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INQUIRY INTO CURIOUS SUBJECTS OF HISTORY, &e."

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plicity and credulity, which do pot obscure were covered with plates of brass, silver, and the character of great piety which Lelaud | gold. The idol was of so enormous a size, gives him, ought not to impose upon our un that its arms being extended, they reached to derstandings.-(See Parker's History of Cam- the opposite walls of the Temple; its figure bridge) Cair Grant was one of the twenty was that of a venerable old man, with a beard, eight cities of Britain under the Romans, but and long bair, but with it was joined a monfallen to decay when Bede wrote. Hist. 1. 4. strous figure of an animal with three heads : C. 19. From its ruius Cambridge arose at a the biggest in the middle was that of a lion; small distance, as appears from Henry of that of a dog fawning came out on the right Huntingdon, and the writers of Croyland and | side, and that of a ravenous wolf on the left; Ramsey. Some have pretended that here was a serpent was represented twining round these the school wbich Bede, or the schools which three animals, and laying its head on the Malmesbury, Florentius, and Henry of Huot right hand of Serapis. On the idol's head was ingdon say King Sigebert founded, by the ad. | placed a bushel, an emblem of tbe fertility of vice of St. Felix, in 1636. But it is more rea the earth. The statue was made of precious sopable to believe those foundations to have stone, wood, and all sorts of metal togetber; been made near Dummoc, in Suffolk. Aod its colour was at first blue, but the streams of whatever schools might flourish at Cambridge moisture of the place bad turned it black. A under the Saxons, it is certain there were no hole in the Temple was contrived to admit the remains under the first Normap kings. The sun's rays upon its mouth, at ibe hour when foundation of this seat of the sciences was laid the idol of the sun was brought in to visit it. in the reign of Henry II. Peter of Blois, a Many other artifices were employed to deceive contemporary writer, in his Continuation of the people into an opinion of its miracles. Ingulphius' History, published by Gale (Script. No idul was so much respected in Egypt; and, Hist. Ang.i. p. 114), relates, that Saoffrid, Ab. on its account, Alexandria was looked upon bot of Croyland, sent some learned Monks of as the boly city. that bouse to their manor of Cetenham, near “ The Emperor Theodosius being informed Cambridge, who, hiring a great house in Cam.

of the above mentioned sedition, sept an order bridge, went thitber every day, and taught, at to demolish the Temples in Egypt. When different hours, the whole circle of the

this letter was read at Alexandria, the Pagaps sciences, a great concourse of studevts resort

raised hideous cries ; many left tbe city, and ing to their lessons. From these beginnings | all withdrew from the Temple of Serapis. The that University soon rose to the highest de idol was cut down by pieces, and thrown into gree of splendor, avd Peterhouse was the first a fire. The heat bens were persuaded, that if regular college that was erected there, Hugh any one should touch it, tbe heavens would Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founding it in 1284." fall, and the world return into the state of its

primitive chaos. Seeing no such judgment DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE OF SERAPIS

I breaten, they began themselves to deride a IN 292.

senseless truuk reduced to ashes. The stand“ About the year 292, Theophilus, Patri. ard of the Nile's increase was kept in this arch of Alexandria, obtained a rescript of the Temple, but it was, on this occasion, removed Emperor Tbeodosius, to convert an old desert into the Cathedral. The idolators expected ed Temple of Caccbus into a Christian church. the river would swell no more; but fiuding In clearing this place, in the subterraneous the succeeding years very fertile, they consecret caverns, called by the Greeks Adyta, l demued the vanity of their superstitions, and and held by the Pagaus as sacred, were found embraced the faith. Two churches were built infamous and ridiculous figures, which Theo on the place where this temple stood, and its philus caused to be exposed in public, to shew metal was converted to the use of churches. the extravagant superstitions of the idolaters. The busts of Serapis, on tbe walls, doors, and The bealbens in tumults raised a sedition, windows of : he houses, were broken and taken killed many Christians in the streets, and then away. The temples all over Egypt were de retired into the great Temple of Serapis as

molished during the two following years. In their fortress. The Temple of Serapis was pulling down those of Alexaedria, the cruel most stately and rich, built on an eminence mysteries of Mythra were discovered, and in raised by art, in a beautiful spacious square, The secret Adyta were found the beads of with an assent of 100 steps, surrounded with many infants cut off, cruelly mangled, and lofty edifices for the priests and officers. The superstitiously painted. The artifices of the Temple was built of marble, supported with priests of the idols were likewise detected; precious pillars, and the walls on the inside there were hollow idols of wood and brass,

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INQUIRY INTO CURIOUS SUBJECTS OF HISTORY, &c.

