the British empire all over! Here changed, but only Mr Goschen's is the most important branch of its way of concealing them. In fine, work unsupplied with plant. The we do not believe in any of these deficiency might at any moment pretended difficulties in getting involve enormous loss, possibly material from contractors. The ruin to the whole concern. Eight Government is one of the largest of the ships delayed for want of buyers in the country at any time, boiler-tubes were provided for in and certainly the most constant. the Estimates of March 1895—two Any manufacturer will be too glad years ago. Is it conceivable that to increase his facilities for supply the directors of any private firm if only he can be assured of a conwould dare to advance the diffi- tinuity of demand. Is not the culty of getting tubes in two years national demand continuous, and as an excuse for the non-fulfilment likely to be so? It ought to be. of their duty ? Is it conceivable But the directors of the British that such a difficulty could not be empire comport themselves on surmounted, given only the deter- each occasion as if they had never mination that it should be sur- built a warship before, and were mounted ? By a private firm it never likely to build one again. would have been surmounted. But The one valid excuse for limiting because it only concerns the Brit- the material of the Navy this year ish empire, the boiler - tubes on Mr Goschen did not and could not which the empire's salvation or He had hopelessly cut himruin might depend may be delayed self off from using it. This is the months and years in the interest futility of building ships without of somebody's high-grade bicycles, providing the crews to man them. It is one of the most mysterious But Mr Goschen cculd say nothing of the many mysteries which en- of this, for his whole position has shroud the working of the Admir- been that the numbers provided alty, that it is always finding this year, with a similar increase difficulties in buying what it re- of 6300 next year, will be sufficient quires. A few years ago it was for all our needs. Even here, on for guns that everything was kept his strongest ground, he has not waiting; then it was for armour- been able to escape self-contradicplates; now it is for boiler-tubes. tion. His admission that we had With regard to the supply of not reached an ideal standard in armour, it is significant that last point of ships any more than of summer Mr Goschen declared that men seems to cut away the ground further battleship construction from his elaborate demonstrations must be postponed for want of it. of the adequacy of the present This spring he has again mentioned complement. It is no ideal stanthe subject; but now his main dard to have more men than we point is that we do not need new can put aboard ship; therefore if battleships, however able we may we are still short of the ideal we be to build them. Now certainly must be short of the necessary. nothing can have happened in Now, what do we require for eight or nine months to enlarge our whole fleet, and what have the supply of armour-plate which we? The total required for all could not have been perfectly well the ships, up to March 31st, 1896, foreseen and arranged for before has been put by Mr Goschen him. hand. The inference is that it is self at 99,232. The crews of the not circumstances which have ships laid down in the financial year just ended and of those pro- It looks, therefore, as if Mr vided for the year 1897 - 98, Mr Goschen had discovered a very Goschen has recently fixed in the valuable source of strength which House at 11,620 and 3780 respec. had somehow escaped the notice of tively. The grand total required his predecessors. But again we is therefore 114,632. What have must deduct. Many of the penwe to set against it? Mr Goschen's sioners, as Sir Charles Dilke pointed figures are these: in the active list out in the House, would be re100,050 men, 25,000 reserves, quired for the coastguard service. 10,000 pensioners; these, with The Estimates - put the numbers 6300 men to be added to the active of the coastguard at 4200 men. service ratings next financial year. These are all included in the nummake up a total of 141,350 men bers available for sea-service; in and boys enlisted by the time all war-time they would have to go on the ship3 provided for will be board the ships. Now the coastready for sea. Is not this satis- guard is the one service that could factory enough? On this showing least be neglected in war, since it we have indeed men and to spare. would be a most valuable branch But, alas! we must begin to sub- of the intelligence department. tract. Of the 100,050 active ser- Readers of last month's ‘Maga' vice ratings only 91,513 are set will have noticed how fatally down in the Estimates as available Admiral Baird was handicapped for sea-service. The rest are ca- in the manoeuvres of 1888 for want dets and boys training, and various of a system of coast intelligence. non-combatants. Next year's 6300 We could not dispense with it in men, we may roughly take it, will war; therefore we must take 4200 in the main replace those whose pensioners for the service. This training will have been meantime leaves the pensioners at 5800— completed; but we ought to take even if they could all be got hold off at least 50 for increase in the of and if all proved efficient. The non - combatant branches. The numbers available for sea therefore 106,350 active - service men who sink to 103,563 trained men with will be enlisted by March 31st, the Reserve. That is still in1899, are therefore reduced for cluding next financial year's enpurposes of sea-service to 97,763, listments; without them the num. which is probably a generous ber is but 97,313—to do the work estimate.

