having been tevelve days dead; that he saw two chasms above, and two below, answering cne another, between which the judges sat and judged men; and when they had judged them, the righteous on the right-hand they ordered to go upwards to heaven, and the wicked on the leti-hand to go downward w; which is somewhat similar to the account in Mait. xxv. and it may be, that some of those things said by them, are only some bruken remains of a tradition received from their ancestors; or what some got by travelling into the eastern countries from the Jews, and their writings: and pretty remarkable is that expression of Plato*; “ We ought always to believe the ancient and sacred words which de" clare unto us, that the soul is immortal, and has its judges, and will undergo * very great judgments or punishments, when any one is separated from the bo“dy." -- 2. That there is a judgment to come, appears from the accusations of a natural conscience for sin, and fiom the fears and terrors men are possessed of, and cannot free themselves from; as witness the consternation and dread Belsházzar was thiown into on sight of the hand writing upon the wall; which could not arise from the fear of any temporal evil coming upon him from men, but from a guilty conscience, and the apprehension he had of being called to an account by the divine Being, for his impiety and wickedness; so Felix trembled when he heard the apostle Paul discourse of judgment to cone; for the doctrine net with the light and conviction of his own conscience, which caused distress and terror. — 3. The truth of a future judgmeni, nay be argued from the justice of God, which requires it; for it is easy to observe, that the justice of God, is not clearly displayed in the dispensation of things in the present state. Good men are afflicted and evil men prosper; which has been a stumbling of saints, and an hardening of sinners: it seems reasonable to believe, that there will be a future state, when justice will take place, and the tables will be turned; and such who have had their evil things now will have their good things; and such who have had their good things here, will have their evil ones hereafter; for it is a righteous thing with God, to render tribulation to them that trouble his people, and to reward his saints according to his gracious promises. —4. This may be concluded from the relation men stand in to God, as creatures to a Cre

As God is their Creator, he has a right to give them a law; which he has, either written or unwritten, for the breach of which they are accountable to him : so that whether they have sinned without the written law, or in it, they will be judged accordingly; for every one must give an account of himself to God. - 5. This may be reasoned from the judgments of God in this present lite; and especially from the chastizements of good men, sometimes called a judging them, : Cor. xi. 32. froin whence an argument may be framed in the words of the apostle; If judgment begin at the house of God, &c. 1 Pet. iv. 17. if Lie one are judged, most certainly the other will be. - 6. The desires of the saints after it, iinplanted in their hearts by the Spirit of God, furnish out an arguiment in favour of it; foi however dreadful the thought of it is to Christless

* Plato de Republica, 1. 10. p. 761. * Epist, 7. p. 1283. Ed. Ficin,


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sinners, saints can look upon it, and for it, with pleasure ; it is now their privilege, that they can come to God, the judge of all, in the righteousness of Christ; as he is, through that, the justifier of him that believes in Jesus ; and they know that the Lord, the righteous Judge, when he comes, will be their advocate and friend, and give them the crown of righteousness laid up for them; and therefore, in the view of this, most earnestly desire his coming to judgment; and importunately pray, saying, Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly? Now such desires are not implanted in vain.

11. The truth of this doctrine will more fully appear from divine revelation. In Gen. iv. 8. in the Hebrew text, after these words, And Cain talked with Adik his brother; there is a mark for a pause, as if something was wanting, and to be supplied; and which some ancient versions have supplied thus, Let us go into the field: but the Chaldee paraphrases add more, and give us an account of the conversation that passed between them in the field; how that Cain said to his brother, “ There is no judgment, and there is no Judge, nor another world, &c.” but Abel said, “ There is a judgment, and there is a Judge, and another world, &c.” upon which, Cain rose up and slew him. Now though this is not to be depended on, nor do I lay any stress upon it; and only observe it, to shew the sense of the ancient synagogue concerning this article; we have a more sure word of prophecy to take heed unto, for our direction in this matter; and where this doctrine clearly appears; as, — 1. In the prophecy of Enoch, the seventh from Adam, recorded in Jude, which, as it is to be understood of the second coming of Christ, since it will be with all his sainis; so of his coming to juoigment, which will be general; for he will then execute judgment upon all; arid will judge men, both for their ungodly deeds, and for their liard speeches. 2. The character Abraham gives of Jehovah, as the Judge of all the earth, who will do right, Gen. xviii. 25. shews that there is a Judge, and that there will be a righteous judgment; and which is committed to the Son of God, who at this tiine appeared to Abraham in an human forın, and was known by him. – 3. It may be concluded from the faith of Job, in his living Red emner, who believed he would stand on the earth in the latter-day, and raise the dead, and hiinseit among the rest ; and would have his friends know, that there was a judgment, which would then take place, Job xix. 25, 26, 29. – 4. Also from the declaration of Moses, in his song, The Lord shall judge his people, Deut. xxxii. 30. vindicate their cause, rendes tribulation to them who have troubled them, judge their persons, and introduce them into his glory. – 5. Likewise from the song

