her. Oh that she had only thrown up to your theories. I shall never me over! I could have got over it forget your true friendship and then. But not now.”

noble behaviour in this matter. I “Now look here," I said, as a shall take my own course however, Briton always calls attention to the as I always do. I know what is knock-down blow he is delivering; right: and you may talk for ever. “all that would be worth listening There is only one voice that could to, if it had anything to do with the move me, and that one shall have matter. But as it happens, my no chance of doing it (even if sister Grace doesn't care a flip about desired) for her own sweet sake. position, any more than I do, or But everything will depend upon you, or anybody else with to-morrow, if things are as bad then ha’porth of common - sense. We as they have been to day; there value the opinion of good people; will be no escape for me. Grace and we like money for the comfort shall never be a bankrupt's wife. of others, as well as ourselves. But If her sense of honour urges it, as for that mysterious affair you call mine forbids. And it is not only position'—the more you poke your honour, but common - sense, my head up,

the harder cracks you get friend. Your family has fallen in on it. Grace will be contented with the world too much already. It whatever pleases you. That holds shall not be dragged lower by any you together, and you never slip connection with a defaulting Stockaway. People who have only got a broker." lawn enjoy it a thousand times as His face showed no sign of emomuch as a lord enjoys his park. tion now; and I owned to myself And a man who loves his wife does that from his point of view no other not want to lose her among a course was possible for a man of thousand men and women he has honour. Whether his point of view never heard of, all pushing about to was right or wrong, is quite a difplease themselves, and sneering at ferent question ; but in spite of all them both, by way of gratitude.” my reasoning, I have very little

"You will make a fine domestic doubt that I should have done as character, George, if you only act he did.


3” or

“The basest of all the hundred borough's defenders. In pursuvillanies of Marlborough," "the ance of William's scheme, 7000 foulest treason,” according to Mac- troops were encamped on Portsaulay, was Churchill's betrayal to down Hills, and transports were James II. and Louis XIV. of the collected at Portsmouth. This English attack on Brest, in June was in April 1694. The expedi1694. By announcing to James, tion started on May 5. Yet Lord in a letter variously dated “May Wolseley writes: "For months

“May 4," 1694, the start, before the troops put to sea the on May 5, of the English expedi- intended attack upon Brest had tion to Camaret Bay, “the traitor been the common talk of London of Salisbury” enabled Louis to dinner-tables.” How could this fortify the point of attack, to de- possibly be, the preparations befeat our forces, and to deprive ginning “in April” and the exMarlborough, then in William's pedition setting out on May 5? disgrace, of his chief rival, Tal. In fact, L'Hermitage, in his diary mash, who was mortally wounded. for May 15, says that many pro

This is the accusation brought by jects were talked about, “but not Macaulay. Before examining the one of them came to the knowledge apologies of Marlborough's de- of the public."2 Marlborough gave fenders, it may be as well to ex- James and Louis notice of the plain the military circumstances. adventure against Brest the day After the defeat of La Hogue before Russell set sail. Brest (May 19, 1692), the French fleets was instantly fortified and rekept within their land defences, inforced, and England sustained but a war-vessel would slip out, a disastrous defeat, through the now and again, and prey on our treachery of Marlborough. So commerce. William, therefore, de- argues Macaulay. termined to attack Brest, believ- To Macaulay's charges Mr Paget ing (and rightly believing) " that replied in Maga,' June 1859. the state of its defences was such His brilliantly logical essay is that the place might be taken by also published in one of the most

pen assault if suddenly attacked entertaining of volumes, his 'Parabefore the French could have time doxes and Puzzles.' “ It must be to strengthen the works or to admitted,” said Mr Paget, “that reinforce the garrison. But should in no view of the case can the it become known at Versailles conduct of Marlborough be justhat danger threatened Brest, the tified.” But Mr Paget argues that place could be easily rendered Marlborough purposely told James secure against any attack short of nothing which Louis and he did a regular siege. Secrecy was there- not know already. He revealed le fore of the first moment."

secret de Polichinelle ; be betrayed So writes Lord Wolseley in his facts which he knew to be already Marlborough' (ii. 305), and every familiar to the French Court, and word is of importance, Lord “his offence seems rather to have Wolseley being one of Marl- been against James, in seeking

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1 Macaulay's History, 1858, vii. 134.

