered, known to the angels, and where sorrowfully, “and I ba moast aeven the eye of God fell seldom. feardt hur didn't; tha noo-fangled And now as he lay and watched wez alwiz contrary tu hur, and if Zam peeling the potatoes, he longed ther wez wan thing more than a

as

1 Dimmet, dusky, dim, full of shadows.

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tother bur cudn't abide twez a mured,‘vust ’long'; then hurclaused loose veather in hur bed. Eh! hur eyes and died quietvul. Hur eh! I wid dearly o'liked tu o’ wez mortal murch a duman, pore gone along fust and put hur in zoul. Conzarvitive to tha endtha

way o'things a bit; but ther, conzarvitive to tha end." if yer doant lave things tu tha Later, when the frugal dinner Almighty, who shall 'ee lave 'em had been cooked and eaten, Zam to?"

drew his big arm-chair up to the " Tha Laurd ba turribul mindful fire and fell asleep. The boy closed o' poor folk," the boy said, ques. his eyes too, but only that he tioningly.

might the more easily dwell in “Ay, ay, lad,” the old man an imaginary world. He wondered answered, “ther ba a deal o'tha what the far confines of heaven wuman about tha Almighty. Ha looked like, and whether he should wull pramise 'ee an ill tarn if find volcanoes there, and as he yer doant mend; but Ha ba pictured the scene he suddenly zlow tu lay it on - zlow tu lay startled the old man out of his it on.”

sleep. “Grandfer, grandfer," he Joe was silent a moment, and cried excitedly, “sposing 'eaven Zam began once more to peel the shid blaw up!” potatoes. At last the boy spoke. “Bless tha boy,” Zam answered, "Sposing grandmoather wez tu looking anxiously at the small break hur wing,” he cried, ex- fire, “I thought vor

zure tha citedly, “what then, grandfer- kettle wez biling auver.” what then?

“Naw, grandfer,” said Joe, "I The old man flushed. “Angels wez ony a-wondering what tha baint for doing zich things ez thic, dimmet parts o' 'eaven might be Joe,” he answered ; “ther's nort arter when God wez kind o’thinkpromiscuous in 'eaven. I reckon ing o'zômmat ulse." thet they thet ba noo tu tha trade Zam's deep-set eyes twinkled. flies mortal zlow fust along-zom- "A bit contrary may ba,” he said, mat like owld Varmer Rod's pay- “but nort lightzome, Joe — nort hen; no hitting o’theirselves agin lightzome.” a tray. Yer grandmoather kind "Folk ba turribul spiritless up o'thought o' thic hurzulf, and jest tu 'eaven,” the boy answered, sadavor hur turned over in hur bed ly. “They baistesses now that for tha last time, hur looked up stand avor tha throne do 'ee in me vace kind o' trustzome, “I'll reckon thet they iver roar ?" take it aisy, vather,' hur zed, and "Wull," his grandfather antha Laurd wull do tha rast. "Eh! swered after a moment, “I widn't eh! moather,' I zed, “Ha woant reckon on it, if I wez you, Joeforzake 'ee. Ha's kin a pore man I widn't reckon on it; but,” he Hiszulf, an' knaws what tiz not tu added, as his eyes fell upon the ba larned.' Hur zmiled, but I boy's disappointed face, “who can zaw tha tears in hur eyes. 'I tull wât the talking o'zich critters shall miss yer hand, vather,' hur as thic wull be like-fearzome, no zed, 'tha valley o' tha shader ba doubt.” turribul dark.' Tha Laurd wull And, grandfer," Joe exclaimed, walk wi' 'ee, moather,' I zed, Hiz with rising colour, “if lame Tom band ba more restful than mine.' wez ther wi' hiz crutch now, and "Eh, but vust along,' hur mur- jest stepped on tha taw o'wan o

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arms,

they baistesses, then ha wid talk day they wez merrid; the vullage mortal spiritty, grandfer, widn't riglar tarned out tu look on 'em, ba?

and I thort tu mezulf tbet twid “Eh, for zure, for zure, mortal o' bin a proud day vor my pore spiritty, I'll be bound,” Zam an- owld wuman if tha Almighty had swered.

spared bur; but twez better ez it The flush of excitement died twez— better ez it twez.

Wull, out from the boy's face. “Moast they hadn't a-bin merrid a skaur like 'twull niver happen,” he said, ' wiks avore Jim wez riglar pinin a sorrowful voice ; "up tu ing tu ba off: ha didn't zay 'eaven things ba painful riglar.” nort, but wid gaw and wander

“Ba 'ee tired, lad?” Zam asked about in tba wids for baurs, and as he rose from his chair and

wan day ha didn't coome 'ome; lifted the child tenderly in his ha wrote from Liverpool tu zay ha

“Shall I carry 'ee tu and wez starting vor Merikey. But tha fraw a bit.”

ship wez lost wi' all 'ands; ay, ay, Joe pressed his thin white face pore lad, I reckon ha zlapes zound against the old man's breast." anuff now wi' tha zay a-rolling

“Tull me about things avor a-tap o him: ha cud niver o' I wez born, grandfer," he said. breathed iv it had bin airth. But “Tull me about vather; wez ba yer moather, hur niver forgave vine and upstanding?"

him vor it—niver: twez a Zunday “Ay, ay, lad, ha wez pleasant thet tha noos coomed, and Martha tu look upon upon,” Zam answered, Snykes and zome o'tha naybours “but ha brauk yer pore moather's rinned up yhere ez fast ez they heart for all o' thic. Ha wez cud, pore zouls, reckoning thet yer turribul wild, wez Jim; good- moather wid like to cry all-tugether hearted anuff, but turribul wild; comfortabul, tha zame

ez it iz ha wezn't built for marrying; ha uysbil wi' wimen; but, law bless cudn't stay pauking about in a ee, when hur zaw they well-mainlittle vullage zich ez this ba; ha ing dumans cooming droo tha door, zed thet tha wordel wez zmall hur tarned hur back quat? on anuff, but ez vor tha village, ha 'em and marched up-stairs. Arter cudn't breathe in it; and yer pore a bit hur coomed down wi' a moather hur cudn't get tu under- bonnet all auver pink roses. atap stand thet nobow-hur reckoned o hur ’ead, and Martha Snykes thet if ba loved bur, ha wud stay; wez thet tooked aback thet hur but, law bless 'ee, lad, vor

fell down wi' tha recurring spasams zich ez Jim ther ba zõmmat ulse and drank ivery drap o' brandy in the wordel beside tha love other wez in tha 'ause avor hur wez wimen-folk, tho' tbey, pore zouls, brought to. Yer moather didn't cant gaw for tu zee it. But ha throw a look at hur, but went off wez turribul fond o' hur vor all down tha strait tu charch wi' all thic, and I cud zee thet it jest tha naybours standing at ther went tu biz heart tu act contrary; doors and crying shame; but, law but ba cudn't help it, pore' lad— bless 'ee, hur didn't heed 'em ony twez the nater thet wez in him more then tha geese on tha green. foced him on. Eh, but they made Ay, ay, pore zoul, hur wez alwiz a windervul handzome couple tha wan for howlding hur head high;

men

i Upstanding, well-built.

? Quat, plump.

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