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of justice for them: hence they are said to be redeemed, or bought unto God, by his blood, Rev. v. 9. Being sinners, and offenders of the justice of God, that holds under sin; under the guilt of it, which binds over to punishment, unless delivered from it; it holds them under the sentence of the law, transgressed by them; which not only accuses of, and charges with sin, but pronounces guilty, and condemns and curses: it holds them in subjection to death, even eternal death; which is the wages and just demerit of sin: the law threatened with it in case of sin; sin being committed, the sentence of death passed upon all men; all having sinned, judgment, or the judicial sentence, came upon

all men to condemnation in a legal way; and sin reigned unto death, in a tyrannical manner; or, in other words, man became not only deserving of wrath, but obroxious to it; the wrath of God was revealed from heaven, against all un

righteousness and ungodliness of men; and indignation and wrath, tribulation and : anguish, come upon every soul of man, as upon the children of disobedience,

unless delivered from it, through the redemption that is by Christ. In such an enthralled state are men to sin, to the justice of God, to death, and wrath, to come.

11. That redemption by Christ is a deliverance from all this. It is a redemption from sin; from all iniquities whatever, original and actual, Tit. ii. 14. from avenging justice, on account of sin; from the guilt of sin; for there is no condemnation by it, to them that are interested in redemption by Christ; Whe skall condemn ? it is Christ that died! and by dying, has redeemed his people from sin, and secured them from condemnation, Rom. viii. 1, 33. and in virtue of this, they are delivered from the dominion of sin; for though this is done in effectual vocation, by the power of divine grace, it is in virtue of redemption by Christ, by whom sin is crucified, and the body of it destroyed; so that it shall not reign in them, or have dominion over them: one branch of redemption, lies in being delivered from a vain conversation; and, ere long, the redeemed shall be delivered from the very being of sin; when their redemption, as to the application of it, will be complete; as it will be in the resurrection; when the soul will not only be among the spirits of just men made perfect; but the body will be clear of sin, mortality and death; which is called redemption that draws near, the redemption of the body waited for, and the day of redemption, Rom. viii. 23. Redemption is a deliverance from the law, from the bondage of it, and from the curse and condemnation by it; so that there shall be no more curse; and from eternal death and wraih to come : life is forfeited into the hands of justice by sin; which life is redeemed from destruction by Christ, giving his life a ransom for it; he, by redeeming his people, has delivered them from wrath to come; being justified through the redemption that is in Christ, by his bload, they are, and shall be saved, from everlasting wrath, ruin, and destruction.

1. That redemption by Christ is such a deliverance, as that it is setting persons quite free, and at entire liberty; such who are dead to sin, by Christ are

freed from it, from the 'damning power of it, and from its dominion and tyran. ny; and though, not as yet, from the being of it: yet ere long, they will be ; when, with the rest of the members of the church, they will be presented glorious, without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing: and such are free from the law; though not from obedience to it, yet from the bondage of it; they are delivered from it, and are no longer held in it, as in a prison; but are directed and exhoited to stand fast in the liberty from it, with which Christ has made free; and this will have its full completion on all accounts, when the saints shall be delivered from every degree of bondage, into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

OF THE CAUSES OF REDEMPTION BY CHRIST. The next thing to be considered, are the causes of redemption; what it springs 'fron, by whom, and by what means it is olvained; and for what ends and pure poses it is wrought out.

1. The moving cause of it, or from whence it springs and flows; and that is, the everlasting love of God; which, as it is the source and spring of every blessing of grace; as of election, regeneration, and effectual vocation; so of redemption. The gift of Christ to be the Redeemer of his people, flows from this love. Christ was given to be a Redeemer, before he was sent; when he was given for a covenant to the people, he was given in covenant to be the Redeemer of them; and this gift was the effect of love; to this Christ himself ascribes

it; God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that is, to be their Redeemer; hence, before he came, Job had knowledge of him as his living Redeemer; and all the Old Testament-saints waited for him as such. The mission of Christ in the fulness of time, to be the propitiation for the sins of men, and to redeem them from them, is given as a manifest, clear, and undoubted instance of his love; In this was manifested the love of God, &c. Herein is love, &c. i John iv. 9, 10. and God not sparing his Son, but delivering him into die hands of justice and death, to die in the reoin and stead of sinners, while they were such, is a full demonstration, and high commendation of his great love unto them, Rom. v. 8. The free grace of God, for giace, if it is not altoge her free, is not grace; and which is no other than unmerited love, clear of all conditions, merit and motives in the creature; it is at the bottom of our sedemption by Christ; for as we are justified freely by his grace, through the red mption that is in Jesus Christ; so that redemption that is in and by Christ, is of free grace; the gift of Christ is a free grace-gift; his being sent and delivered up to death, are owing to the grace of God; it is by the grace of God he tasted death for every one ; for every one of the sons of God: and this cannot be attributed to any merit or desert in those for whom Christ died; since they were witl ou: st.ength, ungodly, wicked, sinners, the chief of sinners, and enemics

