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—so remarkably developed in the was imitating-viz., that whereas Canidæ — which receives impres- the latter were able both to detect sions from the nerves of smell, and to follow their quarry by scent,
Now, why has man no olfactory he found his nose practically of no lobe to speak of? And what may use as an aid to a living. Had he possibly be the outcome of the de- developed, during his early earthficiency? The answer to the first walking career, olfactory powers question is, that man's progenitors anything like equal to those of were fruit-eating creatures which the dog, I make bold to say that lived in trees. Now, a frugivorous ‘Maga'would have neither readers animal obviously does not need a nor contributors, and that most of keen power of scent for detecting us, if we were now existing, would and following prey. It usually be getting our livings by sniffing for discovers its food by means of the roots and grubs like a badger, or eye, and one finds that Nature has by yelping along a trail like a pack adapted herself to this state of of jackals ! Because, happily, he things by making most fruits of could not profitably follow his conspicuous colours. Although nose, primitive man was obliged this may partly explain why man to exercise bis wits. Where the and all the apes have the organ of dog or the wolf gallops blindly smell so very slightly developed, and without thought along the it is plain that hereditary vege- tainted line left by the feet of his tarianism will not fully account quarry, the primeval hunter had, for their olfactory poverty. For from the first, not only to learn to we find that very many gramin- notice each displaced twig, or ivorous animals — such as ante- shifted stone, or shaken dew-drop, lopes, deer, wild horses, and wild but had also—from these and a cattle—have an exceedingly acute thousand other data — to infer power of scent, and can detect the what had passed that way, when approach of an invisible enemy at it had passed, and often, in the several hundred yards' distance. case of one wounded animal in a But a little thought will show herd, how it had passed, and that the life of a creature liv- whether it were sufficiently dising high in the trees is never abled to make pursuit a profitthreatened by a foe approaching able speculation. As far as I stealthily from afar off, and hence can see, this faculty, engendered such a means of protection is un- and necessitated by olfactory necessary. And, moreover, in such shortcomings, formed the basis a situation this sense would be very of much of our vaunted reasonuntrustworthy, for air among the ing power. tree-tops moves in eddies and veer- When we analyse not only the ing gusts, owing to the continual hobby of the naturalist but alobstructions it meets with, and most any other form of pastime, hence would not tell the direction we find that it is founded upon from which the taint of danger certain primitive tastes came. Now, when man left his stincts which we possess in comtrees and his vegetarianism behind mon with the uncivilised races. him, and became an amateur car- Civilised man when at play alnivore, there was this great dis- ways reverts somewhat towards tinction between him and the the condition of the savage. predatory beasts whose habits he
THE NAVY ESTIMATES.
WEEK or two ago Lord Salis- efficient working, and what number bury compared the Government of of hands were required to do justice the British empire to the adminis- to the plant? In the relatively tration of a trust or public com- small and unimportant sphere of a pany, of which her Majesty's Limited Company such men would Ministers stand for the trustees be branded as culpably incompeor directors. The simile was duly tent, if nothing worse. Yet in the rebuked by a halfpenny evening matter of the security and defenpaper for its want of exaltation sive force of the British empire and its cold neglect of the ideal. we have seen within the last few This was wrong, for the British days a strange sight. The First empire is nothing so uninspiring Lord of the Admiralty has proas à Limited Liability Company posed to Parliament the Estimates paying a cash dividend. The lia- he requires to run his department. bility is unlimited, extending to These may be adequate or they the whole fortune and life of every may not; but the wonderful thing shareholder, and though calls are is that the First Lord does not paid in cash, dividends come seem to know whether they are usually in the form of national adequate or not. If the Estimates security and national self-esteem. for 1897-98 are sufficient it is by These peculiarities of the concern a lucky chance, since assuredly undoubtedly lay a heavier responsi- Mr Goschen can give no coherent bility on the directors than gener- demonstration of their sufficiency. ally accompanies the office. The And more wonderful still, it seems interests are so much vaster, the nobody's business or interest to profits to be made so necessary to ask for such a demonstration, tolerable existence, the losses to be Leaving aside a few isolated proinsured against so utter and irre- tests—far fewer and more isolated parable, that the directors of the than usual — the country has acBritish empire are surely called cepted this rough guess at its upon to exercise a
more than most indispensable requirements usually unsleeping vigilance over in a spirit of the happiest--at any the operations put in their charge. rate the happiest-go-lucky- con