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placed against a wall, with subterraneous pas sense and approbation of the whole nation, sages, through which the priests entered the and of all foreign states, in the succession of bollow trunks of tbe idols, and gave auswers St. Edward, demonstrates the legality of the as Oracles, as is related by Theodoret and proceedings by which he was called to the Rufinus."

crown; which no one, either at home or

abroad, ever thought of calling in questionTHE RIGHT TO THE CROWN OF ENGLAND

so clear was the law or custom in that case. IN THE LINE OF EDWARD THE CON

Tbe posture of affairs then required that the FESSOR.

throne should be immediately filled before a “ Edward, the son of Edmund Ironside, || Dane should step into it. Edward Atheling nephew to St. Edward the Confessor, was the was absent at a great distance, and unequal to Dext heir of the Saxon line; whence some

the difficulties of the state ; nor could mat. modera English condemn the accession of ibe lers be brought to bear that his arrival could Confessor, who certainly could derive no right be waited for. St. Edward afterwards sent for from the unjust Danish conquests, as Bedford, bim, with his whole family, in 1054, and treator whoever was tbe author of the book en. ed him as his beir ; and, after that Prioce's titled Hereditary Right, pretends. But it is deatb, bebaved towards his son Edgar in the evident from Mr. Earberry, (Occasional Histo

same manner, wbo was also styled by him rian, p. 4.) that during the reign of the Eng- | Atheling, or Adeling.” Jish Saxons, when the next heir was esteemed

INTERESTING ACCOUNT OF THE PATAL END by the states unfit, in dangerous or difficult

OF THE TYRANTS-ROMAN EMPERORS. times, the King's thanes advanced another sou or brother of the deceased King, so as “ Tertullian observes, that it was the glory never to take one that was not of his family. of the Christian religion that the first Ens peOften, if ibe heir was a minor, an uncle was ror that drew his sword ag inst it was Nero, made king ; and, upon the uncle's death, ibe sworn enemy of all virtue. This tyrant, though he left issue, the crown reverted to the four years after he had begun, in 64, to exert former beir, or bis children, as the very in his rage against the Christians, in bis extreme spection of a table of their succession shews.

distress aitempted to kill bimself, but, wanting (See Mr. Squire's Diss. on the English Saron resolution, he prevailed upon another to belp Government, an. 1753.) Cerdic, founder of bim to take away his life, and perished under the kingdom of the West Saxons, in 495, from

the public resentment of the whole empire, whom the Confessor descended, was the tenth and the universal detestation of mankind, for from Woden, accordieg to the Saxon Chro- bis execrable cruelties and abominations. Dovicle, published by Bisbop Gibsen, from an ori

mitian persecuted the church in 95, and was ginal copy which formerly belonged to the murdered by his own servants the year folAbbey of Peterborough, was given by Arch- lowing. Trajan, Adrian, Titus, Antoninus, bishop Laud to the Bodleian Library at Ox and Marcus Aurelius, rather tolerated than

d, and is more correct than the copies in | raised persecutions, aud escaped violent tbe Cotton Library, and at Cambridge, made deaths. Severus, after he began in 202 to opuse of by Wheloc. This most valuable Chro.

press the Christians, fell into disasters, and nicle derives also the pedigrees of Hengist and died weary of life, leaving behind him a most bis successors in Kent, and of the Kings of profligate son, who had attempted to take Mereia and Northumberland, from Woden, away the life of his father, and afterwards whom Bede calls the father of the royal Saxon killed his brother; and bis whole family lineage in England, or of the chief Kings in perisbed miserably. Decius, after a sbort the heptarchy: be must have preceded the reigo, died in battle. Gallus was kilied the reigo of Dioclesian. Some take him to have year after he commenced prosecutor. Valebeen the great God of this name honoured by rian was a cruel enemy to the Christians, and the Saxons; others a mighty King, who bure died in a miserable captivity in Persia. Aurethe name of that false God. That ibe regal lian was killed 274. Maximus 1. was slaio, succession in the heptarchy was hereditary, after a reigu of tbree years. Nothing prosand, whey interrupted, again restored, is mawi. pered with Dioclesian afier le began his war fest from the abuve Cbruniele. The Norman against the church : out of cowardice be abcarried so high his claim of conquest, as to

dicated the empire, and at length put an end set himself above all established laws and to his own life. His colleague, Maximian rigbts, and to exclude bis son Robert from the Herculeus, was compelled to hang himself in crown;

but the succession was deemned here. 310. Maximian Galerius, the most eruel au. ditary, after Stepben at least. The unanimous li thor of Dioclesian's persecution, was seized

SAFETY LAMPS FOR COAL MINERS.

