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whole, it must clearly appear, that there never as yet has been such a time, in which it could be sail, that Satan had no power to deceive the nations, either by drawing them into idolatry, and other bad prir.ciples, or into persecuting practices; nor any time in which the church of Christ has been in a state of purity and peace, free from idolatry, heresy, and persecution ; wherefore it may be strongly conclucled, that Satan is not yet bound; and that Christ's kingdom is not yet come; nor are these things to be expected in the present state.

The spiritual reign in the latter-day bids fairest for it; and which, indeed, is a branch of Christ's kingdom, whe: both Pope and Turk will be destroyed; but then Saan will only be destroyed in his instruments, but not in his person bound. Pesics, the spiritual and personal reign of Christ, though branches of his kingdoin, belong to different periods ; and will not both take place in the present state; the spiritual reign will be in the present earth, and of saints in a sinful, mortal state, and in the use of ordinances: but the millennium-reign will be on the new carth, and of saints in a risen, perfect state, standing in no need of ordinances, as now.

The millennium-reign will not be till after the first resurrection; and the first resurrection wiil not be till the second coming of Christ, when the dead in him shall rise first. The personal reign of Christ will not be till the new heavens and the new earth are made, which will be the seat of it; and these will not be till the present heavens and earth are dissolved and burnt up; and this conflagration will not be till Christ comes a second time. The reign of Christ with his saints, will not be till Satan is bound, as well as antichrist destroyed; and Satan will not be bound, till Christ, the mighty Angel, descends from heaven to earth, which will not be till the end of the world.

V. I close all, with an answer to a few of the principal objections to the above scheme; and to two or three questions relative to the same.

r. To objections. -1. It may be objected, to what purpose will Sa:an be bound a thousand

years to prevent his deception of the nations, when there will be no nations to be deceived b; him during that time, since the wicked will be all destroyed in the general conflagiation; and the saints will be with Ciirist, out of the reach of temptation and seduction? I answer, this will not be the case at the binding of Satan, which is the first thing Christ will do when he descends froin heaven; first bind Satan, then raise the righteous dead, and change the living saints, and take both to himself; and then burn the world: but as the time be{ween the binding of Satan, and the burning of the world, may be but short, I lay no stress on this. Let it be observed, that the same nations, Satan, by being bound, is prevented from deceiving any more, till the thousand years are endel, are those that will be deceived by him after his being loosed; as appears by comparing Rev. xx. 3. with verse 8. and to prevent their being deceived by hiin, and put upon schemes to the disturbance of the saints, in their reign with Christ, he and they, that is, their separate spirits, will be shut up together in the bottomless pit; so that the one will be in a state of inactivity, and incapable of

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tempting and deceiving; and the other in a case and condition not susceptible of temptation and seduction; and both will have enough to do to grapple with their dreadful torments in this confined state; the one will not be at leisure to propose a mischievous scheine, nor the other to hearken to it; and Satan will full well know, that should he form a scheine, it would be impossible to put it in execution in their present circumstances. That the wicked, in an immortal state, are capable of being tempted and deceived by Satan, appears by a fact, after the loosing of him ; for which season it was necessary he should be bound during the thousand years: and hat the saints, in an iinmortal state, are not exempt from attempts upon them, by him and his emissaries, only when he is under absolute confinement, which made it necessary, during the said term of time; and which will be his case after this affair is over, to all eternity. — 2. That though the saints are said to reign with Christ a thousand years, Rev. xx. 4–6. yet they are not there said to reign on earth. But it is elsewhere said, the meek shall inherit the earth; and righteousness, or righteous men, shall dwell in the new earth; and the redeemed of the Lanh, who are made kings and priests unto God, shall reign on earth; and they are the same with the priests of God and Christ, that shall reign with him a thousand years. Besides, it appears from the context, that this reign will be on earth ; the angel that descends from heaven to bind Satan, descends on earth; the binding of Satan will be on earth; for there he deceived the nations before, and will after his loosing: the resurrection, and living again of the dead, will be on earth: and so, in course, their reign with Christ there. Besides, they are manifestly the camp of the saints, the beloved city, the Gog and Nagog arıny will encompass, who will come up on the breadth of the earth ; and therefore the saints, the beloved city, must be on earth; and who are no other than the holy city Jolin saw come down from God out of heaven, that is, on earth, where the tabernacle of God will be with them, Rev. xxi. 2, 3. – 3. It is objected to the personal reign of Christ with the saints on earth, that they, by reason of the frailty of nature, will be unfit to converse with Christ, in his glorious human nature ; burlike the apostles Paul and John, who, when he ap cared to them, fell down at his feet, either trem. bling, or as dead. But this objection proceeds upon a supposition, that the saints will then be in a sinful, monial state; which will not be the case; but as their souls will be perfectly sanctified, so their bodies will be raised in incorruption, power, and glory, and fashioned like to the glorious body of Christ, and so fit to converse with him in it; yea, more so than separate souls in heaven. 4. It is suggested, that for the saints to come down from heaven, and leave their happy state there, and dwell on earth, inust be a diminishing of their happiness, and greatly detract from it. No such thing; for Christ will come with them; all the saints will come with him, and dwell and scign with him; and where he is, heaven is, happiness is. Did Noses and Elias lose any of their happiness when they came down from heaven, and conversed with Christ on the mount, at his transfiguration? None at all. No more will the saints, by being

