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beneath the ice. When these waters can. and of pieces several inches long and thick, not find an issue, they will often accumu. full of hollows and elevations; the shape Jate in so large a quantity, that they finally or figure of those pieces is generally crookbreak through the walls that oppose and ed and whimsical; and they stick so close check them, and, on a sudden, a raging to one another that although they cannot torrent is seen to rush from a wide crevice. ll be detached from the main mass without Sometimes wells, of a circular form, are several being broke, yet they are suscepalso met with, vertically dug out of the tible of a kind of motion similar to that of glacier, and filled to the brim with water. the articulation of a limb. The cause of These wells are produced by some huge this extraordinary conformation is the restone, which, being made hot by the sun, sult of the action of the air which circu. melts the ice around, and continues to pe- || lates, and by means of its dilatation forms netrate farther into the interior of the gla- | little bubbles of various figures, which, in cier. Travellers sometimes are amused in their turn, determine that which each par. forcing their sticks to the bottom of these ticle of ice assumes, and retains, even when said wells, to have the pleasure of seeing it increases in bulk, in proportion as the them rise again to the surface.

water contained in the snow freezes. Those STONES ON TAE SURFACE, AND AT THE surfaces that are much inclined, the transFOOT OF THE GLACIERS.—There are many versal cuts, the borders, points, and creglaciers, the surface of which is of a dirty, || vices along which the water can stream blackish colour, which proceeds from stones | freely, shew a solid ice, of a light green that are decomposed, and reduced to a colour, and very transparent. In the vicikind of muddy earth; for there always is, || nity of the heaps of gravel and of sand that both in the ice and on the surface even of hem the glaciers, the lower beds are comthe glaciers, a multiplicity of fragments of posed of very dark blue ice. rocks, which the hurricanes and the la VAULTS OF ICE.-The vaults of ice vanges have torn from the tops of the most which are observed at the bottom of the elevated mountains. The stones, in the glaciers, and from which a torrent is seen end, always form, on the borders, and at to issue, are always formed in the lowest the base of the glaciers, hills sometimes part, where all the waters meet subsequently one hundred feet high. The inferior ex to the ice being melted. ln winter those tremity of the glacier pushes forward that vaults lay concealed, being obstructed by kind of dam. Sometimes in the centre of the ice and snow; the stream that issues a glacier, and in the most elevated part, are from them is remarkably small; but, in seen heaps of stones in the shape of tombs, the spring and summer, the waters being and disposed in parallel lines of consider- | considerably swolo break through the ice; able height and length. Sometimes also is when vaults are formed one hundred feet seen to rise on the surface of a glacier a py- || high, and from fifty to eighty wide, the ramid of ice, of a regular figure, and sur figure of which is subject to undergo many mounted by a huge stone block:

changes. NATURE OF THE ICE OF THE GLACI TORRENTS ISSUING

FROM THE GLAERS. When you see a glacier that has CIERS.—The water of the glaciers is of a neither crevices, points, or cutting edges, || whitish blue, and the torrents that issue you are inclined to think it is only a heap || from them retain that colour for several of spow; whereas, mountains of snow, co leagues, unless some other stream alter it vered over with a thin coat of shining ice, || by mixing with them. That colour, which are frequently mistaken for real glaciers. || is peculiar to them, proceeds from their Glaciers can only be known by the chinks always carrying numerous particles of and sharp angles, formed by those masses rocks excessively attenuated by friction. that bear such a resemblance to snow; yet NUMBER AND EXTENT OF THE GLAthey may be distinguished at some leagues' || CIERS.-Throughout the whole chain of distance, by the green or blue colour of the Alps, from Mont Blanc to the frontiers their crevices and of their cuts. Their ice of Tyrol, they reckon about four hundred is not compact, like that of the rivers and glaciers, a very small number of which are lakes in winter ; it is composed of grains I only one league in length, whereas a

A CONCISB ABRIDGMENT OF NATURAL HISTORY.

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multiplicity are six or seven leagues long, 11 may be supposed that the whole comprises half or three quarters of a league in width, a sea of ice of upwards of one hundred and from a hundred to six hundred feet and thirty square leagues. Such are the thick. It is impossible exactly to measure inexhaustible reservoirs which supply the the total surface of all those glaciers, one largest and principal rivers in Europe. can only form a geveral idea of it; yet it

A CONCISE ABRIDGMENT OF NATURAL HISTORY;

IN A SERIES OF LETTERS FROM A LADY TO HER DAUGHTER.