of Hannah; The Lord shall judge the ends of the earth, 1 Sam. ii. 10. even all the inhabitants of it, who have lived in the uttermost parts of it; and that by the Messiah, as is suggested; since it is added, He shall give strength 19 his King, and exalt the horn of his anointed! – 6. From some passages in the Psalms; in which Gud calls to the heavens and earıh to be witnesses of his julging his people; which will be, when he comes with a fire devouring before him, and he himself will be Judge; when he will come to judge the world with righteousness, and the people with equity, Psal. I. 3—6. and xcvii. 13. and xoriji. 9. - 7. From others in the book of Ecclesiastes, where it is said, God will judge the righteous and the wicked ; and that though young men may irdulge themselves in youthful follies and vanities, yet for those things they should be brought to judgment; and into which every work shall be brought, whether good or evil. – 8. From various sayings of Christ, recorded by the evangelist; as that whosoever should kill, would be in danger of judgment; and he also that was angry with his brother without a cause; and when he exhorts men not to judge, lest they be judged; and upbraids soine cities where his mighty works were done, and they repented not ; telling them, it would be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon, Sodom and Gomorrah, in the day of judgment, than for them; and when he declares that every ille word must be given an account of in the day of judgment; and affirms, that the men of Nineve, and the queen of the South, will rise up in judgment against the wicked generation of the Jews, Matt. v. 21, 22. and vii. I. and xi. 22, 24. and xii. 36-42. – 9. From the serinons and cpistles of the apostles, particularly the apostles Peter and Paul ; the apostle Peter in Acts X. 42. 1 Per iv. 9. 2 Pet. ii. 9. the apostle Paul in Acts xvii. 31. and xxiv. 25. Rom. ii. 3–16. and xiv. 10. 2 Cor. v. 10. 2 Tiin. iv. 1, 8. – 10. From Heb. vi. 2. wl:ere cternal judgment is inentioned as an article of a creed; either of a christian creed, as is commonly thought; or of a Jewish creci, to which I most incline ; but understood either way, it is a proof of its being an article of faith to be embraced and professed.

To all which may be added, the partial descriptions of the judginent, which are separately given, and which, when laid together, give a complete view of the whole, and shew the judgment to be general. Thus for instance, the calling to account, the examination, trial, and judgment of persons in public work; ministers of the word are apart made mention of in the parable of the talents ; who, when reckoned with by the Lord at his coming, lie that had received five talents, and had gained five more, and he that had received two, and had gained other two, are commended as good and faithful servants, and rewarded with a rule over many things; in a similar parable it is, with a rule over cities, in proportion to dieii gain : but he that received one talent, and made no use of it, is condemned'as an unprofitable servant, Matt, xxv. 14-30. The description of the judgment in Matt. xxv. 31–46. I take it, that it only refers to members of churches, professors of religion, good and bad; for this account is only an, explanation of the two preceding parables; what is there delivered by way of parable, is here declared without one; which, in other places, is sometimes done by Christ: the first of the parables only concerns the wise and foolish virgins, professors of both characters, in the kingdom of heaven, or gospel-church-state; and the other only respects persons in a public character, in the same churchstate, whether good or bad ; and this account is of such who have belonged to the same flock, and have been folded together in the same church-state; only one were goats and the other sheep, but not known what they were, but now

