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one Mediator between God and man, the Man Christ Jesus; there never was any other, and he is the Mediator of the new covenant, i Tim. ii. 5. – 4. In the subjects of these covenants, or administracions of covenants of grace, the elect of God, to whom the blessings of it are applied. It was with the chosen people of God in Christ, the covenant of grace was originally made; and according to election-grace are the spiritual blessings of it dispensed to the children of men, Eph. i. 3, 4. so they were under the former dispensation, from the beginning of the world, to the seed of the woman, in distinction from the seed of the serpent; to the remnant according to the election of grace among the Jews, the children of the promise that were counted for the seed; and election, or elect men, obtain the blessings of the covenant in all ages, and under the present dispensation, more abundantly, and in greater numbers. — 5. In the blessings of it; they are the same under both administrations. Salvation and redemption by Christ is the great blessing held forth and enjoyed under the one as under the other, 2 Sam. xxiii. 5. Heb. ix. 15. Justification by the righteousness of Christ, which the old testament-church had knowledge of, and faith in, as well as the new, Isai. xlv. 24, 25. Rom. iii. 21, 23. Forgiveness of sin through faith in Christ, all the prophets bore witness to, and the saints of old, as now, had as comfortable an application of it, Psal. xxxii. 1, 5. Mic. vii. 18. Acts X. 43. Regeneration, spiritual circumcision, and sanctification, were what men were made partakers of under the first, as under the second administration of the covenant, Deut. xxx. 6. Phil. iii. 3. Eternal life was made known in the writings of the Old Testament, as well as in those of the New; and was believed, looked for, and expected by the saints of the former, as of the latter dispensation, Job xix. 26, 27. John v. 39. In a word, they and we eat the same spiritual meat, and drink the same spiritual drink, for they drank of that Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ, 1 Cor. X. 3, 4.

II. In some things there is a disagreement between these two administrations of the covenant of Grace. 1. Under the first administration saints looked forward to Christ that was to come, and to the good things that were to come by him, and so were waiting, expecting, and longing for the enjoyment of them; but under the second and new administration, believers look backwards to Christ as being come, before whose eyes he is evidently set forth in the word and ordinances, as crucified and slain; and they look to the blessings of the co. venart through him as brought in; to peace, pardon, atonement, righteousness, redemption and salvation, as wrought out and finished. — There is a greater clearness and evidence of things under the one than under the other; the law was only a shadow of good things to come ; did not so much as exhibit the image of them, at least but very faintly. The obscurity of the former dispensation, was signified by the veil over the face of Moses, when he spoke to the children of Israel; so that they could not see to the end of what was to be abolished; whereas, believers under the present dispensation, with open face,

with faces unveiled, behold, as in a glass, the glory of the Lord clearly and plainly, 2 Cor. jii. 13, 18. then, comparatively, it was night, now broad day; the day has broke, and the shadows are fled and gone. 3:

There is more of a spirit of liberty, and less of bondage, under the one, than under the other; saints under the one differed little from servants, being in bondage under the elements of the world; but under the other are Christ's freemen, and receive not the spirit of bondage again, to fear; but the spirit. of adoptivul, crying, Abba Father ; which is a tree spirit, and brings liberty with it; and for this reason the two different administrations of the covenant, are signified, the one by Hagar, the bond-woman, because it gendered to bondage, and those under it were in such a state ; and the other by Sarah, the free-woman, an emblem of Jerusaicm, which is free, and the mother of us all, Gal. iv. 23-26. — 4. There is a larger, and more plentiful effusion of the Spirit, and of his gifts and graces, under the one than under the other; greater measures of grace, and of spiritual 1g and knowledge were promised, as what would be communicated under the. new and second administration of the covenant; and accordingly grace, in all its fulness, and truth, in all its clearness and evidence, are come by Jesus Christ, John i. 17. – 5. The latter administration of the covenant; extends to more persons than the former. The Gentiles were strangers to the covenants of promise, had no knowledge nor application of the promises and blessings of the covenant of grace, except now and then, and here and there one; but now the blessing of Abraham is come upon the Gentiles, and they are fellow-heirs of the same grace and privileges, and partakes of the promises in Christ by the gospel, Eph. ii. 12.-1.6. – 6. The present administration of the covenant of grace,

