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VARIETIES CRITICAL, LITERARY, AND HISTORICAL..

to it.

the head-ache and distress which so many suffer, these openings becomes very powerful the moin crowded theatres, ball-rooms, sinall bed-rooms, ment the fire is lighted, as seen by the rapidity &c. Two or three people getting into a car

with which the wheels turned. It is then evident riage, are obliged, in a few minutes, to admit that the breath of so many persons rising towards fresh air, by letting down a glass, or else the op the ceiling by its lightness, navoidably takes pression becomes insupportable. In every place the direction of the current, and passes away, as where there is no renewal of regular air the evil a stream of water follows the fall which is given exists, and is only greater or less in proportion to the size of the room, and the number of indivi “During the first months, the ventilation in duals who breathe in it. Air is, in fact, the first the centre was effected by steam; but Mr. Harris spring of lise, aliment is but the second. We having since desired me to substitute the heat of may live for many days without food, hut sbut the gas as a power, and to make all the necessary out the access of air, that is, of oxygen to the alterations, the chandelier has become a powerful lungs, and you instantly destroy life. On the agent of the ventilation. purity of the air which we breathe, depends, -" The third power is not yet established, but principally, the health which we enjoy, our free it is intended to be placed over the stage.

Its dom from disease, and the length of our days. | object is to draw off the smell and heat of the If a person is alone, he can only breathe the air stage-lamps, as well as the burnt air they prohe has before respired; but if others are in the duce. same apartment, the breath of each person passes “ It is thus that all air which is in any way from one to another, and it is frequently in this | vitiated, is constantly carried off during the perway that diseases are communicated. I state an formance. It remains to explain how this air is important fact, when I say, that in theatres, and replaced. crowded assemblies of every kind ; in close sit.

“ The pressure of the atmosphere acting with zing and sleeping apartments, which are imme- greater force upon the interior, in consequence diately offensive 10 a person entering from the of this constant evaporation of air, the audience open air; and in all situations where a man can would be exposed to the most dangerous currents not have a gallon of pure air to breathe in every on the opening of the box-doors, &c. if precauminute (experience having taught us that that tion had not been taken to regulate the tem perquantity is required), we are receiving and fus ature in every part of the theatre, according to the tering in our system the germs of future disease, | degree of cold without. Three or four hours in or we are calling into action principles of dis the day are usually the time required to give a ease already existing, which might have for ever temperate warmth throughout, or to raise the Jain dormant; and thus, by the operation of a temperature in any particular situation in which slow, and very insidious poison, we are still fur it may have been depressed; but however intense ther shortening and embittering the short day of the cold without, by continuing the fires a few human existence. It is to men of science, in hours longer, the proper temperature may at all general, and to those in particular who watch times be kept up in the interior. When tbe fire over our health, that it belongs to pronounce is out, warm air will continue to issue from the upon this important subject; I only take the furnace, till every particle of heat has been exliberty of presenting it for attentive consider tracted from the pipes. If, as soon as it is out, ation."

the damper of the smoke flue is shut, the beat

may be retained a length of time, as there will VENTILATING THEATRES.

then be only a draught through the warm air “A patent calirofere fumivore ventilating pipes, and not through the furnace itself, which, furnace is erected behind the lower gallery, with the brickwork remaining warm, will conwhich draws off the air from the back of the tinue to give heat to the air passing through the three first tiers of boxes. The fire acts upon pipes as long as any remain in the bricks, and twelve pipes, of seven inches diameter each,

this renders these furnaces very economical.and ten feet in length, wbich unite in a single | There are times, however, when it is not neces. pipe of two feet diameter. A rarefaction is pro sary to light the furnaces, and when an aug. duced in these pipes, and the flame and smoke inentation of heat in the corridores is still rehaving passed them, are evaporated by a large quired; with this view it has been thought essentube enveloping that in which the air from the tial to place in the Shakespeare-room, saloons, boxes is carried off, and which not only conti- || and in the corridores, calirofere stoves, which nues, but considerably augments the rarefaction, produce a quantity of warm air, and which, on and quickens the current of air within. These those days, are sufficient to maintain the same pipes unite at the top in a large cowl, which temperature, and greatly assist, during tbe time moves with the wind, and through which the air of excessive cold, the effect of the furnaces,

“ The fresh air which supplies the place of “ Four openings have been made in the ceil that evaporated, will therefore, in cold weather, ing of each tier of boxes, which communicate be always at froin fifty-five to sixty, and will separately with the pipes in the furnace before maintain a temperature proportioned to the heat mentioned. The evaporation of air through in the interior of the boxes, so that it is impos

VARIETIES CRITICAL, LITERARY, AND HISTORICAL.