at the judginent it will be known, when the Lord shall judge between cattle and cattle, the sheep and the goats, and divide them from one another. Besides, what the wicked are upbraided with, shew that they were such who had dwelt among christians, and had been associates with them, and saw them in distress, and did not relieve them; but this cannot be said of multitudes who never heard of Christ, nor ever saw any of his people in distressed circumstances, and shewed them no picy; and moreover, the sentence pronounced upon them, is the same which elsewhere it is said will be pronounced on such that have bore the christian name, yet bad men, either preachers of the word, or members of churches, Luke xiii. 26, 27. am aware what will be objected to all this, that it is said, that all nations shall be gathered before the Judge: but then it should be obseryed, that the word all is frequently to be restrained, and taken in a limitted sense, according to the subject treated of; as it must be here; for if what has been said is sufficient to prove, that only professors of religion are spoken of, then the sense must be, that professors in all nations of the world shall be summoned, and brought before the Judge. Likewise the text in Rev. xx. 12. seems only to respect the wicked; the dead said to stand before God, are the wicked dead, the rest of the dead, who lived not till the thousand years were ended, verse 5. and are the saine, who, being raised, shall encompass the camp of the saints, the beloved city; but being defeated in their enterprize, shall be brought, and stand as criminals before God, the Judge of all, and be judged out of the books opened, according to their works: and what may further strengthen this sense, no other use, as appears, is made of the book of life; only that those whose names were not found in it, were cast into the lake of fire, which must be the wicked. However, putting all these descriptions together, they are a full proof of the general judgment, both of good and bad men, of men under every character and class, and of every age.

II. The next enquiry is, who the person is that shall be the Judge, preside in judgment, and carry on the judicial process to the end? God is, and will be Judge, and he only; hence we read of God the Judge of all, Heb. xii. 23. and of the judgment of God; and of the righteous judgment of God, Rom. ii. 3. 5. and John saw in a vision, the dead, small and great, stand before God, Rev. XX 12. but not God the Father; For the Father judgeth no man, John v. 22. that is, no man separate and apart from his Son; nor in a visible form, for he never assumed any: but then he will judge the world by his Son, as he is expressly said to do, Rom. ii. 16. so that he is not excluded from a concern in the judgment; nor the Holy Spirit. The trine-une God will be the Judge, as lo original authority, power, and right of judgment; but according to the oeconomy settled between the three divine Persons among themselves, the work is assigned umto the Son; and is appropriate to him: hence we read of appearing and standing before the judgment-seat of Christ, and of the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead, at his appearing and kingdom, Rom. xiv. I VOL. II.


this work belongs to Bin as Mfeliator, and is a part of bls office as such; it is what is committed to him by the Father; and which he ivas an authority from hiin to execute, John v. 22, 27. it is what he was apprinted to in the council and covenant of God, it is a branch of his kingly office, and therefore in the administration of it he is spoken of as a King; Then sha!! the King say to them on his right-hand, Come ve blessed, &c. and when they shall sav, Lord, when $aw we thee so and so; The Ring shall ansoor and sav, c. Mlatt. xxv. 34, 40Yea, Christ, by his death and resurrection, has obtained a right of dominion over all, as to be the Judge of them; For to this ens Christ both died, and rosca and revived, that he might be the Lord both of the dead ond living, Rom. xiv. 9. that is, so as to judge both quick and dead, as the following verses shew. And accordingly, upon his resurrection from the dead, all power in heaven and earth were given to him as Mediator; and upon his ascension to heaven, he was made, or deckareil, Lord and Christ; and at his second coining, he will come as the Lord, the righteous Judge, with an acquiied, as well as an allowed right to judge the world; and this office he will execute as God-man, in both his nátures, human and divine; which are both necessary to the execution of it.

1. It is highly proper that the Judge of all the earh, should be God. The work requires divine omniscience, infinite wisdom, alwighey power, and strict justice and faithfulness; all which are to be found in Christ the Son of God. Omniscience is necessary to this work, which is proper to God; for all the works, words, and thoughts of men, must be known by him, in order to judge them; to know all the works, words, and thoughts, of only one man, for the space

of sixty, seventy, or eighty years, is more than ony mere creature can know, but what is even this knowledge, to that of all tire indivirkuals throughout a kingdom and nation? and what is that to the knowledge of all the works, words, and thoughts, of the millions of individuals in all kingikoms and nations! and of those in every age of the workl, from the beginning of the world to the end of it? Such knowledge is too wonderful for us to conceive of; yet this is in Christ, as God, who knows all persons and things, before whom every creature and all things, are manifest, naked and oper ; even before him with whom we have to do; or to whom we must give an account, as the words may be rendered. He is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart; and needs not to be told any thing of man, for he knows all that is in him, and done by him. Wisdom and sagacity are necessary to a judge. Solomon, by his judgment between the two harlots, became very famous and respectable among his people; but a greater than Solomon is here: One who is the all-wise God the wisdom of God, in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and know: ledge, and on whom the Spirit of knowledge and wisdom rests; a Judge whose head, and whose hairs, are white as wool, as white as snow, denoting his great gravity and wisdom; who is able, as it is pecessary he should be, to distinguish between man and man; between that which has only the appearance of a good action, and that which is really such. Al.nighty power is likewise requisite

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