will continue to the end of world; it will never give way to, nor be succeeded by another; it is that which remains, in distinction from that which is done away, and so exceeds in glory: the ceremonial law, under which the former covenant was administered, was until the time of reformation, until Christ came and his forerunner; The law and the prophets were until John, the harbirger of Christ, the fulfilling end of them; Heb. ix. 10. Luke xvi. 16. — 7. The ordinances of them are different. The first covenant had ordinances of divine service; but those, comparatively, were carnal and worldly, at best but typical and shadowy, and faint representations of divine and spiritual things ; and were to continue but for a while, and then to be shaken and removed, and other ordinances take place, which shall not be shaken, but iemain to the second coming of Christ; and in which he is more clearly and evidently set forth, and the blessings of his grace, Heb. ix. 1, 10. and xii. 27. – 8. Though the promises and blessings of grace under both administrations are the same, yet differently exhibited; under the former dispensation, not only more darkly and obscurely, but by earthly things, as by the land of Canaan, and the outward mercies of it; but under the latter, as more clearly and plainly, so more spiritually and nakedly, as they are in themselves spiritual, heavenly, and divine ; and delivered out more free, and unclogged of all conditions, and so called better promises, and the administration of the covenant, in which they are, a better testament; God having provided for new testament-saints soie better thing, at least held forth in a better manner; that old testament saints might not be made perfect without them, Heb. vii. 22.-viii. 6. and xi. 40.

OF THE MANIFESTATION OF THE COVENANT OF

GRACE IN THE PATRIARCHAL STATE.

THOUGH

Hough the administration of the Covenant of Grace may be considered in a three-fold state; as in the patriarchal state, before the giving of the law; and then under the Mosaic dispensation; and last of all under the gospel dispensation: yet more agreeable to the apostles distinction of the first and second, the old and the new Covenant, observed in the preceding chapter, I shall choose to consider it in the distinct periods under these two; and I shall begin with the administration of it under the first testament, as reaching from the fall of Adam to the coming of Christ, and consider it as held forth in the several periods in that long interval of time.

I. The period from Adam to Noah. And those in this period to whom the covenant of grace, and the blessings of it were manifested and applied, were, Our first parents themselves, Adam and Eve, and that both by words and actions. By words, and these spoken not directly to them, nor by way of promise to them; but to the serpent, and threatening-wise to hiin; and yet were the first dawn of grace to fallen man, Gen. iii. 15. from whence it migh. be at once concluded by Adam and Eve, that they should not immediately dic, but that a seed should be of the woman who would be the ruin of Satan, and the Saviour of them; which must spring light, life, and joy, in their trembling hearts; and though these words are short and obscure, yet contain some of the principal articles of faith and doctrines of the gospel; as the incarnation of the Son of God, signified by the Seed of the woman, who should be made of a woman, born of a virgin, unbegotten by man, and without father as man; the suf. ferings and death of Christ for the sins of men, signified hy the serpent's bruising his heel, bringing him to the dust of death in his inferior nature, sometimes expressed by his being bruised for the sins of his people; and may hint ai the manner of his death, and crucifixion, since his feet could not well be pierced with nails without bruising his heel; also the victory he should obtain over Satan signified by bruising his head, destroying his power and plicy, his schemes and works, his authority, dominion and empire ; yea, him, himself, with his principalities and powers, and may express the bruising him under the feet of his people, the deliverance of them from himn; the taking the captives out of the hand of the mighty, and the saving them with an everlasting salvation. Which is the sum and substance of the gospel, and matter of joy to lost sinners.

The grace of the covenant, and the blessings of it, were manitested and apkeep the

plied to our first parents, by certain actions and things done; as by the Lord God making coats of skin, and clothing them with them, which were emblems of the robe of righteousness, and garments of salvation, Christ has wrought out; that righteousness which God imputes without works; and is unto all, and upon

all them that believe, as their clothing and covering: and those coats being made of the skins of slain beasts, very probably slain for sacrifice, which man was soon taught the use of; may have respect to the sacrifice of Christ, the woman's Seed, which should be offered up, as was agreed on in the covenant of grace, and by which atonement would be made for sin, and upon which justification from it proceeds; all which are momentous articles of faith. The cherubim, and flaming sword, placed at the East end of the garden of Eden, to

way

of the tree of life, were not for terror, but for comfort; and were an hieroglyphic, shewing that God in succeeding ages, would raise up a set of prophets, under the old-testament, and apostles and ministers of the gospel, under the new-testament, who should hold forth the word of light and life; that word which is quick and powerful, sharper than any two-edged sword; that has both light and heat in it; and who should shew to men the way of salvation, and observe unto them the true tree of life, and the way to it; even Christ, the way, the truth, and the life.