45

sible for any danger to arise from the opening of This little interesting pocket volume box doors, or any transition sufficiently great to contains a series of moral and instructive be injuriously felt. But it was not sufficient thus

tales for the amusement and improvement to provide the means of maintaining the temperature of the corridores nearly at sixty de.

of youth, and is one of those useful works grees, it was necessary to regulate the admission for the juvenile library, which we earnestly of air into ibe boxes, to lessen the draught of air | recommend to the notice of those among on opening the doors, and to supply constantly our correspondents, who bear the honoured for respiration, fresh air, in lieu of that evapo title of parents. rated by the ventilation. This renewal of air

Edwin and Henry, the children of the is effected by numerous small openings which ! Jender the cnrrent insensible, and that air being worthy Mr. Friendly, Edwin aged thirteen, always at the degree before-mentioned, pro- and Henry twelve, are passing their week's daces a pleasing sensation, and is free from the holidays of Easter with their excellent danger and inconvenience which would be ex

parent, who makes every domestic incident perienced from an admission of air at a colder

a real source of instruction to his beloved temperature."

offspring. Casualties, the phenomena of BED-ROOM VENTILATING LAMPS. nature, the vegetable world, sickness and “ The state of calm existing in sleeping a part- | death, are all treated of; and afford, as ments during the night, causes a stagnation of they pass immediately under the eyes of air ; from which it follows, that so soon as we the young people, an opportunity to the have decomposed a certain portion, we continue intelligent father, to draw from thence a to breathe that air again and again, to the great striking and moral lesson of instruction. prejudice of our health. It rises perpendicularly as we breathe, and, regaining its gravity as

To these moral tales is prefixed, a wellit cools, descends, and is again inhaled, deprived written address to parents; and the folof its purity and vital qualities.

lowing extract is well deserving the atten“ May we not also indulge the supposition tion of those who are entrusted with the that the heaviness of the atmosphere around us care of youth:is an occasional cause of restlessness and disturbed sleep, that it has some effect on our minds

“ If we examine the system of the majority of in sleep, and that to the want of ventilation may

our academies, shall we find any part adapted be attributed, in some measure, a variety of un

for those purposes? Do we not rather behold a pleasant sensations. We frequently sleep for

constant and unremitting endeavour to chain the hours, and yet rise norefreshed, with our minds imagination to a mere view of real things, and unfit either for the arocations or the pleasures

to shackle the remaining powers of the mind by of the day. · Is it too bold an assertion, that if

a duli uniformity of tuition? The child, in its there bad been a forced evaporation of all air,

first employments, as well as in its sports, will unfit for respiration, our bodies and minds would

never feel au inclination to court self-reflection, have gained that repose, the waut of wbich ren

nor by a free and independent mode of tbioking, ders sleep unpleasant and insalubrious ?

and of reasoning, attempt to exalt itself above

ANI these sensations may, certainly, at times, be traced

that narrow sphere in which it is confined, by to obvions causes; but how frequently is it that

the imprudent caution of a systematic tutor. If we are totally at a loss how to account for not

nothing further were required thap to form man hasing rested well? In this case I reature to

for the purpose of preserving the machine of life, assign it to the want of ventilation, and

it would be merely requisite to transform virtue,

a proper circulatiou of air in our apartment.”

as much as possible, into a mechanical quality,

which, in other words, is wholly to dissolve it, Our limits will not allow us to extract and to place duty and obedience to the laws, in any thing more from these important in- its stead. But human nature soars towards a ventions: many useful plans follow, treat

bigher point, which can never be obtained by so ing of the air conductor, plan for warming conscious of its poble faculties, to attain to a

limited a display of power. It strives, when once houses, churches, &c. from one fire, &c.

more perfect and invisible world, which is its &c. to warm hot-beds: the author lastly proper and natural home, and attempts to reach treats of heating liquids, and gives the in. ihat station, where, in placid and holy serenity, vention of a wine-cooler.

it can look down on the melancholy chaos of life.”