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in their minds by wicked works, Rom. v. 6–10. Mercy, which is no other than the love and grace of God, exercised towards miserable creatures, gives rise to this blessing of redemption: God first resolved to have mercy on sinful men; and then determined to redeem and save them by his Son; and it is through the tender mercy of our God, that Christ, the day-spring from on high, visited and redeemed his people; and so performed the mercy promised to men, Luke i. 68–78. hence God is said to save men according to his mercy; and mercy is glorified in their salvation and redemption by Christ; and they are under obli. gation to sing of mercy, to praise the Lord, and give thanks unto him, on account of it, Tit. iii. 5. Psal. cvii. 1, 2. it is now, by the love, grace, and mercy of God to sinful men, that his will is determined, and his resolution fixed, to redeem them; for redemption is according to an eternal purpose he has purposed in Christ; who was fore-ordained before the foundation of the world, to redeem men from a vain conversation with his precious blood: he was set fortli, in the decrees and purposes of God, to be the propitiation for sin; God appointed him to be the Redeemer and Saviour; and appointed men, not unto wrath, which they deserved, but to obtain salvation by him; even the vessels of

mercy, afore prepared for glory; and being moved, from his love, grace, and mercy, within hinself, to determine upon the redemption of them, his wisdom was set to work to find out the best way and method of doing it: upon this a council was held: God was, in Christ, forming a scheme of peace, reconciliation, and redemption; in which he has abounded towards us in all wisdom and prudence, in fixing upon the most proper Person, and the most proper means, whereby to effect it: and hence the scheme of redemption, as formed in the eternal mind and council of God, is called the manifold wisdom of God, Eph. i. 7, 8. and iii. 10. But of the wisdom of God, as it appears in redemption by Christ, I have more largely treated when on the attribute of Wisdom. All these workings in the heait and will of God, issued in a covenant between him and his Son; in which he proposed to his Son, that he should be the Raiser-up, Restorer, and Redeemer of his people, both among Jews and Gentiles; and to which he agreed, and said, Lo, I come to do thy will! which was no other, than to work out the redemption of his people. Hence this covenant is by some called, the covenant of redemption, in which this great affair was settled and secured. Now upon all this, the love, grace, and mercy of God, the good-will and purpose of his heart, his council and covenant, the plot of man's redemption is formed; this is the source and spring of il.

II. The procuring Cause, or Author of redemption, is Christ, the Son of God; he was appointed to it, and assented to it; was prophesied of as the Redeemer that should come to Zion; he was sent to redeem them that were under the law; and he has obtained eternal redemption; and in hiin believers have it, through his blood, and he is of God made redemption to thein.

1. If it be asked, how Christ came to be the Redeemner? it be answered, as the love, grace and mercy of God the Father moved liim to resolve upon ren

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demption, and apprint his Son, and call him to this work; so like love, grace and mercy, wrought in the heart of the Son of God to accept of this call, and engage

in this work; the love of Christ, which was in his heart from everlast ing, and was a love of complacency and delight; this shewed itself in various acts and especially in giving himself for his people to redeem them; in giving himself an offering and a sacrifice for their sins; in laying down his life for them; all which is frequently ascribed to his love, 1 John iii. 16. and this love is unmerited, as appears from the characters of the persons for whom he died, observed before; and so is called the grace of Christ, free grace, unmoved and unmerited by any thing in the creature; and to this is attributed the whole af fair of our redemption and salvation by Christ, 2 Cor. viii. 5, pity and compassion in his heart towards his people in their miserable and enthralled state, moved him to undertake and perforin the work of their redemption: in his love and and in his pity he redeemed them, as he did Israel of old, Isai. Ixiii. 9. This love, grace and mercy, influenced and engaged him to resolve upon the redemption of them; hence he said, I will ransom them, I will redeem them; as from the grave and death, so from every other enemy, Hos. xiii. 14. and as he entered into covenant-engagements with his Father froin everlasting; he considered himself as under obligation to perforin this work, and therefore spoke in language which imports the same; as that he must work the works of him that sent hiin, of which this is the principal; that he ought to suffer and die as he did; and that he must bring in those the Father gave him, and he undertook for, and bring them safe to glory,

