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women teachers obtaining a uni- ing resource—one of the most imversity degree.

portant and most necessary qualities The second qualification re- of the teacher-and gives her judges quired by the council is a certifi- and critics little or no opportunity cate in the theory and practice of of discovering how her personality education. This badge of distinc- and influence impress themselves tion is again no absolute proof of on her pupils. The importance of efficiency Educational experts character and moral force in a are not yet agreed whether a teacher cannot be rated too highly; technical training is a necessity. it has even been said that in a That some sort of preparation is day-school it is of no importance, advisable is allowed by most, but but that is surely a fallacy. Young what form it should take is still people imitate unconsciously the an open question. Training col- tone and bearing of those who are leges offer obvious points of at- set over them, and from the gentack. On some minds a system eral demeanour of a class in a of routine has a crushing and school, a fairly correct judgment depressing effect : a knowledge of may always be formed of the charthe theory of education, of meta- acter of the mistress at its head. physics, of psychology, of bard-and- What we want to know about a fast rules of method, is not in- teacher is what is the result of variably helpful to the practice of her work from a mental and moral teaching. It has been observed standpoint on the children under that a teacher who has been her care. In order that such retrained at a training college is sult shall be satisfactory, those able to do a particular thing in a who intend to become teachers particular way; but if when she cannot begin too early to teach, begins work in a school as to come into personal contact with regular teacher the head-mistress the taught, to learn to know them, suggests that it might be well to their wants and needs, and to symemploy a different method from pathise with their difficulties and that practised in the training limitations. To do this effectively, school, she is often unwilling, if more years of practice and experinot unable, to answer the call. ence are needed than life in a trainAnother defect is to be found in ing college ordinarily guarantees. the kind of practice in actual It has often struck us that, as teaching obtainable by the stu- a body, the elementary women dents of a training college. It is teachers, whatever their comparamostly of a fictitious character: tive deficiencies in scholarship or teaching in the so called practising bigber culture, are, as practical schools attached to some of the teachers, superior to the secondary institutions, isolated visits to teachers. The reason of the supeschools to take a class in them, riority is to be sought in the fact cannot teach the art of managing that the elementary teachers pracclasses, throws no light on the tise actual teaching at a much details of the successful working earlier age than the secondary of a school, does not aid in develop- teachers. If a girl goes to the

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1 To raise the age at which pupil-teachers shall begin to teach is perhaps, in view of the hard work required of them, a wise regulation on the part of the Education Department, but it would be a vast pity to curtail in any way the purely practical side of their training.

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university at eighteen, and after there is not time for anything bewards to a training college, she yond their daily work. Whatever will be twenty-three before she means we take of training them, begins practical teaching, and that we should endeavour to dispel that is much too late. As a proof of idea. The best teachers are unthis argument, we may state that doubtedly those who for inspectors of elementary schools things besides teaching; and it sometimes find that a pupil-teacher is extraordinary what a cultivatat the end of her preparatory ing, civilising influence such women course at the pupil - teachers' have on their pupils—even on the centre — drawing our illustration minds of average, not to say dull, from the system of the London girls. The fact that girls who go School Board — is a far better to secondary schools do not alpractical teacher than when she ways come from cultivated or encomes away from the two years' lightened bomes is not sufficiently course at a training college which kept in view. It may happen that follows the four or five years' pre- in a class of girls ranging in age paratory work. During those two from fifteen to eighteen, several years she has lost touch with actual will not have read or heard of pupils, and it sometimes takes her incidents as notorious as England's very many months to regain it. It difficulties in the Transvaal or in has been observed, too, that in Venezuela; others again may not talking to a young elementary have access in their homes to the teacher about her work, she will most ordinary book of reference, or betray intense interest in “her to any standard volume of history children”-i.e., her pupils : a like or poetry. It is with such girls sympathetic interest is often lack- and their parents that the teachers ing in young secondary teachers. have to reckon-a fact that women

