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called, the one the resurrection of life; the other the resurrection of damnation, John v. 29. and as the life some are raised to is everlasting life, the damnation that follows the resurrection of the other, must be everlasting damnation; here called, everlasting conteinpt; for such will be had in contempt for ever, by God, the holy angels, and good inen: the word everlasting must have the saine sense, and denote the same duration, with respect to the one as to the other. 4. From the senter.ce pronounced on the wicked, Matt. xxv. 41. to depart into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: if the punishment of the devil and his angels, will endure for ever, and have no end, then the punishment of the wicked will also endure for ever, without end, since the samne punishment is prepared for the one as for the other; and which is here expressed by everlasting fire; and as elsewhere by unquenchable fire, by fire that shall never be quenched, Matt. iii. 12. Mark ix. 45. by smoke of fire and corments, that ascendeth up for ever and ever, Rev. xiv. II, and by blackness of darkness reserved for ever, Jude 13. - 5. From the execution of the sentence, Matt. xxv. 46. These shall go away into everlasting punishment; as the happiness of the saints in heaven is everlasting, and there is no reason to believe it ever will have an end; so the punishment of the wicked in hell will be everlasting, and without end: the same word here rendered everlasting, is frequently used of the future life and happiness of the saints, John vi. 40, 47, 54. vea, it is used of it in this passage; for it follows, but the righteous, into life eternal: now no reason can be given why the word in the one clause, which is the same, should be understood of an eternal duration, and in the other of a limited one. Besides, the opposition of the two states of the respective persons requires, that it should be understood in the same sense, and as of equal extent. 6. From the iinmor. tality, of the soul. The soulof man, of every inan, is immortal, and cannot die, or become extinct, as has been abundandy proved; if therefore it is immortal, and lives for ever, it must be for ever either happy or miserable; the souls of the righteous being inmortal, shall be for ever happy; and the souls of the wicked, being so likewise, shall be always miserable: he that is unjust and filthy now, will be after death unjust and filthy still, and ever reinain so, and therefore always unhappy and iniserable, Rev. xxii. 21. - 7. From the parts of future punishment; the punishment of loss, and the punishment of sense. The loss of all good sustained will be irretrievable; and the sense of pain and torment will be constant, and without inter:nission; there will be no rest day nor night; the soul being immortal, the worn of conscieuce dieth not, but will be always gnawing, stinging, accusing and upbraiding, and therefore the pun. ishment will always endure. – 8. From an incapacity of ever being relieved, through the use of means, the ministry of the word; or by a being brought to repentance; ur by having sin pardoned, and satistaction made for it; all which will be out of the question: the ministry of the word of peace and reconciliawon will be no more, the door of the gospei will be shut; no pias c will be t ound for repentance; men will blaspheme God because of their pains, hut not sepent of their sins; there wil he no reinission of sin in the world to come, nur satisfaction to be made for sine ; sinners cannot satisfy for them dlaemselves by all that they endure; and there will be none to satisfy for thein, for there will be no more offering fir sin. -- 9. l'rom the impossibility of an escape, or a remove out of it. The place of torinent is bounded by a great gulf, so that there is no passing 'rain that to a state of happiness; which gulf is no other than the eternal and immutable decree of God, which can never be disannulled, but will remain fixel and unalterable. The heathens themselves represent Hades and Tartarus, by which tey mean the same as hell, as so closely locked and shut up, that there is no terurn from thence"; and as suongly fortificd with iron, towers and gates, with walls and adamantine pillars", as impregnable, and never to be broke through. - 10. From the perfectious of God: The veracity of God inakes eternal punishment for sin necessary. He has threatened sin, the breach of his law, with eternal death; for such is the demerit of it; and bis truthi and faithfulness arc crgaged to fulfil the threatening, unless a compensation is made for sin commitiel. Let God be true, and every man a liar! The justice of God also requires it ; not to punish sin, would not be doing justice to himself, and to the glory of his llajesty; it would be a denying himself, a cone cealing his perfections, and suffering his supreme authority over hus creatures to be subject to conteinpt; bis justice, and the honour of it, make it necessary that sin should be punished, either in the sinner, or in a surety for him; wherefore no satisfaction being made to justice, nor can there be any inade in a future state, the punishment must continue for ever. It is pretended by some, as if it was contrary to the justice of God, that a transient, temporary action, as sin is, should be everlastingly punished. To which it may be replied, that thoughi sin, as an action, is a transient one', ver the evil, the guilt, the deinerit of sin continue, unless purged by the blood of Chuist, and atoned for by his sacrifice Besides, sin is continued to be committed in a future state, though not the same sorts of sins, some of them, as murlers, adulteries, &c. yet blasphemy. malice, envy, and the like; and therefore as they continue to be committed, it is but just that the wrath of God should remain upon them: moreover, though sin is a finito action, as an action, for nothing else can be done by a finite creature ; yed it is, objectively, infinite, as committed against an infinite Being; and therefore is justly punished with the loss of an intinite good. And as the demerit of sin, as to the punishinent of sense, cannot be inflicted intensively on a finite creature, that not being able to bear it; it is inflicted extensively; or is continued, at infinitum, for ever, Nor is this contrary to the mercy and goodness of God; God is just, as well as merciful and good: and these attributes are not to be opposed to another; justice must be satished, as well as grace, mercy, and good