2 Ibid., vii. 134, note.

credit for a service of no value, Marlborough indicates in his letthan against William."

ters. Admiral Russell, he says, This is absolutely certain, it had known the fact for six weeks, would seem, as Lord Wolseley but it only became a certainty on proves. Say that Marlborough's May 4. This constitutes Marl. letter was written on May 4 borough's claim of merit in James's (May 14, new style, as used in eyes. He sends a certainty! But France), Louis could not receive Louis had issued his orders as if the deciphered and translated on a certainty three weeks earlier. version before May 8 (18). But Again, how did Louis know! Our in the French archives is a letter earliest hint of information preof Louis's, dated April 11, in which vious to Marlborough's was only he warns Vauban of the English presented to Louis on May 1. attack, about which he has received the source of our knowledge is intelligence, bids him assume com- the Original Papers,' published mand of Brest, and promises to by Macpherson in 1775. There send reinforcements. Manifestly, occurs, in French, in the hand of then, Marlborough's news was cal- Nairne, secretary to Melfort, one culated to arrive nearly a month of James's Ministers, “ Accounts late. Hence, Lord Wolseley de- brought by Captain Floyd ” (usucides, “Tollemache's disastrous fail. ally written Lloyd) “lately arrived ure was due, it is proved beyond from England."2 Godolphin told doubt, to the completeness of the Lloyd “that Russell would infalpreparations made by Vauban, libly appear before Brest.” Lloyd in obedience to orders from Louis himself suggested Brest to Russell three weeks before the date of Marl- a probable point of attack. borough's letter on the subject." Marlborough's letter of May 4

Mr Paget had not studied the could not reach Louis till several French military archives, but he days, say a week, after he had also demonstrated that Marlbor- received the same intelligence, ough deliberately sent what boys through Lloyd, from Godolphin. call “stale news." The very Jaco- According to the Life of James bites themselves were not per- II.,' the king also had previous suaded by this, or by any other intelligence from Lord Arransuch step, of his loyalty to James, later, and immortally, Beatrix as the writer of The Life of King Esmond's Duke of Hamilton.3 James II. (about 1708) declares. From one or another source news But what was Louis's real bad reached Louis long before

of earlier information Marlborough's letter, and William Partly town talk. “Many guessed well knew it. 4 that Brest would be the point of It seems proved, then, to demonattack, but they only guessed this,” stration that Marlborough merely says Macaulay. This, indeed, “hedged " against the off chance



1 Wolseley's Marlborough, ii. 314. 2 Macpherson, ii. 479.

3 Life of James II., 523. The name of Arran is a later insertion into one of the blanks usually left for names in the MS. •Life of James.' The author of the Life here indicates his strong suspicions of Marlborough's sincerity as regards James.

• William to Shrewsbury. Coxe's Shrewsbury Correspondence, 46, June 18, 1694.

of a Restoration ; merely made would not forge a historical docufriends of the mammon of un- ment. Surtees of Mainsforth is righteousness, James, by sending an instance in point. The Colonel intelligence of no real value. then impugns the authenticity of This, therefore, argue Lord Wolse- the Nairne Papers, one source of ley and Mr Paget-this, and not our knowledge of Marlborough's "the basest of his hundred vil- letter. He asks what is the real lanies," is the real measure of provenance of the Nairne Papers, Marlborough's roguery.

which, according to Macpherson, This contention seems satisfac- Carte procured, and which, later, tory. Marlborough is a sly dog, were placed in the editor's” but not a perfidious murderer. (that is, Macpherson's) “hands, But now arrives a new defender, as materials for a history”? Now Lieut. - Colonel the Hon. Arthur on this question Macpherson is Parnell, who will prove that certainly vague,

with good neither Marlborough nor Godol- reason, as we shall make prophin sent any intelligence at all. bable.

