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like Layer, and a confessor like backed by an appeal to God, the Atterbury, the Jacobites of Eng- ósearcher of hearts.” He would land are not highly to be congratu- not have been a credit to the lated, and Protestantism, when she Church as Archbishop of Canterthrows stones at the Jesuits of 1605, bury, especially as his temper was is rather apt to forget the fragility such that he once, in a dispute, of one of her own windows. seized Sir Harry Goring by the

We have shown that “The collar ! Bishop's Plot” was, in atrocity The conclusion seems to be that, and absurdity, much on

a level

as Mr Harry Foker says, “it is a with the Gunpowder Treason, pity the clergy should meddle in

. We have shown that Atterbury, these matters," whether they be though he probably knew no Jesuits, Anglicans, or Covenanters, details of “The Scheme" in its “ whose cry is blood, and their latest form, was acquainted with motto No Quarter," in the phrase it in its earlier shape,—for he of the Rev. Richard Cameron. had read Ormond's and Captain Will Morgan's letters, and, by

The evidence is from Howells's Kelly's admission, meant to make State Trials,' vol. xvi., the soli

' use of the conspirators. We have tary volume of "Stuart Papers' also shown that he is to treat the (1847), and the ‘Report from the conspirators "tenderly," and that, Lords Committees, and Appen

' during the height of The Scheme, dices' (1723); while references to he was plotting in the “arrack the parallel intrigues of thirty affair, probably procuring the years later are from the Stuart sinews of war. This is guilt MSS. at Windsor Castle and the enough, to which he adds well. Additional Manuscripts in the nourished lies, addressed to pri- British Museum. vate friends as well as to enemies,

A. LANG.

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women teachers obtaining a uni- ing resource—one of the most imversity degree.

portant and most necessary qualities The second qualification re- of the teacher--and gives her judges quired by the council is a certifi- and critics little or no opportunity cate in the theory and practice of of discovering how her personality education. This badge of distinc- and influence impress themselves tion is again no absolute proof of on her pupils. The importance of efficiency Educational experts character and moral force in a are not yet agreed whether a teacher cannot be rated too highly; technical training is a necessity. it has even been said that in a That some sort of preparation is day-school it is of no importance, advisable is allowed by most, but but that is surely a fallacy. Young what form it should take is still people imitate unconsciously the an open question. Training col- tone and bearing of those who are leges offer obvious points of at- set over them, and from the gentack. On some minds a system eral demeanour of a class in a of routine has a crushing and school, a fairly correct judgment depressing effect: a knowledge of may always be formed of the charthe theory of education, of meta- acter of the mistress at its head. physics, of psychology, of bard-and- What we want to know about a fast rules of method, is not in- teacher is what is the result of variably helpful to the practice of her work from a mental and moral teaching It has been observed standpoint on the children under that a teacher who has been her care. In order that such retrained at a training college is sult shall be satisfactory, those able to do a particular thing in a who intend to become teachers particular way; but if when she cannot begin too early to teach, begins work in a school as to come into personal contact with regular teacher the head-mistress the taught, to learn to know them, suggests that it might be well to their wants and needs, and to symemploy a different method from pathise with their difficulties and that practised in the training limitations. To do this effectively, school, she is often unwilling, if more years of practice and experinot unable, to answer the call. ence are needed than life in a trainAnother defect is to be found in ing college ordinarily guarantees. the kind of practice in actual It has often struck us that, as teaching obtainable by the stu- a body, the elementary women dents of a training college. It is teachers, whatever their comparamostly of a fictitious character: tive deficiencies in scholarship or teaching in the so called practising higher culture, are, as practical schools attached to some of the teachers, superior to the secondary institutions, isolated visits to teachers. The reason of the supeschools to take a class in them, riority is to be sought in the fact cannot teach the art of managing that the elementary teachers pracclasses, throws no light on the tise actual teaching at a much details of the successful working earlier age than the secondary of a school, does not aid in develop- teachers.1 If a girl goes to the