* Pausania Eliac, sive l. 5. p. 3o5. Plato in Phzdous, p. 84. Homer. Iliad 8. v. 15. Virgil. Æneid. 6. v. 548. &c.

ness displayed; and besides, the displays of those, or the actings thereof, are according to the sovereign will and pleasure of God; and when men have dsspised his goodness in providence, and his grace and mercy held forth in the gospel, and in salvation by Christ; it can be no reproach to his mercy and goodness thus despised, io punish such with everlasting destruction, 2 Thess. i. 9.

OF THE FINAL STATE OF THE SAINTS. There is a state of happiness, which the spirits, or souls, of just men enter into immediately after the separation of them from the body; of which we have treated in a preceding chapter. But after the resurrection, which is of the saints unto everlasting life, and therefore is called the resurrection of life; and when the general judgment is over, and the invitation is given, Come ye blessed, &c. then the righteous shall go into life eternal, soul and body, Matt. xxv. 34, 46. which is the state now to be considered. And, first, the state of happiness itself, and then the eternity of it.

The state of happiness the saints are possessed of after the resurrection, and general judgment, in soul and body, expressed in the passage above quoted, by eternal life, and very fiequently elsewhere. But it is not animal life, which lies in the conjunction of soul and body, and a continuance of that for ever, which is ineant by eternal life; for the wicked will live such a life

upon

the resurrection; for as there will be a resurrection of the just, so of the unjust; they will live again, and live for evermore; though their living will be no other than the second and eternal death; for they will be destroyed, both body and soul, in hell; not as to the substance of either, but as to the comfort and happiness of both; for it is not barely living, but living well, comfortably and happily, that is properly life; in which sense the word is used, Psal. xxii. 26. and such is the life the saints will live in heaven, in soul and body, in the enjoyment of God, as their covenant-God; and thrice happy are they that are in such a case; and in being with Christ! which is far better than to live in this world : and in having the communion of the holy Spirit, than which nothing can be more comfortable; and in the society of angels and saints: all which is most eligible and desirable. In treating on this state, I shall take much the same method as in the preceding chapter. I shall,

I. Prove that there will be a state of happiness of good men in the world to come; for godliness has the promise of that life which is to come; that is, of happiness in it. And this may be made to appear, in some respect,

1. From the light of nature and reason; for though the kind of happiness is not to be discovered and deinonstrated by it; yet some general notion of future happiness may be evinced from it. -- 1. A general notion of happiness after VOL. II.

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death, has obtained among the wiser sort of heathens, who have had only the light of nature to guide them; unless some general traditions transmitted to thein, especialiy among those who have given any credit to the immortality of the soul. Hence they speak of the Elysian? fields, and islands of tie blessed, as the seat and habitation of pious persons after death; and which they describe after after a carnal and earthly manner; as grassy plains, and flowery meads ; and is abounding with all manner of delicious fruits; and as in a most temperate climate, free of all wintry weather and blustering storms, and of scorching heat; and where they are fanned with gentle zephyrs, and delighted with flowing fountains and purple streams; and are continually regaling themselves with nectar and ambrosia. Though even their images of those things, Tertulliano

thinks they have borrowed from the sacred writings and the description of the · heavenly state therein : “If, says he, we speak of paradise as a place of divine