Abel the Son of Adam, is the next person to whom an exhibition of the covenant, and of the grace of it, was made; he was an instance of electing grace, according to which the blessings of the covenant are dispensed: a hint was given in the serpent's curse, that there would be two seeds in the world, the seed of the serpent, and the seed of the woman; this distinction took place in the first two men that were born into the world. Cain of the wicked one, the seed of the serpent; Abel was one of the spiritual seed of Christ, a chosen vessel of salvation; and, in virtue of electing grace, was a partaker of the blessings ef grace in the covenant; particularly of justifying grace: he is called righteous Abel, not by his own righteousness, but by the righteousness of faith, by the righteousness of Christ received by faith; for he had the grace of faith, which is a covenant-grace, bestowed on him; by which he looked to Christ for righteousness and eternal life; By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacri. fice, &c. Heb. xi. 4. His sacrifice was a more excellent one; not only as to its kind, being a lamb, and so typical of the Lamb of God; but as to the manner in which it was offered, by faith, in the view of a better Sacrifice than that; even the saerifice of Christ, by which transgression is finished, sin made an end of, reconciliation for it made, and an everlasting righteousness brought in; all which Abel, by faith, looked unto, and God had respect to him, and to his offering; which he testified in some visible way; perhaps by sending down fire upon it; which drew the envy of his brother upon him, who could not rest until he had slain him: in this Abel was a type of Christ, as well as in his being a keeper of sheep; who, through the envy of the Jews, who were in some sense his brethren, was delivered to the Roman governor, to be put to death; so that they are justly said to be the betrayers and murderers of him; and a like punishment of their sin came on them as on Cain; as he was drove from the presence of God, was an exile from his native place, and wandered about in another land; so they were carried captive by the Romans, and dispersed throughout the nations of the world, among whom they wander about to this day. Abel was a type of Christ also in his intercession; for as he being dead, yet speaketh ; so Christ, though he was dead, yet is alive, and ever lives to make intercession, to speak on the behalf of his people, and be an Advocate for them; and his blood has a speaking voice in it, and speaks better things thau that of Abel; it calls for peace and pardon.

Seth, the other seed appointed in the room of Abel, whom Cain slew, is not to be overlooked; since the appointment of hiin was of grace, and to fill up the place of righteous Abel, and be the father of a race of inen that should serve the Lord; and was put, set, and laid as the foundation, as it were, of the patriarchal church-state, as his name signifies; and was a tpye of Christ, the foundation God has laid in Zion: and in the days of his son Enos, as an effect of divine grace, and the displays of it, Men began to call upon the name of the Lord, Gen. iv. 25, not but that they called upon the Lord personally, and in their families, before; but now being more numerous, families joined together, and set up public worship; where they met, and socially served the Lord, and called upon him in the name of the Lord, in the name of Christ, who, as a Mediator, might be more clearly manifested; or they called themselves by the name of the Lord, of the Lord's people, and the sons of God, in distinction from the sons of men, the men of the world, irreligious persons, profane and idolatrous; which distinction took place before the flood, and perhaps as early as the times of Enos.

Enoch is the only person in this period besides, who is taken notice of for the grace of God bestowed on him; though, no doubt, there were thousands who also were made partakers of it. He was trained up in a religious way, as his name signifies ; he was eminent for his faith, and was high in the favour of God: he had a testimony that he pleased God, which could not be without faith by which he drew nigh, had much nearness to, fellowship and familiarity with him; he walked with God, enjoyed much communion with him, and had large communications of grace, light, and knowledge from him; was even favoured with a spirit of prophecy, and foretold a future judgment, and the coming of Christ to it; and as he was made acquainted with the second coming of Christ, 80, no doubt, with his first coming to save lost sinful men: and as Abel was a type of Christ in his low estate, in his sufferings and death, Enoch was a type of him in his ascension to heaven; for he was not, on earth any longer than the time of his life mentioned; for God took him, translated him from earth to heaven, took him to himself; so Christ, when he had finished his work on earth was taken to heaven, a cloud received him out of the sight of his apostles, and be ascended to his God and their God, to his Father and their Father.

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