The register is to include both is made the basis of admission to secondary and elementary teachers. the register. This condition will Our remarks apply mainly to sec- now, and in the future, exclude ondary women teachers. It is of

a very large number of efficient that body that our experience best women teachers from the register. qualifies us to speak.

A glance at the list of the memIn two minor details the bill bers of the Assistant Mistresses' needs amendment, which can be Association will show how very easily effected. It is satisfactory small among them is the proporto find that women are qualified tion of women who have studied to be members of the council, but at the university, and by no means it would be desirable to insist that all of them have training certifia fixed proportion of the eighteen cates. In one of the largest and members of the council should be most efficient girls' schools in the

kingdom, possessing a fine staff of Secondly, the list of educational competent teachers, one alone has institutions nominated to elect the a university degree, and she has first council makes no certain pro- only lately joined. The exclusion vision for the proper representa. from, or even the appearance on, tion on the council of assistant the register of the women teachers secondary teachers, or of those who lack a degree or a training engaged in private tuition. certificate, with a note of qualifica

The main principles of the bill tions differing from that attached are open to more serious criticism, to the names of teachers in posand raise many controverted ques- session of the academic title and tions.

certificate, will be regarded by the Some of the more advanced general public and by the teaching thinkers of the present day refuse profession, if the register is to to regard men and women as dis- command full authority, as proof tinct classes of the community. of inferiority and incompetence. Following the fashion, the framers With regard to a university of the Teachers' Registration Bill degree, what opportunity of acuse the term teachers to include quiring a genuine academic trainboth men and women, and they ing is open to the mass of women take for granted that what is wise aspirants to the teaching profesand expedient for the one sex is sion? We have seen that the bill equally so for the other. To some makes no distinction between the relations of life such a mode of

The women's degree or reasoning might well be applied; academic diploma, if it is to bear but it can easily be proved that as much significance as in the case the creation of a teachers' register of men, ought to imply residence which requires the qualifications of at Oxford or Cambridge, with the men and women teachers to be passing of the final schools examidentical will seriously diminish ination in the one instance, and the supply of efficient women of the tripos examination in the teachers in this country.

other. By a general consensus The possession of a university of opinion other university disdegree or of a training certificate tinctions are of a lower grade.


1 As a matter of fact, no woman studying at Oxford or Cambridge is at present eligible for a degree, but the passing of the examinations gives her equivalent status.



All who have a knowledge of in secondary schools who have secondary women teachers in this passed through the universities country are aware that the class is consequently very large. from which they are chiefly drawn If the possession of a university cannot, as a rule, afford either the degree ensures beyond all contromoney or the time required for a versy a greater efficiency in the university course. A girl who woman teacher, it should be indecides to enter the teaching sisted on at all costs. But doubt profession does so, with

very rare

as to the beneficial effect of acaexceptions, from necessity, because demic life on women teachers is the position of her parents or inevitable. Mr Matthew Arnold, guardians makes it imperative for in summing up the advantages her to earn her living. That fact of a university training to a alone argues a want of means; and man, said that it civilised him. so long as scholarships at the From experience we can all teswomen's colleges are few, and many tify to the truth of that stateof them of small value, it can ment. But it is by no means so only be the minority of intending certain that college life has the teachers who will go to college. same salutary effect on women. The daughters of men who can The gain to women of spending well afford to pay for their three or four years of their lives university education do not look entirely in their own society is forward to work as a necessity. questionable: there is much to be Some few of them enter the said against the advisability of teaching profession, either from women living together in large & love of the work, or from a numbers. It is a very curious sense of duty, or from a de- fact that in many cases a girl going sire of independence; but such to Oxford or Cambridge from an women form, and always will unrefined, uncultured home will form, very small minority. bring away exactly what she took Therefore, in considering the pro- there, and will remain quite unportion of professional women influenced by all that should be teachers who have opportunity best in college environment. We of enjoying a genuinely academic are not now alluding to her scholtraining, their case need not be astic attainments; they are often, taken into account. With men paradoxical as the statement may the matter stands on a totally appear, the least important feature different footing. Every boy of a university career. We refer knows that sooner or later he to the general tone and bearing of will be required to provide for the university woman. And it is himself by his own work. That of the highest moment to keep in assumption causes parents, even mind that in a teacher general when they are not exactly well. tone and bearing is fully as imto-do, to make sacrifices for their portant as scholarship. It does sons that for various reasons they not therefore follow automatically will not make for their daughters; that a university woman will make and it is well known that a a better teacher — will prove of combination of public school and better tone and bearing-(though university scholarships will often she may do so) than one who has be sufficient to support a young not been to college. Consequentman during his college career. ly, it may be unwise to insist, The proportion of male teachers without any reserve, on all our