bable. He says in his preface : Colonel Parnell's remarkable essay “Mr Nairne's papers came into is entitled “James Macpherson the possession of Mr Carte some and the Nairne Papers.”] As Colo- time before his death. . . . How nel Parnell's theory would upset Nairne's collection came into the English history during much of possession of Carte is as unimportWilliam's reign, as he thinks that ant as it is imperfectly known.” the treacheries of the Revolution The Colonel cries, “Observe the statesmen — Godolphin, Danby, impudence with which he again Shrewsbury, Sunderland, Marl- faces the crucial point of the borough, and Russell-have been whole affair !" To this crucial accredited on evidence which is point we shall return in a mowaste paper," I propose to ex- ment. Meanwhile, it is said in amine his contention. The " waste Macray’s ‘Annals of the Bodleian paper" is, first, the “Nairne Library' that, in 1753-54, Carte Papers,” published by James Mac- consigned a vast supply of bis pherson; next, to some degree, MSS. collections to the Bodleian. the anonymous 'Life of James He died, perhaps heart - broken, II. (1816), of which extracts, when Prince Charles broke, for pretending to be from a MS. in Clementina Walkinsbaw's sake, James's autograph, are also pub- with the English Jacobites in lished by Macpherson. The Colo- 1754. In 1757 Carte's widow nel, for one argument, superfluously presented nine more volumes of impeaches the character of Mac- MSS. to the Bodleian. The rest pherson, the illustrious bard of (including the Nairne Papers) reClan Chattan, and introducer of mained with her second husband, Ossian. He was a Government Mr Jerningham, to whom Machack in 1775, and would stick at pherson paid £300 for leave to nothing to disparage the Whigs of read and publish them. The 1688. Again, he gave us a tawdry Colonel is very angry with Macsham epic, and forged the Gaelic pherson for saying that these originals. But, we reply, in these MSS. were placed in his hands" days, and later, a man would forge for purposes of history. Well, we a ballad, or "fake" an epic, who could scarcely expect Macpherson

1 English Historical Review, April 1897.


to publish an explicit account of dismissed from his secretaryship his pecuniary dealings with Mr to the Prince. Pickle the Spy Jerningham! He says: “It is says (December 1752), “Mr Carte, needless to explain minutely why the historian, has carried frequent papers of such value lay so long messages," in the thick of the neglected and almost unknown. Elibank Plot to kidnap George II. They are jumbled together in a Again (March or April 1753), mass of confusion.” And the Colo- " Carte has been several times nel asks : “Why did Carte think over, he is trusted, and it is by his them so unimportant as to leave means chiefly that the P. turned them huddled away in this style, off Kelly,” to whom the P. was and to maintain perfect silence on much attached.? their existence ?” And why did Now, it must be said that Mr be omit them from the parcels Pickle's intelligence, as far as it consigned by him to the Bodleian?

can be tested, is usually accurate. “Is it not possible ... that, A great Highland chief, he had knowing, as he must have known, access to the best information, something of their antecedents, he and he frequently marks the limits may have looked on them as espe- to which his exact knowledge does. cially worthless, and may there- not extend. We see, then, that fore have especially avoided to just before his death, in 1754, send them ?”

Carte was often in France, and Before raising these "crucial" was in the highest trust with difficulties, and making these con- Prince Charles. What cheaper jectures, the Colonel might have yet more satisfactory reward could examined the romantic life of an impoverished prince grant to Carte himself. After George an enthusiastic collector of docuKelly was arrested in 1723, Cartements than the papers of Nairne, acted as agent between Atterbury the secretary of his father's and and James III. He characteristi- grandfather's Ministers (1689cally uses “manuscripts," not the 1718), and of his grandmother. usual “muslin,” as a cant word Carte, like Bishop Forbes, must for money or munitions of war. have dreamed of presenting his But the excellent Carte, in his History to the king, at

at St later years, had little time for his- James's ! torical composition. Manuscripts Very probably Carte was only were his heart's desire; the de- permitted to borrow the MSS. lightful sport of document-hunting from the Scots College, the JacoCarte never abandoned. Deep in bite Record Office. If so, of the intrigues of the hidden Prince, course he could not, and did not, he tasted the joys of trying to make send them in 1753 to the Bodleian. secret history; but he was the col. But even if Carte got the papers lector all the time. He was the from the Nairne of 1753 (at whose conspirator first, but he never house near Paris a spy reports ceased to be the amateur. Till his Charles to have lain concealed), it death, in 1754, Carte was coming would have been very unsafe for and going to and from France as Carte to send them to the Bodan emissary to Prince Charles. leian. “How and whence did He helped to get George Kelly you get these, Mr Carte?” would

I See “The Report of the Lords' Committee on Layer's Case.”
2 Pickle the Spy, pp. 178, 190.

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