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HISTORY OF MUSIC.
A BRIEF HISTORY OF MUSIC.
(Continued from page 149.)
MASQUES IN THE REIGN OF JAMES I. the only use, however, made of this charter
The masque was.at once a ball and opera, seems the affording to aliens an easy exand found employment for a great number pedient of acquiring the freedom of the of professors, who appeared in the royal | city. theatres in a splendid uniform, composed Charles I. was a proficient in playing on of silk mantles and scarfs of various colours, the Viol da Gamba. When he ascended the with rich caps. And, for the better de throne he discovered a great affection for coration of the scene, the master represent- music, aud manifested a particular care and ed the character of Apollo. Whether this attention to that of the church service. At drama acquired its title from the actors his private concerts he took the most affaappearing in masks d-l'antique, or from the ble notice of liis musical performers; gracharacters being only imaginary, is yet a | tifying them, when not in conversation matter of doubt.
with then, with the most winning smiles The English are always more delighted of approbation and kindness. — Masques with those dramas which consist of dialogue still continued the favourite amusement and songs, than with a piece which is sung during the tranquil part of this accompthroughout: of this several of Shakespeare's lished monarch's reign. The Queen brought plays, wherein songs are introduced, are with her from France a fondness for draan indubitable proof. The Tempest would matic exbibitions, and frequently performmake a charming opera.
ed the principal character in the masque Masques were certainly the precursors herself. Ben Jonson was Poet Laureat, of operas in England; they belong to the and most of these masques were written by chain of dramas which unite poetry and
him. music on the stage: their resemblance to lu 1630 he produced his masque entitled operas renders then almost the same thing. Love's Triumphs, which was decorated by They consist of dialogue, are performed on Inigo Jones, and performed by the King a stage, are oruamented with machinery and thirteen voblemen and gentlemen at and decorations; have always music, vocal court. The same year he wrote another, and instrumental. Our operas much more called Chloridia, which was performed by resemble masques than dramas; but they the Queen and ladies of the court. were always written for the amusements of Shirley, a dramatist of the second class courts, and most of those that were per- in this reign, wrote a mask entitled The formed at court in the beginning of the Triumphs of Peace, which was acted at seventeenth century were written by Ben Whitehall; the whole expence defrayed by Jonson, and set to music by the younger the gentlemen of the four inns of court. Of Ferrabosco or Laniere.
this masque see an account in De Burgh's Vocal music for social and private par- | Anecdotes of Music, a work reviewed in our ties, during the reign of James I., consisted | Supplementary Number for the year 1815, chiefly of madrigals, which had been com wherein the above account forms an ex. posed in the preceding century, with airs tract. of four and more parts; of songs for one Though the masques of this reign are single voice, but few were printed; these said to have been performed by the Queer, had a single accompavinient for the lute or King, and nobles of the court, yet it does viol, without symphony.
not appear that these great personages took James I., by letters patent, incorporated much part in the dialogue or songs, but the piusicians of the city of London into a rather appeared on the stage in the splencompany; and they still continue to enjoy did ballets, às 'dancers, representing the privileges in cousequence of their fraternity: | allegorical characters. When the tasques
ANECDOTES OF ILLUSTRIOITS FEMALES.
were first performed, after the Queen's The total suppression of cathedral service arrival in this country, it cannot be sup- || in 1643, gave sacred music a severe wound; posed that she was sufficiently acquainted || it checked its cultivation, and seemed al. with our language to be able to declaim in most to annihilate the power of restoring it.