and reigning with Christ on earth, in a more glorified state than he was then in: yea, so far from being lessened hereby, that the happiness of the saints will be increased; their bodies will be raised, and united to their souls, they had been in expectation ot, to complete their happiness: and this being now done, they will be more like to Christ, and more fit to converse with him. At the death of Christ, he coinmitted his human spirit, or soul, to his Father, and it was that day in paradise; on the third day when he rose, his soul returned, re-entered, and was reunited to his body; and after his resurrection, he continued on earth forty days, shewing himself to, and conversing with his disciples. During this time, was his soul less happy than before his resuriection ? yea, was it not more 50? — 5. The bodies of the wicked lying in the earth till the thousand years are ended, may be objected to the purity of the new earth, and to the glory of the state of the saints upon it. The purification of it by fire, will, indeed, only affect the surrounding air, and the surface of the earth, or little more, and the figure of it, and is external qualities and circumstances; and not the matter and substance of it, which will remain the same. And as for the bodies of the wicked, that w.ll have been interred in it from the beginning of the world to the end of it, those will be long reduced to their original earth, and will be neither morally impure, nor naturally offensive; and if any thing of the latter could be conceived of, the purifving fire may reach so far as intirely to remove that ; and as for the bodies of the wicked, which will be buint to ashes at the confiagration, how those ashes, and the ruins of the old world after the burning, will be disposed of, by the almighty power, and all-wise providence of God, it is not easy to sav; it is very probable they will be disposed of under ground: and this will be so far from detracting from the glorious inhabitation, and reigning of the saints with Christ up n it, that it will greatly add to the glory of that triumphant reign; for now all the wicked that ever were in the world, will be under the feet of the saints in the most literal sense ; now they will not only tread upon the wiched as ashes, but tread upon the very ashes of the wicked; and so the prophecy in Mal. iv. 3. will be literally fulfilled, which respects this very case.

11. To questions. - 1. What will become of the new earth, after the thousand

years of the reign of Christ and his saints on it are ended? whether it will be annihilated or not? My mind has been at an uncertainty about this matter; sometimes inclining one way, and sometimes another; because of the seeming different accounts of it in Isai. Ixvi. 22. where it is said to remain before the Lord, and in Rev. xx. 11. where it is said to flee away froin the face of the Judge ; as may be seen by my notes on both places, and by a wirection at ine end of the fourth volume on the Old Testament; but my last and present thoughts are, that it will continue tor ever; and that the passage in Rev. xx. 11. is a rhetorical exaggeration of the glory and greatness of the Judge, which appeared such to John in the vision, that the heavens and carth could not bear it, and therefore seemed to disappear; the phrase, from whose face, which is unusual, seenis to suggest and confim it. I am of opinion therefore, that the new earth will be a sort of an apartment to heaven, whither the saints will pass a id repass at their pleasure; and which agrees with other scriprures, which speak of the saints dwelling on, and inheriting the earth for ever': - 2. Who the Gog and Magog army are, that shall encompass the camp of the saints, when the thousand vears are enled? What makes an answer to this the more difficult is, that at the general conilagration of the present earth, all the wicked in it will be burnt up, and none but righteous persons will dwell in the new carth; it is to no purpose therefore, to think of Turks, Tartarians, Scythians, and other barbarous nations, types of these; nor of any remains of the Wicked who escaped the general destruction, as supposed; nor of such frightened at tive first