pleasantness, appointed for the reception of holy spirits - the Elysian fields sieze . upon and engross their faith.” But those things are not only said by their poets, .but by their wise and grave philosophers; as Plato", Plutarcho, Seneca, and others. - 2. From a natural desire in mankind after happiness, and which is universal; and yet it is certain it is not attained in this present life, though eagerly sought for, in one way or another. Some seck for it in natural wisdom and knowledge; some in wealth and riches; others in the honours of the world, in fame and and popular applause; and others in the gratification of sensual

appetites and lusts; but is never found to satisfaction in either; and as abuedantly appears from the first and second chapters of the book of Ecclesiastes This is only found in God, the chiefest good; and that not to perfection in this 3 life. Now either this desire of happiness is implanted in vain, which is not i reasonable to suppose; or there must be a future state, in which this happiness : will be enjoyed, at least by some of the individuals o' human nature, even by all

good men; who, at the resurrection, and not before will be completely happy : to full satisfaction even when they shall awake in the likeness of God.

3. From the unequal distribution of things in the present state; which makes the providences of God very intricate and perplexed, wih difficulies not easy to be solved; and which cannot be solved without supposing a future estate :

here wicked men have a large portion of good things; and good men have a : Jarge share of evil things, afflictions, and distresses; and if their hope of

happiness was bounded by this life, they would be of all men most miserable ; especially such who are called to endure sharp and severe sufferings: but their hope extends beyond it; as it is reasonable it should; 'when, as they have i guffered in the cause of goodness, truth, and righteousness, that they should be glorified together; and that their present momentary aflictions should

These have their na ne' from oby to rejoice, hence called læta arva & læti loci, in Virgil. Bochart. Capaan, l. s.c. 34. col. hoo. • Tertull. A polog. 6. 47. b In Gorgia, p. 356. 357. & in Axionho, p. 1908, De fasie in ore luna, p. 948.

Contol. ad Polybiura. c. 18.

work for them, as they do, an eternal weight of gloıy. But this is more abun. danrly appears.

11. From divine revelation; by which life and immortality are brought to light; or an immortal life of happiness is set in the clearest light; and which may be strongly concludel, - 1. From the promise of God concerning it. This is the promise, the grand and principal promise; and which includes and secures all the rest; He, that is, God, hath promiscd'us, in the covenant of grace, and which lies in his word, even eternal life, i John'ii. 25. which gives hope and assurance of it, and in which it issues . and this proinise was male very early, even before the world began, and by God that cannot lie, and therefore to be depended on as sure and certain; and besides, it is in Christ; and not the promise only, but the thing itself, Tit. i. 2. I John v. u, and in this lies the happiness of the saints, James i. 12. - 2. From the predestination ot men unto it; there are vessels of mercy afore prepared in the mind, and by the will of God, for this future glory and happiness; who are chosen to the obtaming, or to the enjoyment, of the glory of Christ; to behold his glory, and appear with him inz glory; who are ordained to eternal life, and therefore believe to the saving of their souls · and which act of the grace, and will of God, can never be frustrated and mate void; for whom he did predestinate-them he also glorified, Roin. vii. 30. - 3. From the preparation of this happiness for them; this consists of thingsunseen and unheard of, and not to be conceived of by carnal minds, which God has prepared for them that love hun, fear him, and wait for him; and which preparation was made in eternity; for it is a kingdom prepared from the foundation of the world; and which will only be given to, and will most certainly be given to, those for whom it is prepared of God. --- 4. From Christ's actual possession of it for his people, in their name; and from the preparation he is making of it for them; he is entered into heaven as the forerunner for thein, and has taken possession of it in their name, as their head and representuive; and in whom, as so considered, they are already set down in heavenly places, and shall be in person, most certainly, ere long; for he is gone before to prepare a place for them, in his Father's house in heaven, where are many mansions, by his intercession for thein, which is always prevalent; and therefore he assures them, he will come again, and receive them to hlinself, that where he'is, they muy be also, partakers of his glory and happiness, John xiv. 2, 3. - 5. From the effectual vocation of men to eternal life and happiness: Lay hold on eternal life, whereunto thou-art also called, says the apostle Paul to Timotiny; and to which happiness every man is called; who is called by grace: hence we read of the saints being called of God to his kingdoin' and glory; and of their being called unto his eternal glory, by Jesus Christ. Now bet weer vocation, and gioritica. tion, there is an inseparable connection ; H'hom he called them he also glorified, Rom. vii. 30. – 6. From the grace of God implanted in the hearts and trie Carnest of the Spirit there. The grace of God, which is wrought in the heart

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