In the tale of The Village on Fire, the Edwin and Henry ; or, The Week's Holi- following reflections on avarice are excel

days. Mackay, Newgate-street; Black. || lent:wood and Co. Edinburgh; Ogle, Glas “ It is a vice of that odious bature, that every gow; and Cumming, Dublin.

one turns away with disgust from him who is

46

VARIETIES CRITICAL, LITERARY, AND HISTORICAL.

guilly of it. The miser shuts his heart against as they are at present used, bowever ingeniously that feeling, which iu general opens every heart, contrived or often employed, are insufficient for namely-compassion. The miser loves no one the purposes of effectual cleansing, is obvious but himself; be even often torments bimself to from this circumstance, that the teeth and gums increase the treasures, on the possession of which are still left in a diseased state. Tooth-powders, he douts with the yrratest fondpess. Such a dis- | being generally composed of insoluble substanposition is hateful both to God and man. What ces and acid ingredients, are evidently hurtful, is inore natural thud sympathy ? and where is both by their mechanical and chemical agency. there a more pleasant road to promote our own

“ The brusbes and powders are generally aphappiness, than in promoting that of others ? plied to the outside only of the teeth; and to Of this teeling, however, the miser is wholly shew the injury of these applications, we shall ignorant. He is selfish, hard-hearted, and mis

make some observations on their composition trustiul. These qualities repel every man from

and nature. The sulpburic acid, or oil of vitriol, bim.”

from its peculiar and well known property, of giving a beantiful white appearance to the teeth,

forms a principal ingredient in all those ruinous A Practical Guide to the Management of the compositions sold under the title of tooth-powTeeth. By L. S. Parmly.

ders, tinctures, or pastes. In tinctures and lo. The finest index to a beautiful person is tions, it is combined with some spiritous or

watery ipfusion, of an aromatic nature, variously a good set of teeth ; the greatest and most coloured and scented, according to the taste of important auxiliary to beauty, indicating the composer. In the paste it is united with purity of breath, while good teeth aid some gritty powder, to which a light vegetable powerfully the form of a lovely face. The matter is added, when the whole is made of a care of them is of the highest moment, || proper consistence with honey or other glutinous both as comforts and agremens.

substance. The powders, also, not admitting The former part of this work is particu• substituted, such as cream of tartar, alım, &c.

the acid in its natural form, have corrosive salts Jarly useful to dentists, and highly deserv

united with powder, which often consists of ing of their study; we shall merely give brick-dust, blended with some other ingredient, the following extracts from that part which to colour and conceal it. But, besides these treats of the individual care requisite to be compositions, which are expressly sold for the observed by every one of their teeth.

purpose, many are in the habit of using sub.

stances at their own option for cleaning the teeth, MANAGEMENT OF THE TBBTI.

without having recourse to these advertised spe“ The first and most important object, iscifics. Of this kind soot is one; to which I see cleanliness of the moutli, which is the only pre no other objection than that it is a dirty, dis. ventive of disease. Of the various causes of agreeable, and indelicate substance. diseases of the teeth and alveolar processes, we has, perhaps, arisen from the observation, that have found that the greater part as enumerated | cbimney sweepers have white teeth. This is by writers, are merely theoretical, and are built generally more in appearance than in reality : on no solid facts. The only true cause of all the when examined, it is found to be occasioned by diseases to which they are liable, is the contact

the contrast of the face with the natural colour of the accumulation, and the action of that mat

of the teeth. Another substance in much greater ter "pon them, which form the relics of our use of late years, for the purpose of cleaning food and beverage, and which operate by 10

teeth, is charcoal pulverized; but highly as it is dergoing the putrefactive process, as a deleteri. celebrated for its autisceptic qualities, it is very ous poison, or corroding agent to their structure. improper as a dentifrice; for, however time may “Where the teeth are kept clean and free

be the powder to which it is reduced, every chefrom such inatter, no disease will ever arise. 1; unist knows that the substance continues perfectly Their structure will equally stand against the insoluble. The finer indeed it is pulverized, the summer's heat and winter's cold; against the

easier is the admission it finds between the teeth changes of climate, !he variations of dier, and and gums, where iis josinuation, like every other even the diseases to which the other parts of the extraneous matter, is a perpetual source of irri. system may be constitutionally subject.

tation and disease; and its constant friction may “ This being the case, the means of preven- i injure the bealth and beauty of the yumns; its tion are clear and simple ; namely, to avoid the li etieci also, as a purifier of the breatt, is very accumulation of matter which injures tbeir sub-transient.