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1 To raise the age at which pupil-teachers shall begin to teach is perhaps, in view of the hard work required of them, a wise regulation on the part of the Education Department, but it would be a vast pity to curtail in any way the purely practical side of their training.

university at eighteen, and after there is not time for anything bewards to a training college, sbe yond their daily work. Whatever will be twenty-three before she means we take of training them, begins practical teaching, and that we should endeavour to dispel that is much too late. As a proof of idea. The best teachers are unthis argument, we may state that doubtedly those who

care for inspectors of elementary schools things besides teaching; and it sometimes find that a pupil-teacher is extraordinary what a cultivatat the end of her preparatory ing, civilising influence such women course at the pupil - teachers' have on their pupils—even on the centre — drawing our illustration minds of average, not to say dull, from the system of the London girls. The fact that girls who go School Board — is a far better to secondary schools do not alpractical teacher than when she ways come from cultivated or encomes away from the two years' lightened homes is not sufficiently course at a training college which kept in view. It may happen that follows the four or five years' pre- in a class of girls ranging in age paratory work. During those two from fifteen to eighteen, several years she has lost touch with actual will not have read or heard of pupils, and it sometimes takes her incidents as notorious as England's very many months to regain it. It difficulties in the Transvaal or in has been observed, too, that in Venezuela; others again may not talking to & young elementary have access in their homes to the teacher about her work, she will most ordinary book of reference, or betray intense interest in "her to any standard volume of history

“ children”-i.e., her pupils : a like or poetry. It is with such girls sympathetic interest is often lack- and their parents that the teachers ing in young secondary teachers. have to reckon-a fact that women

Another objection to training fresh from the university and the colleges is that very often, from training college are too apt to lose the nature of the work done and sight of. The decentralisation the kind of teachers usually em- advocated in Sir Jobn Gorst's ployed in them, they scarcely pro- bill would, if adopted, have done mote in the students an interest something to remove that diffiin outside things, – in current culty. A very different curricuevents, for example, or in general lum and method of education is literature, art, and science. It is required in schools of the same of the greatest importance that character in different districts. It teachers should have outside in- is quite possible that a system terests, the more and the wider which works well at South Kenthe better. The present head- sington will be less successful at master of Harrow once said that Brixton. It is therefore of the schoolmastering was of necessity greatest importance that teachers a somewbat narrowing profession, should take into account the because it chiefly consisted in tell. social position, the ability, and ing other people what to do. For the general environment of their that reason he advised his assist- pupils, things that can only be ants to do something outside their learnt by practical experience work— to travel, or to write books. and some knowledge of the world. Among women teachers there is That capacity in a teacher, again, far too great a tendency to narrow is not always obtainable in a traintheir interests, and to think that ing college.

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women teachers obtaining a uni- ing resource—one of the most imversity degree.