it, as all the church books were destroyed, In 1634, Ben Jonson wrote an entertain. as well as those of the Roman church, ment entitled Love's Welcome, and which || which had been retained since the reforwas represented before their Majesties at mation. Nothing but a monotonous psalBolsover, the seat of the Earl of Newcastle. mody was to be heard in religious meetings; The same year furnished a memorable era
organs were taken out of the churches, in the annals of music and poetry, by its | organists and choir-men turned adrist, and having given birth to the masque of Comus, the whole art of music totally discouraged. written by Milton, and set by Henry || This accounts for the barbarism into which Lawes, who performed in it the part of music was plunged during the reign of Thyrsis. The masque was 'dedicated to James l. and that of his son Charles. A Lord Viscount Brackley, who had per- perpetual struggle took place between priformed the part of the Elder Brother, at vilege and prerogative, democracy and Ludlow Castle : this young nobleman was tyranny: the crown was cautious of grant. only twelve years of age when it was first ing too much, and the people, almost all exhibited ; his brother Thomas, who play. || puritans and levellers, were determined not ed the Second Brother, was still younger; to be satisfied with any thing that was and Lady Alice Egerton, who acted the offered. part of the Lady in Comus, was but thirteen. No war is so fatal to the progress of the At Gaddesden, in Hertfordshire, the mo fine arts as civil war; the sword then is numents of all these illustrious performers sharpened by personal hatred: and this are still to be seen.
civil war was fomenting all the time the In the eleventh year of the reign of father of the martyred Charles was on the Charles I. his Majesty granted a very ex throne. The best musicians, during the tensive chárter to all the most eminent triumph of the puritans, gained a scanty musicians living at the time, incorporating subsistence by private teaching: in the them by the style and titles of Marshal, tranquil part of the reign of Charles I. they Wardevs, and Commonalty of the art and lived chiefly on the munificence of their science of Musick in Westminster, in the sovereign, and on their household and county of Middlesex ; investing them with chapel salaries. For they had not the various extraordinary powers and privi- summer amusements of Vauxhall, or other leges, which charter be confirmed in the public gardens, to resort to as an ameliorafourteenth year of his reign.
tion of their incomes.
ANECDOTES OF ILLUSTRIOUS FEMALES.
WÁRIA LOUISA, CI-DEVANT EMPRESS OF which expressed some degree of displea
sure, “ let me have my pearls then.”—The To a native dignity of mind, and a bigh pearł ornaments were no sooner put on sense of her illustrious birth, Maria Louisa | than the Exo peror entered. He asked her united great sweetness of disposition and why she did not wear her diamonds? The real tenderness for the feelings of others. I little feeling of ill humour was over, and One day while she was dressing for a grand | tbe Empress, instead of returving a direct court party, she asked for her diamonds. || answer, said, “Do I not look well as I
The lady who had the charge of her jewelsam?"" Oh! very well; you always look searched in vain for the key of the casket well," and the conversation was changed in which the diamonds were kept, aud she, to another subject. Maria Louisa knew at length, confessed she could not fiud it. || but too well the irascible temper of her - Well, well," said Maria Louisa, in a toue ' husband, and was fearful of what might
ANECDOTES OF ILLUSTRIOUS FEMALES.
happen to the lady for this neglect.—Maria || walking in the Jardin des Plantes, the Louisa possessed every amiable quality to gardener came up and returned thanks for endear her to those who intimately knew the two hundred franks he had received her, but she wanted that easy familiarity from her Majesty: this fraud was overlookwhich, in France, serves to seduce the ed, like many others, and thus the poor multitude. One evening when she was at were deprived of the bounty the Empress the Theatre Français, a lady ventured to intended they should enjoy. tell her that the audience was dissappointed Yet the coldness of Maria Louisa's chaat vot seeing her, as she remained at the racter, when not among her intimate friends, back of her box.--" What siguifies that?" was so notorious that she has been reexclaimed Madame de Montebello, and proached with extending it to her own continued to remark that her Majesty did || child. not come there to be exhibited like a curi. Napoleon once complained to Maria osity at a fair. These counsels caused the Louisa of the conduct of her mother-inyoung Princess to appear in public with an law and the Archdukes towards him: “As air of lassitude and restraint: and to use to the Emperor," added he, “ 1 say nothing the expressive sentence from the interesting of him; he is a ganache (a stupid fellow)." publication from wheuce we have partly Maria Louisa was not sufficiently versed in gleaned and abridged these anecdotes, "Sbe | modern French to understand him, and froze the hearts which would have burned | asked her attendants what it meant ? None for love of her."