of 114,632. Counting next year's Now, as to the pensioners. Mr addition—who, of course, will not Goschen counts on 10,000 of them, be ready for their work next year 6500 of whom are in the Pen- nor the next-we are still 11,069 sioners' Reserve. The 10,000 men short. thus includes 3500 men who are There remains the

Reserve. bound to serve in emergency,


year the Admiralty has dethough not in receipt of reserve cided to make an effort to increase pay; but it does not take in 2000 the efficiency of this force. There or 3000 who are incapacitated for are to be two classes : the qualified service by age or other circum- seamen will have served six stances. There are none of them months afloat, and will be enyoung men, but they have all seen couraged to serve six more by the twenty years' service or upwards promise of a pension of £12 ain the fleet: the one qualification year on reaching the age of sixty. may be held to balance the other. The seamen will include such men

such a


as have not served six months afloat. November last. In the article The total of the Reserve is raised entitled “Manning the Navy” we this year to 27,000 all told; 1200 showed that all reliance in warare to be embarked during 1897-98 time on any but thoroughly trained for six months' training. This men must be at the best dubious, sounds well enough on paper, and it at the worst disastrous.

The seamay be freely allowed that if the man class is useless in any case. plan works out at all successfully The qualified class will hardly be it implies an improvement on the much better at the best, and will present efficiency, or inefficiency, grow less and less useful as the of the Reserve. But it is impos- period of their training recedes sible to depend at all upon

into the past. Indeed it would force until we can be satisfied on probably be unjustifiable to count one or two points, which at pres- on anybody but the men actually ent are something more than training during the half-year in hypothetical. What proportion which war might break out. They of the Reserves can be depended might still be unhandy; but at any upon to serve the necessary six rate they would have some knowmonths preparatory to becoming ledge of their officers, their comqualified seamen? The Admir- rades, and their ships. But that alty is not prepared with an amounts, on the present proposal,

The nearest approach to to no more than 600 men. such an answer is the statement We are left, then, two years that 1200 men are to be trained hence, with 104,163 men to man during the coming financial year. ships which require 114,632 At that rate it will take twenty- deficiency of 10,469. The Reserve one years to train the whole remaining will be incompetent and 25,000 seamen and firemen (leav- untrustworthy. But we are not ing aside officers and boys), by blaming Mr Goschen for this. If which time the earliest trained, his scheme succeeds, they will at even with an extra six months least be less so than they have added, will have long been quite been hitherto. Even so, they useless. It would take about will, as a whole, be less capable nine years to train even the than many of the French inscript 11,000 required to man our ships reserves, though some of our best in the first instance. And even may be as good as their worst. so the manning of our fleet would Even the redoubtable inscript leave us without any Reserve, must be a very doubtful quantity properly speaking, at all.

in the days of scientific warfare. For it must be borne in mind We quite agree with Mr Goschen that the seamen class—the second on that point. But there remains class of the reorganised Reserve the fact that the French navy -would be absolutely useless. can man all its ships with active Modern seamanship, even in its service men, while ours cannot. simplest terms of naval gunnery Man for man our seamen, being and stoking, is a complicated art. long-service men, may be presumed If an untrained man is not only decidedly superior to theirs. Yet useless but even an encumbrance the fact remains that France-or to its peace - maneuvres, what for that matter any Continental would he be in war ? In this Power—can man every ship with connection we need refer • Maga’s' crews capable of working her, readers no further back than to while we cannot.