11. The fitness of Christ to be a Redeemer of bis people, is worthy of noe tice. As he engaged in it, he was every way fit for it; none so fit as he, none fit for it but hiunself; no creature, man or angel: no man, for all have sinned, and so every one needs a redeemer from sin, and can neither redeein himself nor any other; nor could an angel redeem any of the sons of men; God has put no trust of this kind in those his servants the angels, knowing that they were unequal to it: the angel Jacob speaks of, that redeemed him froin all evil, was not a created, but the uncreated angel; the angel and messenger of the covenant, the Messiah. Now Christ's fitness for the work of redemption, lies in his being God and man in one person.

It was the Son of God that was sent to redeem men, who is of the same nature, and possessed of the same perfections his divine Father is; the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person ; who was in the forin of God, and thought it no robbery to be equal to him: this Son of God is the true God, the great God, and so fit to be the Redeemer and Saviour of men; and a mighty redeemer he inust be, since he is Jehovah, the Lord of hosts, and therefore equal to such a work as this, and he is both God and man; he is the child horn, as man, and the son given, as a divine person; he is Immanuel, God with us, God in our nature, God manifest in the flesh, and so fit to be a mediator between God and man; and to be an umpire, a days-man to lay hands on botha; and to do the work required of a Re

deemer of men, to make reconciliation for their sins and to take care of things pertaining to the glory of God, his justice and holiness. As man he could be made, as he was made, under the law, and so capable of yielding obedience to it, and of bearing the penalty of it; which it was necessary he should, as the surety and redeemer of men; as man, he had blood to shed, with which most precious blood he could redeem them unto God; had a life to lay down, a sufficient ransom-price for his people, and was capable of suffering and dying in their room and stcad, and so of making full satisfaction for them. As God, he would be zealously concerned for the glory of the divine perfections, and secure the ho. nour of them in the redemption wrought out by him; as such, he could put an infinite virtue into his blood, and make it a full and adequate price for the pur. chase of his church, and the redemption of it, as such he could support the human nature under the load of sin and of sufferings for it, and of carrying it through the work, otherwise insupportable ; as both God and man, he had a right to redeem; as Lord of all, he had a right as well as power to redeem them that were is; and being, as man, their near kinsman, the right of redemption belonged to him, and therefore bears the name of Goel, which signifies a redeemer, and a near kinstnan; and who so fit to be che redeemer of the church, as he who is her head and her husband?

111. The means by which redemption is wrought out by Christ; and that is by his blood, his life, to which it is often ascribed, 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. this was sherl, and shed freely, for the remission of sins, and for the redemption of men; had it been shed involuntarily, by accident or by force, against his will, it would not have been a proper redemption-price, or have answered such an end; but it was purposely and voluntarily shed, and with full consent; Christ, as he had the full disposal of his own life, freely gave his life a ransom-price for many; I lay down my life for the sheep, says he, as a ransom price for them; I lay it dozen of myself, Matt. xx, 28. John X. 15, 18. and the blood that was thus freely shed, was the same with that of those for whom it was shed, which was necessary; not the blood of bulls and goats, which could not be an adequate price of redemption, but human blood; Christ partook of the same flesh and blood with the children for whom he died; only with this difference, it was not tainted with sin as theirs is; which is another requisite of the ransom-price; it must be the blood of an innocent person, as Christ was: much notice is taken in scripture of the innocence, holiness, and righteousness of the redeemer; that he was holy in his nature, harmless in life, knew no sin, nor ever committed any; that he, the just and holy one, suffered for the unjust ; a great emphasis is put upon this, that the price with which men are redeemned, is the precious blood of Christ, 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. for if he had had any sin in him, he could not have been a redeemer from sin, nor his blood the price of redemption; and yet more than all this, it is necessary to make this price a full and adequate one, it must not be the blood of a mere creature, but of one that is God as well as man, and such is Christ; hence God, who is Christ, is said to purchase the church wich bis own

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