women teachers obtaining a uni- ing resource-one of the most imversity degree.

portant and most necessary qualities The second qualification re- of the teacher-and gives her judges quired by the council is a certifi- and critics little or no opportunity cate in the theory and practice of of discovering how her personality education. This badge of distinc- and influence impress themselves tion is again no absolute proof of on her pupils. The importance of efficiency. Educational experts character and moral force in a are not yet agreed whether a teacher cannot be rated too highly; technical training is a necessity. it has even been said that in a That some sort of preparation is day-school it is of no importance, advisable is allowed by most, but but that is surely a fallacy. Young what form it should take is still people imitate unconsciously the an open question. Training col- tone and bearing of those who are leges offer obvious points of at- set over them, and from the gentack. On some minds a system eral demeanour of a class in a of routine has a crusbing and school, a fairly correct judgment depressing effect: a knowledge of may always be formed of the charthe theory of education, of meta- acter of the mistress at its head. physics, of psychology, of hard-and- What we want to know about a fast rules of method, is not in- teacher is what is the result of variably helpful to the practice of her work from a mental and moral teaching. It has been observed standpoint on the children under that a teacher who has been her care. In order that such retrained at a training college is sult shall be satisfactory, those able to do a particular thing in a who intend to become teachers particular way; but if when she cannot begin too early to teach, begins work in a school as a to come into personal contact with regular teacher the head-mistress the taught, to learn to know them, suggests that it might be well to their wants and needs, and to symemploy a different method from pathise with their difficulties and that practised in the training limitations. To do this effectively, school, she is often unwilling, if more years of practice and experinot unable, to answer the call. ence are needed than life in a trainAnother defect is to be found in ing college ordinarily guarantees. the kind of practice in actual It has often struck us that, as teaching obtainable by the stu- a body, the elementary women dents of a training college. It is teachers, whatever their comparamostly of a fictitious character: tive deficiencies in scholarship or teaching in the so called practising higher culture, are, as practical schools attached to some of the teachers, superior to the secondary institutions, isolated visits to teachers. The reason of the supeschools to take a class in them, riority is to be sought in the fact cannot teach the art of managing that the elementary teachers pracclasses, throws no light on the tise actual teaching at a much details of the successful working earlier age than the secondary of a school, does not aid in develop- teachers.? If a girl goes to the

1 To raise the age at which pupil-teachers shall begin to teach is perhaps, in view of the hard work required of them, a wise regulation on the part of the Education Department, but it would be a vast pity to curtail in any way the purely practical side of their training.


The Registration of Women Teachers.

87 university at eighteen, and after- there is not time for anything bewards to a training college, she yond their daily work. Whatever will be twenty-three before she means we take of training them, begins practical teaching, and that we should endeavour to dispel that is much too late. As a proof of idea. The best teachers are un. this argument, we may state that doubtedly those who for inspectors of elementary schools things besides teaching; and it sometimes find that a pupil-teacher is extraordinary what a cultivatat the end of her preparatory ing, civilising influence such women course at the pupil - teachers' have on their pupils—even on the centre drawing our illustration minds of average, not to say dull, from the system of the London girls. The fact that girls who go School Board — is a far better to secondary schools do not alpractical teacher than when she ways come from cultivated or encomes away from the two years' lightened homes is not sufficiently course at a training college which kept in view. It may happen that follows the four or five years' pre- in a class of girls ranging in age paratory work. During those two from fifteen to eighteen, several years she has lost touch with actual will not have read or heard of pupils, and it sometimes takes her incidents as notorious as England's very many months to regain it. It difficulties in the Transvaal or in has been observed, too, that in Venezuela; others again may not talking to a young elementary have access in their homes to the teacher about her work, she will most ordinary book of reference, or betray intense interest in “her to any standard volume of history children”-i.e., her pupils : a like or poetry. It is with such girls sympathetic interest is often lack- and their parents that the teachers ing in young secondary teachers. have to reckon-a fact that women