Dentifrices similar to charcoal are stance; and it is in the mode of cleaning them, formed by the burning of bread, leather, betel that the whole secret of avoiding diseases con nut, peruvian bark, &c.; in their effects, bow. sist.

ever, they all differ little from common charcoal : • the means commonly resorted to are the gunpowder and iron rust is another composition

i the brusli, joined with the friction of tooth in use, but it uwes its quality entirely to tbe powder; but, that both brushes and dentifrices il charcoal, as the pitre it contains is in too small

Its use

use

VARIETIES CRITICAL, LITERARY, AND HISTORICAL.

47

a quantity to be of any use. Prepared alum is

WONDERFUL DISCOVERY. another substance used for the same purpose ; M. Demours, the highly and justly celebut, being a combination of sulphuric acid and

brated French occulist, has made a most elay, when it comes in contact with the teeth, it undergoes a decomposition, and they are con

admirable and truly miraculous discovery: sequently exposed to the action of the acid. The he has found a method, through an operasame injury arises from the use of cream of tar tion by no means paivful, to create an artitar, which, though it whitens the teeth, acts lficial pupil in the eye of a blind person, powerfully on the enamel.”

and which will restore the sight when the PERNICIOUS EFFECTS OF TOOTH-PICKS. optic nerve is not paralyzed or destroyed. “ It is a common practice with most people A person under his care had the pupils after meals to make use of a tooth-pick, to re of his eyes quite sunk in; and who, after move whatever may be lodged between the teeth. undergoing this operation read perfectly This practice, however, is highly to be repro well. bated: the constant use of a tooth-pick cannot fail to make improper openings between the teeth; and when once that part of the gum

THE ÆDEPHONE. which forms the arch is removed from their in

A musical instruinent, called the Ædeterstices, a small hollow is made for the recep; || phone, has been announced, possessing tion of accumulating matter, which, if neglected to be removed, will, from its immediate action | advantages which no other instrument has on the bone, rapidly excavate a tooth, and pro- || yet attained. It is played by finger keys, duce early pain, that would never have existed and every tone is capable of indefinite conbut for the use of so improper an instrument.” tinuity. The swell is said to be very supeINTERESTING ACCOUNT OF THE CARE THE

rior, and the instrument is so constructed BRAMINS TAKE OF THEIR TEETH.

as never to be out of tune. “ In the East Indies, particularly in Hindoslan, the care of the teeth among the Bramins is

SINGULAR INSTANCE OF EXTRAOR. made a part of their religious rites. As soon as

DINARY MEMORY. they rise in the morning their teeth are rubbed for an hour with a twig of the fig-tree. During

Lyon, a strolling player in the last centhis operation their prayers are ferrently ad-tury, once wagered a crown bowl of punch dressed to the sun, invoking the blessing of || with another actor, that he would repeat heaven on themselves and families. This prac the contents of a daily Advertiser from betice, it is presumed, is coeval with their religion | ginning to end. The player only regarded and government; and certainly nothing can shew their high regard for cleanliness, and par

this as an empty boast, but as Lyon was ticularly for the purity and beauty of the month, 1 positive he laid the wager with him. Next than by making it both a law and religionis morning at rehearsal, he put Lyon in mind duty."

of it, rallying him, at the same time, on IMPORTANCE OP ATTENDING TO THE TEETH

his bragging about his memory, and really

imagined that he had been drunk at the “In every family it should be a rule to have time he made the bet. Lyou took the the teeth of children frequently inspected by a

paper from his pocket, requested him to dentist; but there is an unfortunate prejudice look at it, and judge himself whether he entertained by parents, that his operations tend || had not won the wager. And in spite of to injare the teeth. On this account the proper the variety of advertisements, and the ge. time is often neglected, which occasions defor

neral chaos which makes up a newspaper, mity and disfiguration of the countenance for life. To many public seminaries this practice has been

he repeated it without fault, or even hesi. laudably followed. It will always prevent much tation, from beginning to end. future pain and regret; and children, when they attain the age of reason and reflection, will be more grateful for this attention than for those

KALEIDOSCOPE. accomplishments or indulgences which have no The Kaleidoscope is a polygonal instruconnexion with health and comfort. The first

ment in catoptrics, possessing the powers traces of disease in the teeth are always unknown to the patient. Caries, in particular, is so insi

of the polemoscope and polyscope, and may dious in its attack, that its existence often re. || justly be called a polygonelscope. The quires the most minute inspection of the dentist's best way of viewing shadows with this eye to detect.”

instrument is with a magnifier, the focus of

OF CHILDREN.