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with a grievous and terrible disease; for being / advanced slowly, and not till he had acknowextremely fat and unwieldy, the huge mass of || ledged that he deserved what he suffered, for flesh was overrun with putrefaction, and his cruelty, and for the insults wbich he bad swarmed with vermin, and the stench that committed against Jesus Christ, as Eusebius came from bim was not to be borne even by relates ; (Hist. I. ix. c. 19.) who adds, ibat his own servants; as Eusebius relates (b. viii. | all the rulers of provinces, who had acted unc. 16.) Maxentius was overcome by Coustan der him, and persecuted the Christians, were tine, and drowned in the Tiber. Maximinus pat to death, as Picentius, bis principal faII. after being defeated by Licinius, was com. vourite; Culcianus, in Egypt; Theotecnus, pelled by him to repeal his edicts against the and others.. Urbanus, the cruel governor of Christians, and died in 313, in exquisite tor. Palestine, had beeu convicted of many crimes ments, under a distemper not unlike that of at Cæsaria, and condemned to a shameful Galerius. For whilst his army was drawn up

death by Maximinus bimself; and his succesin the field, he was lurking and hiding his sor Firmilianus had met with the same fate cowardly bead at home; and, flying to Tar- from the hands of bis master, whom by bis 808, not knowing where to find a place of re cruelties, he had studied to please. Licinius, fuge ou land or sea, but scared every where the last of these persecutors, was a wortbless with his fears, he was struck with a sore dis- || and stupid Prince, who could not read or temper over his whole body. In the most write bis own name, bated all men of learning, acute and insufferable anguish, he rolled bim. and was a foe to religion. He, to please Conself upon tbe ground, and piped away by long listantine, for some time favoured the Chrisfasting, so that he looked like a withered and tians, and pretended bimself to be ready to dried skeleton. At last, be wbo had put out become one; but at last threw off the mask, the eyes of the Christians, lost his sight, and and persecuted the church, when he was conhis eyes started out of his head ; and yet, still ll quered and put to death by Coestantive, in breathing, aud confessiog his sins, he called 323." upon death to come and release him, which

ON THE SAFETY LAMP FOR COAL MINERS.

On the Safety Lamp for Coal Miners ; with some Researches on Flame. By Sir Humphry

Davy. 1 vol. 8vo. R. Hunter, St. Paul's Church-yard.

To use the words of Sir Humphry , enjoyments of life; but also with the extenDavy's well written preface, “ The gratifi-sion of our most important arts, our manucation of the love of knowledge is delight- || factures, commerce, and national riches. ful to every refined mind; but a much

“ Essential in affording warmth and prehigher motive is offered for indulging in it, paring food, it yields a sort of artificial sunwhen that knowledge is felt to be practical | shine, and in some measure compensates for power, and when that power may be applied of it, metallurgical processes are carried on;

the disadvantages of our climate. By means to lessen the miseries, or increase the com

and the most important materials of civilized forts of our fellow creatures."

life furnished, the agriculturist is supplied And such is offered in the work before || with an useful manure, and the architect with us, which points out, in a general view, the

å necessary cement. Not only manufactories principles on which the security of that va.

and private houses, but even whole streets, luable invention, the safety lamp, depends : | are lighted by its application and in furnishan attempt at analyzing this work would be ing the element of activity in the steam enuseless: it contains so many proofs of what gine, it has given a wonderful impulse to meit advances, that we shall confine ourselves chanical and chemical ingenuity, dimipished to give a part of them in the following ex- to a great extent human labour, and increased tracts:

in a high degree the strength and wealth of tbe country.

“ Every thing connected with the permaThe use of pit coal in Britain is connected nent supply of such a material, is worthy of not only with the necessities, comforts, and scientific consideration; and to remove ob.