Another objection to training fresh from the university and the colleges is that very often, from training college are too apt to lose the nature of the work done and sight of. The decentralisation the kind of teachers usually em- advocated in Sir John Gorst's ployed in them, they scarcely pro- bill would, if adopted, have done mote in the students an interest something to remove that diffiin outside things, in current culty. A very different curricuevents, for example, or in general lum and method of education is literature, art, and science. It is required in schools of the same of the greatest importance that character in different districts. It teachers should have outside in- is quite possible that a system terests, the more and the wider which works well at South Kenthe better. The present head- sington will be less successful at master of Harrow once said that Brixton. It is therefore of the schoolmastering was of necessity greatest importance that teachers a somewbat narrowing profession, should take into account the because it chiefly consisted in tell- social position, the ability, and ing other people what to do. For the general environment of their that reason he advised his assist- pupils, things that can only be ants to do something outside their learnt by practical experience work— to travel, or to write books. and some knowledge of the world. Among women teachers there is That capacity in a teacher, again, far too great a tendency to narrow is not always obtainable in a traintheir interests, and to think that ing college.

women teachers obtaining a uni- ing resource—one of the most imversity degree.

portant and most necessary qualities The second qualification re- of the teacher--and gives her judges quired by the council is a certifi- and critics little or no opportunity cate in the theory and practice of of discovering how her personality education. This badge of distinc- and influence impress themselves tion is again no absolute proof of on her pupils. The importance of efficiency. Educational experts character and moral force in a are not yet agreed whether a teacher cannot be rated too highly; technical training is a necessity. it has even been said that in a That some sort of preparation is day-school it is of no importance, advisable is allowed by most, but but that is surely a fallacy. Young what form it should take is still people imitate unconsciously the an open question. Training col- tone and bearing of those who are leges offer obvious points of at- set over them, and from the gentack. On some minds a system eral demeanour of a class in a of routine has a crushing and school, a fairly correct judgment depressing effect : a knowledge of may always be formed of the charthe theory of education, of meta- acter of the mistress at its head. physics, of psychology, of bard-and- What we want to know about a fast rules of method, is not in- teacher is what is the result of variably helpful to the practice of her work from a mental and moral teaching It has been observed standpoint on the children under that a teacher who has been her care. In order that such retrained at a training college is sult shall be satisfactory, those able to do a particular thing in a who intend to become teachers particular way; but if when she cannot begin too early to teach, begins work in a school as to come into personal contact with regular teacher the head-mistress the taught, to learn to know them, suggests that it might be well to their wants and needs, and to symemploy a different method from pathise with their difficulties and that practised in the training limitations. To do this effectively, school, she is often unwilling, if more years of practice and experinot unable, to answer the call. ence are needed than life in a trainAnother defect is to be found in ing college ordinarily guarantees. the kind of practice in actual It has often struck us that, as teaching obtainable by the stu- a body, the elementary women dents of a training college. It is teachers, whatever their comparamostly of a fictitious character: tive deficiencies in scholarship or teaching in the so called practising higher culture, are, as practical schools attached to some of the teachers, superior to the secondary institutions, isolated visits to teachers. The reason of the supeschools to take a class in them, riority is to be sought in the fact cannot teach the art of managing that the elementary teachers pracclasses, throws no light on the tise actual teaching at a much details of the successful working earlier age than the secondary of a school, does not aid in develop- teachers. 1 If a girl goes to the

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1 To raise the age at which pupil-teachers shall begin to teach is perhaps, in view of the hard work required of them, a wise regulation on the part of the Education Department, but it would be a vast pity to curtail in any way the purely practical side of their training.

university at eighteen, and after there is not time for anything bewards to a training college, she yond their daily work. Whatever will be twenty-three before she means we take of training them, begins practical teaching, and that we should endeavour to dispel that is much too late. As a proof of idea. The best teachers are unthis argument, we may state that doubtedly those who

care for inspectors of elementary schools things besides teaching; and it sometimes find that a pupil-teacher is extraordinary what a cultivatat the end of her preparatory ing, civilising influence such women course at the pupil - teachers' have on their pupils—even on the centre — drawing our illustration minds of average, not to say dull, from the system of the London girls. The fact that girls who go School Board — is a far better to secondary schools do not alpractical teacher than when she ways come from cultivated or encomes away from the two years' lightened bomes is not sufficiently course at a training college which kept in view. It may happen that follows the four or five years' pre- in a class of girls ranging in age paratory work. During those two from fifteen to eighteen, several years she has lost touch with actual will not have read or heard of pupils, and it sometimes takes her incidents as notorious as England's very many months to regain it. It difficulties in the Transvaal or in has been observed, too, that in Venezuela; others again may not talking to a young elementary have access in their homes to the teacher about her work, she will most ordinary book of reference, or betray intense interest in “her to any standard volume of history children ”-i.e., her pupils : a like or poetry. It is with such girls sympathetic interest is often lack- and their parents that the teachers ing in young secondary teachers. have to reckon—a fact that women