-She conceived a sort of of them durst venture to explain, and they jealousy for Josephine, because she heard told her it meant a serious reflecting man. her unceasingly extolled for her charity and She did not forget the term, and often used benevolence, and she was displeased when- | it in a very diverting way. Having once ever she heard her name mentioned. Yet | remarked in council, that Cambaceres did the young Empress was very charitable; || not utter a word, she said, “I should like but she suffered herself to be deceived to have your opinion on this business, Sir, in the objects of her bounty. Josephine's || for I know you are a ganache !"-At this Jady of honour always superintended the compliment Cambaceres stared, and reapplication of her mistress's charity, and a peated in a low voice,“ Ganache.!"_“Yes," small sum of money restored many families replied the Empress, “ a serious, thinking to life and happiness. Maria Louisa de sort of man."—No one made any reply, and ducted from the allowance made her for the discussion proceeded : this was at the her toilette, a monthly sum of ten thousand time when Maria Louisa was appointed franks for the poor: this was double the Regent. amount of what Josephine devoted to the Her perfidious advisers had prevented same purpose; but unfortunately the busi her accompanying her husband in his ness of dispensing it was left to Madame || exile to Elba: only one of her ladies vende Montebello's secretary, who was devoid || tured to tell her that duty and honour reof principle, delicacy, or prudence, and quired her not to quit him.-—“ You are therefore appropriated to his own use a the only person, Madame, who has told large portion of the money intrusted to his me so," said Maria Louisa; "all my friends, charge. One day when Maria Louisa bad and particularly M. Caulaincourt, are of been to visit the Jardins des Plantes, she a different opinion."_“ Madame," replied desired Madame de Montebello to present the lady, “I am, perhaps, the only one five hundred franks to the gardeuer ; the who does not betray your Majesty."secretary had orders to deliver them. A The advice, however, was not attended fow days afterwards, as the Duchess was
CHARACTERS OF CELEBRATED FRENCH WOMEN.
CHARACTERS OF CELEBRATED FRENCH WOMEN.
MADAME DE MONTEBELLO.
apartment for nine days, without quitting This female, who had risen from one of her for a moment, reposing on a couch in the inferior classes in France, was appoint. the chamber of her mistress, and evincing ed first dame d'honneur to Maria Louisa the most tender care, anxiety, and attention op her marriage with Napoleon. To the during the painful and protracted labour. countenance of a Madona she united ex Bonaparte was mightily attached to etitreme gentleness of manners, and was ge- quette; and Madame de Montebello would nerally pleasing, though her natural charac. often laugh with Maria Louisa at what ter was cold aud reserved. She delicately she, the Duchess, called his long sermons, participated in the feelings of her royal seldom giving him any other name than mistress, sympathized with her, consoled Mousieur Etiquette. her, and so completely insinuated herself Two parties then divided the court of into her confidence and favour, that the France, that of the old nobility, and of young Empress seemed only to exist in her those sprung from the revolution : from presence. Dreading the influence of the what has already been stated of Madame Queen of Naples, Madame de Montebello de Montebello it may easily be judged that put in practice every art to prejudice Maria she was the very life and soul of the second Louisa against her, exaggerating her errors party; and though her character was cold, and charging her with those of which she she was warm and hasty in her temper, was innocent. The most unfavourable trait and on some occasions made no attempt to in the character of the Duchess was that disguise her feelings, as may be seen by envy too often inseparable from vulgar the manner in which she spoke to her royal minds. Whenever her mistress seemed to i mistress after the departure of Bonaparte distinguish any one she immediately became for Elba; some arguments having taken the object of the Duchess de Montebello's i place relative to the propriety of Maria calumny and scandal. The Empress was Louisa accompanying her husband, Mayoung and credulous, and she was wrought dame de Montebello exclaimed, “I am upon to believe Madame de Montebello heartily tired of all this: I wish I were was the only youthful female of irreproach- once again quietly settled with my children able character at court: we leave the in my little house in the Rue d'Enfer!"reader to judge what that character was “ It is unkind of you to tell me that, in reality. Though receiving continually Duchess," said the Empress, bursting into the most costly presents from her munifi-| tears. The Duchess, however, declared, cent patroness, far from manifesting any that whatever might happen she was desentiments of gratitude, she was presump- termined not to go to Elba. And it was tuous enough to complain of the slavery always thought that she joined the plot and confinement to which she submitted, i for separating Maria Louisa from her husas, she said, merely for the welfare of her band, lest she should be, in a manner, children.