48

VARIETIES CRITICAL, LITERARY, AND HISTORICAL.

ment,

which must be suited to the length of the Mr. Pitt, was in many respects a stranger to the tube of the Kaleidoscope.

court and to the world. In 1806, he seemed The beauty and number of shadows dis regaining some degree of credit at Vienna, but

he was sent away by order of the French governplayed in the field of view in this glass,

He lived long enough to see Europe depend very much upon the correctness

return to that political system which he had of the mirrors, choice of colours, and num marked out. M. de Thugot was not a man of ber of angles. The base line of the angle bigh birth, having risen solely by his individual which is made by the mirrors, must be

merit. He has left a considerable fortune : he truly found, or the shadows will not be

married late in life, and has left no children. A

few hours before his death lie fell ont of his bed, proportionally formed.

into which he would not suffer himself to be re

placed; he died on a simple mattrass which was BIRTHS.

placed under him on the floor. At Leeds, Mrs. J. C. Blake, R. N. of a daugh

Lately, in the town of Gannat, the place of his ter. The lady of J. C. Mitchell,

birth, General Sauret, aged seventy-three ; from

of Queen-square, Bloomsbury, of a daughter.

a private soldier he attained to the rank of Lieu.

tenant-General, At the time of the French reMARRIED.

volution he was a Lieutenant of Grenadiers in In the parish church of Speldburst, near Tun the regiment of Campagne, and Knight of the bridge, Kent, Lord Cochrane, to Miss Catherine order of Saint Louis. He had served under the Corbett Barnes, late of Bryanstone-street, a

orders of the Marechale de Perignon, in the army young lady of small fortune but good family. of the Pyrennees, in the first war against Spaio,

By special license, Lord James Stuart, brother where he distinguished bimself, not less hy his to the Marquis of Bute, to Miss Tighe, only military talents than by his humanity, which he daughter of the late W. Tighe, Esq. of Wood manifested in saving the lives of a number of stock, Hants.

prisoners whom a cruel and atrocious law had The Right Hon. Lord George Lenox, to Louisa sentenced to death. He was sixty years in the Frederica, daughter of the Hon. John Rodney, service. When he was informed of the death of and grandanghter of the Earl and Countess of the Prince de Conde, he seemed struck with Aldborough.

death himself; and recalled the period with DIED.

much emotion when he had the bonour of serving At Cobbam Park, Surrey, in the 67th year of under him. He lived but a short time after rehis age, Harvey Christian Combe, Esq. many ceiving the intelligence of the Prince's death. years one of the Members of the city of London. At Paris, aged three months, the infant daugh

From sudden illness, at Leamiogton-Spa, Sir ter and only child of Lord William Russell, son Thomas Bernard, Bart. D. C. L. well known for

to the Duke of Bedford. bis zealous labours and writings in behalf of pub Mr. Richard Beatniffe, bookseller, Norwich. lic charities and other useful institutions.

He was a large purchaser of second-hand liAt Chicksands Priory, Bedfordshire, in the braries, and his catalogue was well stored with 77th year of his age, Sir George Osborn, Bart. good books. He was peculiarly blunt in bis a General in the army, and Colonel of the 40th manners to his customers, and many anecdotes regiment of foot.

of bis singularity in this respect are related. A At Vienna, in bis eighty-fourth year, the Scotch nobleman once called to purchase a Bible: Baron de Thugut. He commenced his diplo the bookseller took one down, and named the matic career under the celebrated Prince Kaunitz.

price.-" 0, mon!” quoth his Lordship, “I In 1789 he was appointed minister from Austria could buy it for much less in Edinburgh."to Warsaw; in 1794 he was made chancellor of “ Then, my Lord,” replied Mr. Beatniffe, rethe court and state ; and under this title he was placing the volume on the shelf, and abruptly the director of the cabinet of Vienna, although quitting his Lordship, to Edinburgh for he was not proclaimed prime minister till 1796. it.”-But, notwithstanding these eccentricities, After the peace of Luneville he retired from he is well spoken of by those who best knew him. public service, and resided at Presbourg, in He was the author of the entertaining little work Hungary. The study of the Oriental languages called The Norfolk Tour, which he lived long occupied all bis leisure hours; and he caused to

enough to see go through six editions. be brougtit to bim the Oriental MS. belonging At Spring-grove, Richmond, Surrey, in the to the Imperial library, receiving visits continue | 730 year of his age, Sir C. Price, Bart. Alder. ally from those learned men who were employed man of the Ward of Farringdon Without, and in the same researches. This statesman, who for many years one of the Representatives in Parmight be cited as the most able, perbaps, after liament for the city of London.

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