Another objection to training fresh from the university and the colleges is that very often, from training college are too apt to lose the nature of the work done and sight of. The decentralisation the kind of teachers usually em- advocated in Sir John Gorst's ployed in them, they scarcely pro- bill would, if adopted, have done mote in the students an interest something to remove that diffiin outside things, — in current culty. A very different curricuevents, for example, or in general lum and method of education is Jiterature, art, and science. It is required in schools of the same of the greatest importance that character in different districts. It teachers should have outside in- is quite possible that a system terests, the more and the wider which works well at South Kenthe better. The present head- sington will be less successful at master of Harrow once said that Brixton. It is therefore of the schoolmastering was of necessity greatest importance that teachers a somewhat narrowing profession, should take into account the because it chiefly consisted in tell- social position, the ability, and ing other people what to do. For the general environment of their that reason he advised his assist- pupils, things that can only be ants to do something outside their learnt by practical experience work- to travel, or to write books. and some knowledge of the world. Among women teachers there is That capacity in a teacher, again, far too great a tendency to narrow is not always obtainable in a traintheir interests, and to think that ing college.

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One of the arguments put for- quite as many mistakes as a student ward by the advocates of a strictly teacher of fifteen or sixteen, and technical training for teachers is she will in all probability make that it the only profession for many more. which a proper preparation is not Testimony to knowledge and compulsory. That argument con- scholarship can already be obtains both truth and reason, and tained by intending teachers from is difficult to oppose. Granting one or other of the recognised exsome preparation is needful, what amining bodies of the country. It constitutes the best method ? It would seem, then, that unless a is too large a question to answer teachers' register satisfactorily here. Teaching is neither an art proves that the persons whose nor an exact science; it partakes names it enrols possess ability to of both, and lies in a region be- teach, it would be somewhat of a tween them. While there is prac- superfluity. A categorical proof of tically only one way of interpret- such ability in print is no easy ing statute law, or of treating thing to produce. But if a register some particular disease that runs is to be created, it might be enacted a well-known course, there are that no teacher should be placed many methods of giving a lesson, on it unless she has been actually dependent on the numbers, ages, teaching for a continuous period of abilities, and general environment not less than three years, and can of the pupils. No examination produce testimony to her ability as like those by which men are ad- a teacher from her employers. In mitted to the medical register or addition, it might be made one of to the solicitors' roll can with real the duties of the most experienced efficiency test the teaching capac- inspectors of the Education Deity of women intending to become partment to be present at several teachers. A literary examination of the lessons of teachers desiring may eliminate the hopelessly ig- to be placed on the register. They norant: it cannot assert authori- would be able to report to the tatively that the examinee is a proper authorities concerning the competent teacher. If it is found fitness of the teachers in question that a technical training is indis- for their work. The inspectors pensable for teachers, the classes would have the opportunity of of a training department attached noting to some extent the effect to a large and efficient school of the character and influence of offer the sole trustworthy field the teacher on her pupils, and for acquiring technical efficiency. their reports would furnish an allIt is there possible to gain at round guarantee of efficiency. It the same time a practical know. would also be their duty to inquire ledge of teaching by working under concerning the previous education the supervision of teachers of re- and training of the teacher : such pute, and to learn from actual data would help towards forming observation something of the de. the ideal teacher of the future. tails of organisation. It is often The method will probably strike said that in such a system the the framers of parliamentary bills children suffer from the mistakes as cumbersome and unpractical : of the teacher. The grievance is it would entail much more trouble much exaggerated. A woman who than merely looking at a piece does not begin practical teaching of printed paper, but it would till she is twenty-three will make secure efficiency in the teacher as

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