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But, cries Mr Goschen, are we on that we are willing to leave not to have a reserve of ships ? that to the judgment of the more We are not going to send all our expert. We return to the trustees ships to sea on the first day of of national prosperity, to the

Ships will break down in directors of the British empire. machinery; ships will be disabled What would be thought of the in action : we must have ships chairman of directors who based whereto we may turn over their his balance sheet on such a palcrews. No doubt. We said as pable confusion as the lumping of much in the article already re- men available for sea-service and ferred to; possibly we even gave

effectives into one total ? Mr Goschen the idea. But Mr Who put the existing coastguard Goschen takes it up with an eager

on one side of the account and enthusiasm which you would hard- omitted to place on the other the ly have expected. From the cor- necessary men to replace the coastdiality with which he anticipates guard? Who included as an imbreakdowns and disablements you portant asset a Reserve, the very would think that such were existence of which was wholly source of legitimate pride to a contingent and probably mythical? naval administrator—that no well. Who estimated the capital of his regulated navy was without them. company in one year's balanceUndoubtedly such accidents may sheet at so much at such and such occur, but they are not to be wel. a date, and then in the next postcomed -- since they would often poned the realisation of the capital

replacing a newer and for several months? Who fixed superior ship by an older and the necessary standard of resources inferior. Moreover, satisfaction against a rival company at so that the material branch of the much, and next year allowed service has temporarily outstripped himself to fall below it? Who the personal does not mean that confessed that after two years' inthe personal should therefore be terval he had been unable to secure permanently kept back to give the the necessary plant, because somematerial a lead. Else we get into body else was giving out orders at a vicious circle within which pliant the same time? A chairman, in a First Lords will be only too glad word, who let the business go to to revolve. Ships must not be the deuce for want of clear-headedbuilt without men; men must not ness and firmness, trusting to the be enlisted without ships. The obtuseness and apathy of the sharesimplest way to balance this ques- holders either not to find him out tion would be to have neither ships or else not to care what happened nor men, for then there could be a to their interests ? superfluity of neither.

The shareholder is reputed to be So far as we can see through the a patient beast, but in a private figures, there are not enough ships concern even the shareholder would for the needs of very conceivable revolt at this. But we are only wars, and there are not enough shareholders who have invested men for the ships there are. But our all in the British empire. Let we do not so much wish to insist it go.



It is now many years since I prolific garden I have ever seen, lived in Ireland, and I am told and indeed it needed to be so to that “old times are changed, old supply the wants of a large family. manners gone,” in the green island, The farmyard was full of animal where I spent a happy youth among life. My father was justifiably relations and friends, most of whom proud of his shorthorn herd, and have passed to the unseen world. there was every variety of poultry, Many of the experiences and im- my particular care. We had all pressions of Irish country - house the simple pleasures of the country. life more than thirty years ago Cycling of course was not, and come back to me very vividly. lawn-tennis even was in its early The experiences were not sensa- infancy; but we rather fancied ourtional, the impressions may not selves at croquet and archery: my have been always correct; but, to brothers hunted, shot, and played me at least, there is pleasure in cricket, and the river was a conrecalling the dim shadows of the stant friend. This river used in past, and thinking of the old home the early decades of the century and its immediate surroundings as to be rather a riotous stream, I once knew them.

broken with sharps and rapids; Even in my youth Ireland was but in the days of the great famine, the happy hunting-ground of un- when, with the laudable object of scrupulous agitators. There was

There was making work for the people, many even then in many places much unadvisable and useless things bitter feeling between landlords were done, it was ruthlessly taken and their people; conspiracy and in hand by the Board of Works, sedition existed on a formidable confined into a canal-like channel, scale, and there were many rea

and shorn of its wild beauty. But sonably justifiable railings against what it lost in one way it gained the Government. But the con- in another, for it became more fidence and friendship between available for boating; it was the different social classes had not scene of much amusement, where then been systematically and irre- we all learned to handle canoes of parably destroyed, and were often every description, from an African shown in kindly deeds and ex- dug-out (brought home by a sailor pressed in kindly words. Now I brother) to an English outrigger, fear that much that was good in and it was our favourite highway the past has ceased to be, much to the village, a mile distant. Large that was evil remains and has quantities of salmon used to run flourished.

up with the tide, whose influence Our home was a long, low, ram- was felt at the end of our nearest bling house on a little knoll rising paddock, and my father, brothers, from the bank of a river. It had and the old fisherman used to its home farm attached to it, and draw the nets twice a-day during the farmyard and haggard were

the season. A noble sight it was within two hundred yards, con- to see twenty or thirty lordly fish cealed from view by a clump of in all their silvery beauty laid out noble trees. There was the most on the turf beneath the drawing

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