What would the world say of fidence. In whom it reposes the trustees so careless of their trust confidence it is difficult to say. It that in a matter of insurance they can hardly be Mr Goschen—first, took no trouble to satisfy them- because Mr Goschen has contraselves either of the amount of the dicted himself, and secondly, beproperty to be protected, of the
on the whole neither the dangers to be forestalled, or of the House of Commons nor the counextent of the insurance necessary try has taken the trouble to hear to cover these dangers ? What or see whether he contradicts himwould the world say of directors self or not. To go minutely into so haphazard in their direction that the shiftings and windings of this they let an important branch of year's official statements concerntheir business run on without being ing the Navy would be a long and clear in their own minds what useless task. Some of them will amount of plant it needed for its have to be considered presently,
but just now we are only marvel- Navy is sufficient; on that of the ling at the fact that in a question “ideal ” phrase it is not. But where clear-headedness is of such both these phrases are in the same obvious and primary value, the speech! We could multiply such First Lord should be driven to any contradictions, but what is the shiftings and windings at all. In use of it? It is plain enough, and introducing last year's Estimates only too plain, that the First Lord he promised that they would bring of the Admiralty is not clear in us to "some point where we may his own mind whether the Navy is stand.” This year he proposes to strong enough for its duties or not. build fresh ships costing several As long as he knows not what is millions—which may or may not wanted, it is vain to be very conbe advisable, but which can hardly fident that he will see it provided. be called standing. Last year he It would indeed be asking too casually alluded to the naval pen- much of any Admiralty to expect sioners as a possible source of rein- it to calculate down to the last forcement to the fleet in war-time. penny the sum which would make This year the pensioners, who in the difference between readiness other respects have not changed for war or unreadiness. The subtheir character during the twelve ject is not an exact science, and months, find themselves promoted does not admit of such calculation. to a force of 10,000 available men, Yet there are Governments which which is practically added to the seem to be able to make up their sea-strength of the Navy. They minds on the point. That of Germay be available or not; but if many, for example, which has the they were not counted in last year, needs of possible war ever before why should they be this? In its eyes, has found no difficulty in one of his speeches this year Mr fixing its naval requirements as Goschen returned to his "point far ahead as 1902. It is not to where we may stand ” in another the present purpose to ask whether form. There is a balance of naval the Kaiser's Government has or power in Europe, said he, and if has not overstated its requirethis is disturbed by abnormal ments, nor whether the Reichstag effort on the part of any Power, ought to grant them. As to the we shall restore that balance. first point, it is enough that it has If this means anything, it means been found possible to make a dethat at the moment the desirable finite estimate of the shipbuilding equilibrium exists—that our side desirable during six years. As for of the balance is satisfactorily the second, the Kaiser may go back weighted. Yet in the very same upon his demands, but no British speech we find him turning to his Government can shelter itself becritics with words of earnest de- hind the precedent. The Governprecation. His programme, says ment knows, and Mr Goschen he, is not an ideal one; it is simply freely admitted in his speech of the best possible at the moment. March 5th, that this country at Now, what is an ideal programme? least will give all it is asked for. It can only mean a sufficient one It has only to make up its mind for possible exigencies; since it is and it will get what it wants. nobody's ideal to spend his money Nor is Germany our only example. in more preparation than he deems It is not the custom of Russia to necessary.
So that on the evi- unveil her designs to the world, dence of the “ balance” phrase the yet it can hardly be doubted that
the abnormal activity of the dock
If the fleet was adequate yards accords with a definite and on last year's Estimates, what did far-seeing design. The advance of Mr Goschen need this year to the Russian fleet has been among maintain that adequacy ? Russia, the most remarkable movements as we have seen, will probably lay of the present decade. The Rus- down four ships; France certainly sian navy is formidable by its one, and probably more : what numbers alone, but doubly and ought we to lay down! The guidtrebly formidable by reason of its ing principle in such matters is rate of increase. Of modern believed to rest on the declaration battleships, well - armoured and of three admirals consequent on carrying heavy breechloaders, and the manæuvres of 1888. Ve huge calibre quick-firers, she had ought to possess a strength “bebut five last year; two years hence yond comparison with any two she will have thirteen. Some of Powers." Yet in face of this these are small, but it would need most authoritative declaration, Mr a large British vessel to go to meet Goschen is only proposing to lay them and defeat them. On top down four battleships, as against of this striking increase comes this a probable five of the next two year's new programme.