appearance of Christ, who fled to the remotest parts, and now resume their courage, and come forth: it is a strange absurd notion of Dr. Burnet", that these will be men born of the earth, generated from the slime of the ground, and the heat of the sun; and increasing and multiplving after the manner of men, hy carnal propagation, after a thousand years will become very numerous, as the sand of the sea, and inake the attack they are said to do. But there is no need to have recourse to so gross an expedien as this: the persons are at hand, and easy to be met with; they are the rest of the dead, the wicked, who live not till the thousand years are ended; and then will live, being raised fron the dead, even all the wicked that have been from the beginning of the world; which accounts for their number being as the sand of the sea; and thesė rising where they died, and were buried, will be in and come from the four quarters of the world, and as they died enemies to Christ, and his saints, they will rive such; hell and the grave will make no change in them; and as they laid down with the weapons of war, their swords under their heads, they will be in readi. ness, and rise with the same malicious and revengeful spirit; and though it wil be a mad enterprize, to attack saints in an immortal state, who cannot die; and Christ, the King of kings, at the head of them; yet when it is consideret, that they will rise as weak and feeble, as unable to resist temptation, and aś capable of deception as ever; and what with being booyed up with their own number, and the posse of devils at the head of them; and especially considering the desperateness of their case, and this their last struggle to deliver theinseives from eternal ruin; it may not so much be wondered at, that they should engage in this strange ur.dertaking. --- 3. What the fire will be, which shall come down from heaven, and destroy the Gog and Magog army? Not material fire; but the wrath and indignation of God, which will be let down into their consciences; and which will so terrify and dispirit them, that they will at once desist from their undertaking; like the builders of the tower of Babel, when the Lord not only confounded their language, but smote their consciences for their impiety. The issue of all this will be, the casting of the devil and his angels into the lake of fire, where the beast and false prophet are; and the everlasting destruction of the wicked, soul and body, in the same, after the general judgment is over; which is the next thing to be considered.

1 The Stoic philosophers speak of the final resolution of all things into fire, into a liquid flame or pure ether. Dr. Burnet was of opinion that the earth, after the last day of judgment, will be changed into the nature of a sun, or a fixed star, and shine like them in the firmament, The ory of the Earth, b. 4. ch. 10. P. 317. Mr. Whistou thinks it will no longer be found am.ng the planetary chorus, but propably become again a comet for the future ages of the world, New Theory, b. 4. ch. 5. p. 451. Theory of the Earth, b. 4. ch. 10. P. 313.

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OF THE LAST AND GENERAL JUDGMENT. With respect to the last and general judgment, the things to be considered, are,

1. The proof of a general judgment: and it may be observed, that there will be a judgment of men in a future state; which is two-fold. — 1. A particular one; and which passes upon particular persons immediately after death; and to which it is generally thought the apostle has respect in Heb. ix. 27. But after ghis, that is, death, the judgment; though if the words are to be connected with .what follows, they may respect the judgment that will be at the second coming of Christ. However, it sceins probable enough, if not certain, that whereas at death the body returns to the earth, and the spirit, or soul, to God who gave it, Eccles. xii. 7. that then it passes under a judgment, and is adjudged either to happiness or woe. – 2. A gener al one, after the resurrection of the dead at the last day; and this is the judginent that proof is to be given of; and which may be given,

1. Froin reason: and it may be observed, - 1. That the heathens, destitute of divine revelation, and who have had only the light of nature to guide them, have entertained notions of a future judgment; or, however, when suggested to them, have readily asserted to it, and embraced it.

When the apostle Paul preached to the wise philosophers at Athens, upon his discoursing about the resurrection, some mocked, and others more serious, said, they would hear him again of that matter, not being satisfied with what he had said concerning it: but though he had most plainly and fully expressed the doctrine of God's judging the world in righteousness, they did not in the least contradict that, nor make any objection, to it. The heathen writers, soinetimes speak of righteous judges in the infernal regions; as Æacus, Rhadamanthus, and Minas, who judge the souls of the departed brought before them. Sometimes they represent them as sitting in a meadow, where more ways than one meet, two of which lead, the one to tartarus, or hell, and the othei to the island of the blessed, or, the Elysian fields; which, though but fables, have some truth couched in them. So it is storied of Er Painphilius, what he related after he was restored to life,

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