compelled to accompany ber-a sacrifice Such a woman could not be supposed to by no means accordant with the character be without enemies in an intriguing court. of Madame de Montebello. Having obtained leave of absence on ac It has been remarked above that on count of her health, her enemies availed some occasions she scorned to disguise her themselves of this circumstance to propa- sentiments, and had a strange affectation gate a report that she had retired to conceal of ignorance when it suited her purpose. the consequences of which Napoleon was Dining one Friday with Cardinal Caprara, the author.
she refused every thing that was offered The birth of the young Napoleon placed l her at table. His eminence asked her if her character in the fairest light, as she she had lost her appetite?" No, my Lord," appeared to be actuated by real attachment replied she; “ but I see only fish and eggs, to the Empress. She remained in her il and I eat nothing but carnivorous animals!".
ANECDOTE OF FREDERIC THE GREAT. informed him they were unfortunate per.
On the death of one of his chaplains, | sons who came to solicit some favour of his Frederic was desirous of replacing him by father. From that time, whenever he say a man of talent, and he took the following || a person with a petition, he cried, and let method to ascertain the candidate's quali- no one rest till it was brought to him, and fications. He told the applicant that he he vever failed to present to his father, at would himself furnish him a text to preach breakfast, whatever he had collected the extempore from the following Sunday. I preceding day. The clergyman accepted the offer; and the He one day observed a woman in mournwhim of such a sermon was spread widely | ing under his window, with a little boy, abroad, while at a very early hour the who was also dressed in mourning : the chapel royal was crowded to excess. The child held up a petition to the young Prince, King arrived just at the conclusion of the who immediately; inquired why the poor prayers, and on the clergyman's ascending | little boy was dressed in black? His gothe pulpit one of his Majesty's aides-de verness replied, that it was doubtless becamp presented him a sealed letter. The cause his father was dead; and on young preacher opened it, and found nothing but Napoleon expressing a wish to speak to a piece of blank paper : he lost not, how the child, they were called in, and the lady ever, his presence of mind on this critical proved to be a widow whose husband had occasion; but turning the paper about on
fallen in battle, and came to solicit a peuboth sides, he said, “My brethren, here is sion. Young Napoleon presented her penothing, and there is nothing; out of no tition to his father, saying, “ Here is a pe: thing God created all things;" and he then tition from a very unfortunate little boy ; proceeded to deliver a most admirable ser you bave been the cause of his father's mon on the wonders of creation.
death, he has notbing in the world left;
pray grant him a pension." - Napoleon ANECDOTE OF LOUIS BONAPARTE.
granted it. This young man always bore a good character; particularly for continued acts of ANECDOTE OF THE DUKE OF BASSANO. charity and benevolence. The most ami
Though charged with the diplomatic able trait in his conduct is his particular
affairs, at one time, of Europe, he was enattention to distressed artists. Under such
slayed by the charms of a handsome young circumstances Louis is sure to become a Countess; who, at first, treated him with purchaser ; and, when at Naples, was the the greatest severity; till, weary of his im. constant patron of modest and suffering portunities, she planned a ruse de guerre to merit. At the time that his brother Na. get rid of him, and seemed to relax from poleon quitted Elba, he was much agitated, her former rigidity. and pathetically exclaimed, “ Mon Dieu ! One evening the Duke received a note ne trouverai-je donc pas un asyle pour vivre from her, informing him her husband was tranquille?"
from home, and that she would have for
him a tête-à-tête supper at half past ten. ANECDOTES OF YOUNG NAPOLEON. Maret presented himself at the garden As soon as young Napoleon could speak, door, where a waiting maid was stationed he, like most other children, was very who led him silently and mysteriously into fond of asking questions. He was always the apartment of the Countess. An elemuch diverted by looking at the people in gant collation was served up, without any the garden of the Thuilleries, who fre- servant making his appearance; the waitqueutly collected under his windows to ing maid brouglıt in and carried out the obtain a sight of him. He soon remarked | dishes; the last of which disappearing, that many persons entered the palace with Maret was left with his fair enslaver. A rolls of paper under their arms, and he loud kuocking was soon beard at the door. asked his governess what it meant? She “ Who can possibly knock at such an