portant and most necessary qualities The second qualification re- of the teacher--and gives her judges quired by the council is a certifi- and critics little or no opportunity cate in the theory and practice of of discovering how her personality education. This badge of distinc- and influence impress themselves tion is again no absolute proof of on her pupils. The importance of efficiency. Educational experts character and moral force in a are not yet agreed whether a teacher cannot be rated too highly; technical training is a necessity. it has even been said that in a That some sort of preparation is day-school it is of no importance, advisable is allowed by most, but but that is surely a fallacy. Young what form it should take is still people imitate unconsciously the an open question. Training col- tone and bearing of those who are leges offer obvious points of at- set over them, and from the gentack. On some minds a system eral demeanour of a class in a of routine has a crushing and school, a fairly correct judgment depressing effect: a knowledge of may always be formed of the charthe theory of education, of meta- acter of the mistress at its head. physics, of psychology, of bard-and- What we want to know about a fast rules of method, is not in- teacher is what is the result of variably helpful to the practice of her work from a mental and moral teaching. It has been observed standpoint on the children under that a teacher who has been her care. In order that such retrained at a training college is sult shall be satisfactory, those able to do a particular thing in a who intend to become teachers particular way; but if when she cannot begin too early to teach, begins work in a school as to come into personal contact with regular teacher the head-mistress the taught, to learn to know them, suggests that it might be well to their wants and needs, and to symemploy a different method from pathise with their difficulties and that practised in the training limitations. To do this effectively, school, she is often unwilling, if more years of practice and experinot unable, to answer the call. ence are needed than life in a trainAnother defect is to be found in ing college ordinarily guarantees. the kind of practice in actual It has often struck us that, as teaching obtainable by the stu- a body, the elementary women dents of a training college. It is teachers, whatever their comparamostly of a fictitious character: tive deficiencies in scholarship or teaching in the go called practising higher culture, are, as practical schools attached to some of the teachers, superior to the secondary institutions, isolated visits to teachers. The reason of the supeschools to take a class in them, riority is to be sought in the fact cannot teach the art of managing that the elementary teachers pracclasses, throws no light on the tise actual teaching at a much details of the successful working earlier age than the secondary of a school, does not aid in develop- teachers.1 If a girl goes to the

a

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1 To raise the age at which pupil-teachers shall begin to teach is perhaps, in view of the hard work required of them, a wise regulation on the part of the Education Department, but it would be a vast pity to curtail in any way the purely practical side of their training.

university at eighteen, and after- there is not time for anything bewards to a training college, she yond their daily work. Whatever will be twenty-three before she means we take of training them, begins practical teaching, and that we should endeavour to dispel that

, is much too late. As a proof of idea. The best teachers are unthis argument, we may state that doubtedly those who care for inspectors of elementary schools things besides teaching; and it sometimes find that a pupil-teacher is extraordinary what a cultivatat the end of her preparatory ing, civilising influence such women course at the pupil - teachers' have on their pupils—even on the centre — drawing our illustration minds of average, not to say dull, from the system of the London girls. The fact that girls who go School Board — is a far better to secondary schools do not alpractical teacher than when she ways come from cultivated or encomes away from the two years' lightened homes is not sufficiently course at a training college which kept in view. It may happen that follows the four or five years' pre- in a class of girls ranging in age paratory work. During those two from fifteen to eighteen, several years she has lost touch with actual will not have read or heard of pupils, and it sometimes takes her incidents as notorious as England's very many months to regain it. It difficulties in the Transvaal or in has been observed, too, that in Venezuela ; others again may not talking to a young elementary have access in their homes to the teacher about her work, she will most ordinary book of reference, or betray intense interest in "her to any standard volume of history children"-i.e., her pupils : a like or poetry. It is with such girls sympathetic interest is often lack- and their parents that the teachers ing in young secondary teachers. have to reckon—a fact that women

Another objection to training fresh from the university and the colleges is that very often, from training college are too apt to lose the nature of the work done and sight of. The decentralisation the kind of teachers usually em- advocated in Sir Jobn Gorst's ployed in them, they scarcely pro- bill would, if adopted, have done mote in the students an interest something to remove that diffiin outside things, in current culty. A very different curricuevents, for example, or in general lum and method of education is literature, art, and science. It is required in schools of the same of the greatest importance that character in different districts. It teachers should have outside in- is quite possible that a system terests, the more and the wider which works well at South Kenthe better. The present head- sington will be less successful at master of Harrow once said that Brixton. It is therefore of the schoolmastering was of necessity greatest importance that teachers a somewhat narrowing profession, should take into account the because it chiefly consisted in tell- social position, the ability, and ing other people what to do. For the general environment of their that reason he advised his assist- pupils, things that can only be ants to do something outside their learnt by practical experience work— to travel, or to write books. and some knowledge of the world. Among women teachers there is That capacity in a teacher, again, far too great a tendency to narrow is not always obtainable in a traintheir interests, and to think that ing college.

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