No. 118.--Supplement.

OF THE USE OF PIT COAL.

Rr.

916

SAFETY, LAMPS FOR COAL MINERS.

stacles, difficulties, or dangers counected with and that tubes even of a much smaller diame. its production, is not unimportant to the ter communicated explosion from a close ves. state.”

sel. Hence, I took a new method of ascertaia

ing the safety of my apertures, aud of trying ACCIDENTS COMMON TO COAL MINES.

different forms of apertures. “ The fire damp is found in the greatest “ I had a vessel furnished with wires, by quantity, and is most dangerous in the deepest which the electrical spark could be taken in mines; but it likewise often occurs in super an explosive mixture, and which was larger in ficial excavations; and I have now a letter, of capacity than a safe lamp or lantern was rethe date of June 8, 1816, in my possession, in quired to be. I placed my fame sieves, i.e. wbich it is stated, that in the very commence my systems of apertures, between this jar and ment of working a coal mine in Shropsbire, a bladder containing likewise an explosive mixseveral miners were killed, and others severely ture, and I judged the apertures to be safe burnt.

only when they stopped explosion acting upon “ Modes of preventing accidents from fire them in this concentrated way. damp have been ardently sought for by all « In this mode of experimenting, 1 soon persons connected with coal mines, and it has discovered, tbat a few apertures, even of very even occupied the attention of an enlightened small diameter, were not safe unless their sides government. In consequence of some explo were very deep; that a single tube of onesions which prevented the miners from work.

twenty-eighth of an juch in diameter, and two ing the coal mines at Briancon, in Daupbiny, * inches long, suffered the explosion to pass the Duke de Choiseul, at that time Prime through it; and that a great number of small Minister of France, recommended the subject tubes, or of apertures, stopped explosion even to the consideration of the Academy of when the depths of their sides was only equal Sciences, and a committee was appointed, who made it for some time the object of their at- | 10 their diameters--and at last I arrived at

the conclusion, that a metallic tissue, however tention; but the plan that they proposed for thin and fine, of which the apertures filled avoidiug the danger, was a common mode of

more space than the cooling surface, so as to ventilation

be permeable to air and light, offered a per“ This evil of the fire damp, though be

fect barrier to explosion, from the force being longing to all coal mives, has been most se

divided between, and the heat communicated verely experienced in those of Hainbault, in

to, an immense number of surfaces. Flanders, and the infinitely more important

“ My first safety lamps, constructed on mines in the neigbbourhood of Whitehaven and Newcastle, in this country.

tbese principles, gave light in explosive mix“ The number of dreadful accidents, in.

tures containiog a great excess of air, but bedeed, which had happened within the last

came extinguished in explosive mixtures in

which the fire damp was in sufficient quantity three or four years in the last mentioned dis

to absorb the whole of the oxygen of the air, tricts, particularly that by wbich ninety-six

so that such mixtures never burat continuouspersons were destroyed in the Felling colliery, ly at the air feeders, which in lamps of this had so strongly impressed the minds of a number of benevolent persons belonging to, or

construction was important, as the increase of connected with, the coal districts, that it was

beat, where there was only a small cooliog said to be in their contemplation to bring the surface, would have altered the conditious of subject before Parliament, that by making it

security a national question, it might obtain tbat con

“ I made several attempts to construct safety sideration which its importance demanded.”

lamps wbich should give light in all ex.

plosive mixtures of fire damp: and, after comVARIOUS EXPERIMENTS.

plicated combinations, I at length arrived at “ Jo trying my first tube lamp in an explo one evidently the most simple, that of sut. sive mixture, I found that it was safe; bot rounding the light entirely by wire gauze, and unless the tubes were very short and numerous, making the same tissue feed the flame with the flame could not be well supported; and in air and emit light. trying tubes of the diameter of one-seventh “ In plunging a light surrounded by a cy. or one-eigbth of an incb, I determined that linder of five wire gauze into an explosive mixthey were safe only to small quantities of ex ture, I saw the whole cylinder become quietly plosive mixture, and when of a given length; and gradually filled with flame, the upper part

of it soon appeared red bot; yet no explosion • Histoire de l'Academie Royale, 1763, p. 1.

was produced."

SAFETY LAMPS FOR COAL MINERS.

317

METHOD FOR GIVING LIGHT IN EXPLOSIVE or those that produce little heat in combustion.