Russia Powers. Is that “beyond does not publish her programmes parison"? He may reply, as in to the world, and it is therefore effect he has already replied, that difficult to speak with confidence this is only probability; as soon of her intentions. But so far as as it becomes certainty we can be gathered she is maintaining lay down other ships, and, thanks the activity of her construction: to our more rapid construction, two first-class warships, one second, can have ours ready for sea and one third are spoken of. Add- soon as theirs. But can we? The ing these to the vessels already in truth is that our superiority in hand, we get twelve new battle- rapid construction is speedily beships to be completed for the years coming a delusion. We possess it, 1897-1900. Here is a rapid regu- no doubt; but of what use is that lar progression, and it is not too if we do not use it? Now, Mr much to assume that it is intended Goschen is not proposing to use to be a definite fulfilment of a de- it. He is going to build three of finite need. For the calculation the 1896 battleships within of such necessities and the orderly couple of years or so.
But the satisfaction of them we may search other two, on the showing of this Mr Goschen's speeches in vain. year's Estimates, are not to be
On the contrary, there seems finished until after March 31st, direct evidence that no such cal- 1899, though they were provided culation has been made, and no for the financial year beginning such satisfaction resolved upon. April 1st, 1896. That is to say, The fleet as provided for on last there will be more than three clear year's Estimates—that is to say, years between the provision for them the fleet as it should stand on in the Estimates and their com. March 31st, 1899—was, on Mr pletion for sea, which is constructGoschen's view, or rather on one ing rather slowly than otherwise. of his views, sufficient for the Three of this year's four battlelikely demands upon it. We do ships tell the same tale. They not share that view, but for the will be voted by April 1st, 1897, moment we will allow its correct- but they will not be laid down
till about December. Their com- ships it has a rough standardpletion cannot but fall very late loosely comprehended and languidin the financial year 1899-1900, ly pursued, it is true-of a force and what guarantee have we that equal to the next two powers; for the foreign ships they are built to in the dictum of the admirals, neutralise will not be ready months above quoted, it has quickly weakbefore that date?
ened “beyond comparison" into No doubt we can build faster “equal." In respect of cruisers than others, but what does that it would appear to be a complete avail us when we begin to build blank. Hence it is not in any way later? What it comes to is this— surprising to find that, of the ships that of the fleet which Mr Goschen authorised last year, besides the told us would be adequate for the two battleships mentioned, five financial
year 1898-99, two impor- first-class cruisers also are not to tant vessels will still be unfinished be completed till the financial year at the end of that year. Of the 1899-1900. Yet these were part fleet which is presumed to be ade- of the equipment presumed necesquate for 1899-1900, three impor- sary for the country in 1898-99. tant vessels will not be ready until Similarly, five first-class cruisers quite the end of that year. No authorised in March 1895 are not doubt these ships can be acceler- to be ready till 1898-99; they ated, as Mr Goschen, to his credit, were part of our equipment for the has accelerated two ships which present year. Similarly the Vinwere to be completed in 1898-99, dictive, which was to be ready and which have now been set for- this summer-a promise repeated ward to the present financial year. in Mr Goschen's published stateHe has told us about these, though ment—is set down in the Estimates he has been very quiet about those themselves as not to be ready till which have been set back. But some time next year. In this case, this, perhaps, is only human; what therefore, the Admiralty not only we complain of is the manifest does not know when the ship is vagueness of Mr Goschen's inten- needed, but has not even made up tions. If he does not know when its own mind when it is to be the ships are to be ready, it is ready. What is the excuse for all fairly plain that he has not con- this? It is found set forth more sidered when they ought to be than once in the printed statement ready. If he has not considered which accompanies the Estimates. what force we shall need at each " The extended use of water-tube stage of the future, he ought to boilers in ships of large displacehave done. If he has, then why ment and power involved unusual this vacillation in providing it ? demands upon the tube manu
The mention of ships postponed facturers at a time when exceptionfor a later date of completion sug- ally large orders had been placed gests another point of comparison in their hands in connection with between the directors of the British industries other than shipbuilding. empire and those of any other This circumstance has caused degoing concern. The Admiralty, lays in the construction of the 80 far as we can recollect, has boilers for certain ships.” The “cernever within recent years pre- tain ships” number thirteen on Mr tended to have an opinion as to Goschen's own showing, and prothe number of cruisers necessary bably a good many more. for the British Navy. For battle- Now is not this the directors of