Another objection to training fresh from the university and the colleges is that very often, from training college are too apt to lose the nature of the work done and sight of. The decentralisation the kind of teachers usually em- advocated in Sir John Gorst's ployed in them, they scarcely pro- bill would, if adopted, have done mote in the students an interest something to remove that diffiin outside things, — in current culty. A very different curricuevents, for example, or in general lum and method of education is literature, art, and science. It is required in schools of the same of the greatest importance that character in different districts. It teachers should have outside in- is quite possible that a system terests, the more and the wider which works well at South Kenthe better. The present head- sington will be less successful at master of Harrow once said that Brixton. It is therefore of the schoolmastering was of necessity greatest importance that teachers a somewhat narrowing profession, should take into account the because it chiefly consisted in tell- social position, the ability, and ing other people what to do. For the general environment of their that reason he advised his assist- pupils, things that can only be ants to do something outside their learnt by practical experience work— to travel, or to write books. and some knowledge of the world. Among women teachers there is That capacity in a teacher, again, far too great a tendency to narrow is not always obtainable in a traintheir interests, and to think that ing college.

Jan. I 15 : BUELT DET ika: I erer, directly

TETT, 5= a ge line of any I 19 II met with them in Tu State the contents of any [ i crni ei to me. . .'

v Ite cared with, nor had

UTTI1 Fatsoever from, any III. isI never knew

i II i utca isced ... in -12 THE De az izsurrection in these

* Ls Dus.mai- S:*, we bare James's letter to IS 7 I.n. iti fizic, of January 4, 1722 : OM ILI 55 41: post I shall send to Mr

- 1 * II the Comissions mentioned TIL THE ET NTT, and with them fair

in I Fisix Fourworthy Partners," * mine iu s regrets that he cannot

Tet cise Atterbury Archbishop EN IS & Caterðury! Yet Atterbury FL ALT as that he “ever knew of any 21 ore Ciemissions," and for the truth of

ide sasertion he “appeals to God, 13. E:- ise searcher of hearts." Could

1 + i svics Gartet or Greenway do moreKIRSTI K de cay, did they do as much? And

ir . ZLT DE FL was the defence for which LTCI LESZ Ze druercury, when concocting it, ka ba Vit- to i Pope that his friends need

ise 2 of not blush. To Pope, who believed

TEST eicct hin, Atterbury always kept up the

* Free 2 Erotče fare of his innocence. *** 2 of my inzer- One thing, as was observed at

ti, sirina ne she the time, Atterbury could not do, i trimis diter he could not profess his devotion R Deviai be new to the House of Hanover.

As isCO.

Ratcliffe says, in "The Heart of The Joier vores teature in dt Mid-Lothian,' everybody has a bit purys detzace is his extreme of conscience somewhere about 210320. wazi seems to pass him. But Atterbury's conscience att se ročast lying. That was almost as carefully esoteric as be shoci argue sgainst the valid that of the worthy Rat.

Atterbury was let off with exile, ity of the prouts is well and legitimate. But he had the audacity Plunket and Kelly had terms of

imprisonment (Kelly escaped from

the Tower after fourteen long years " by protesting and declaring my of it, and was one of the Seven Men innocent to your lordships in the of Moidart), only Layer was hanged. most deliberate, serious, and solemn His skull was treasured by, and maner; and appealing to God, the buried in the hand of, Dr Raw

to defend himself

searcher of hearts, as to the truth of
what I say. . . . I am charged in linson—if it was his skull, for the
the report with directing (dictating doctor is said to have preserved
a correspondence to Mr Kelly; but the wrong article. With martyrs

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