10 MIXTURES OF FIRE DAMP IN COAL MINES, Or the tissue being the same, and impermeable BY CONSUMING THE FIRE DAMP

to all flames at commou temperatures, the “ The invention consists in covering or sur

flames of the most combustible substances, rounding a fame of a lamp or candle by a

and of those which produce most heat, will wire sieve; the coarsest that I have tried with most readily pass through it when it is heated, perfect safety contained 625 apertures in

and each will pass through it at a different square inch, and the wire was one-seventieth degree of temperature. In short, all the cirof an inch in thickness, the finest, 6,400 aper

cumstances which apply to the effect of cooltures in a square inch, and the wire was one- || ing mixtures upon fame, will apply to cooling two-hundred-and-fiftieth of an inch in diame perforated surfaces. Thus, the flame of phos. ter.

phuretted hydrogene at common temperatures, “ When a lighted lamp or candle screwed will pass through a tissue sufficiently large not joto a ring soldered to a cyliuder of wire gauze,

to be immediately choaked up by the phoshaving no apertures except those of the gauze,

phoric acid formed, and the phosphorus de. or safe apertares, is introduced into the most posited. A tissue of 100 apertures to the explosive mixture of carburetted hydrogene and

square inch, made of wire of one-sixtieth, will, air, the cylinder becomes filled with a bright

at common temperatures, intercept the flame flame, and tbis flame continues to burn as

of a spirit lamp, but not that of hydrogene; loog as the mixture is explosive. When the

and whep strongly beated, it will uo longer carburetted bydrogen is to the air as 1 to 12,

arrest the flame of the spirit lamp. A tissue the fame of the wick appears within the flame

which will not interrupt the Aame of hydroof the fire damp, when the proportion is as

gene when red hot, will still intercept that of high as 1 to 7, the flame of the wick disap

olefiant gas, and a heated tissue which would pears.

communicate explosion from a mixture of “ When the thickest wires are used in the

olefiant gas and air, will stop an explosion gauze, it becomes strongly red bot, particu.

from a mixture of fire damp, or carburetted Jarly at the top, but yet no explosion takes

hydrogene.” place. The flame is brighter the larger the

EXTRACT FROM PAPERS WRITTEN BY apertures of the gauze, and the cylinder of

JOAN BUDDLE, ESQ. 625 apertures to the square iach, gives a brilliant light in a mixture of 1 part of gas from

“ There has been much quibbling about the the distillation of coal, and 7 parts of air. The

perfect safety of the wire gauze lamp. I lower part of the flame is greco, the middle scarcely know how the words perfect safety purple, and the upper part blue."

can apply to any invention for the preservation of human life; but when we have seen

some hundreds of the wire gaze lamps in “ Flame is gaseous matter heated so highly | daily use for several months past, in all varias to be luminous, and that to a degree of eties of explosive mixture, in the most danger. temperature beyond the white heat of solid ous mines of this country, without the slightest bodies, as is shewn by the circumstance, that accident occurring, it seems only reasonable air not luminous will communicate this de- lto infer, that they approximate as nearly

When an attempt is made to to perfect safety as any thing of human conpass flame through a very fine mesh of wire trivance or manufacture can be expected to do. gauze at the common temperature, the gauze “ It would, however, be quite unreasonable cools each portion of the elastic matter that to expect, that accidents are never to happen, passes through it, so as to reduce its tempe- where the wire gauze lamps are used; for it rature below that degree at which it is lumin- must always be remembered, that setting aside ous, and the diminution of temperature must the chance of their being damaged by some of be proportional to the smallness of the mesh the casualties incidental to coal mining, they and the mass of the metal. The power of a are to be entrusted to the management of a metallic or other tissue to prevent explosion, body of men, amongst whom negligent indivi. will depend upon the heat required to produce duals will be found, who may use damaged the combustion as compared with that ac lamps, or expose the naked flame to the fire quired by the tissue; and the flame of the damp, in spite of the utmost vigilance of the most inflammable substances, and of those overmen and inspectors of the mines. Inthat produce most heat in combustion, will

stances of great negligence have occurred, pass tbrough a metallic tissue that will inter. || fortunately without any ill consequences-alrupt the flame of less inflammable substances," ways with the dismissal of the offender from

THE NATURE OF FLAME.

gree of heat.

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