THE TURTLE.

LETTER XV.

!' great part of the year. In the year 1771, MY DEAR CAROLINE,—How difficult is an old lady, who had attended on a tortoise it to explain the wonders of creation! it is above thirty years, was easily recognised almost impossible. The animal world pre- whenever she appeared by the grateful sents a chain of miracles, and the coutem creature. platiou of the universe gives birth to every | Just before the death of your tortoise, at exalted idea. Creation is the work of one least for a year before he died, when I bethought, but it is the thought of an Omni gan this history of animals, I was particupotent power, who imprinted on the world larly watchful of his motions. l observed an impression of justice and benevolence: him spendioy the sultry hours of summer natural history will never be a wearisome under a large cabbage leaf, whicls served study to those who can trace in it the him as an umbrella : in the decline of the wisdom and power of a creator, whose year he improved the faint beains of autumn spirit breathes through every part of the by getting within the reflection of a fruit. paivesse,

tree wall; and though he had never been “ As fall, as perfect in a bair as heart.” so great a reader as to know that planes Your little tortoise, my Caroline, I am inclining to the horizon received a pecusorry to inform you, is dead. This creature liar share of warmth, he always inclined may be certainly classed amongst the am his shell by tilting it against the wall to phibia. This species, like yours, was

receive the feeble rays of the sun. brought from the Mediterranean; and the Greeks are fond of the eggs as an article of food: they are about the size of a pigeou's,

The turtle, or marine tortoises, are dis. generally five in number, and of a white tinguished from the land tortoise by their colour. In September, you may recollect, . very large and fin-like feet. Their shell this poor little animal used to hide itself consists of a strong bony covering, in which under ground, from whence it would are embedded the ribs, and which is coat. emerge in February. When its young are ed externally by hard horny plates. The first hatched they are no bigger than a head is large, and the upper mandible common walnut. We measured the length , potched at the tip in such a manner as to of the shell of your favourite, and found give the appearance of two large teeth. it to be between seven and eight iuches, There is a species called the green turtle, the usual size of this species. It was old much in favour among epicures from the wbep first given to you, and I am well in- tinge that its fat exhibits. The hawk-bill formed that it lives to an extraordinary turtle it is that affords the most beautiful age, considerably beyond a century. In tortoise-shell for combs and various ornathe year 1759, a tontaise was seen at Lam- mental articles. The introduction of the beth Palace, which had formerly belonged turtle into England, as an article of food, to Archbishop Laud, in 1683. Its shall is is of recent date, very little more than still to be seen in the library.at Lambeth. \| sixty years ago; and the dressing op

The tortoise, like other reptiles, lias an one was an article of importance, always arbitrary stomach and lungs, and can refrain advertised in the public papers. Forty from eating, as well as breathing, during a sloops are employed by the inhabitants of No. 113.Vol. XVIII.

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A CONCISE ABRIDGMENT OF NATURAL HISTORY.

THE FROG.

Port Royal, in Jamaica, to catch green tremely lively; and they live on duck-weed turtle, and their markets are supplied with and other water plants. it the same as ours with butchers' meat. Indeed the anatomy of the frog, in its The turtle feeds on a grass growing at the various changes, is so singular that volumes bottom of the sea, called turtle grass ; they might be written on it.

When the tadnever go on shore but to lay their eggs, || poles are six weeks old the bind legs make which is in April : they then crawl up their appearance; the animal then bears a from the sea above the flowing of high || resemblance to a lizard more than a frog; water, and dig a hole above two feet deep the tail soon after begins to decrease, and in the sand, into which they drop in one in the space of a day or two is totally obnight above an hundred eggs. They then literated. It now ventures upon land, but fill the hole with sand, and leave them to || always wanders on the brinks of its native be hatched by the heat of the sun, which

waters; and being in prodigious numbers, is usually performed in three weeks. The | this phenomenæ has often embarrassed the eggs are about the size of tevnis balls, | vulgar, and even some superior characters round, white, and covered with a skin re

amongst natural philosophers, who have sembling parchment.

embraced the popular belief that it has rained frogs.

As soon as the frog has assumed its perThis creature generally abounds in moist | fect form it feeds ou animal food, and parsituations, wherever it can command a suf- ticularly on insects; to obtain which its ficient quantity of insects and worms, | tongue is admirably calculated, being so which constitute its chief food. Its colour placed that the root is more attached to varies considerably, but is generally of an the forepart than the binder of the mouth; olive brown, variegated on the upper parts and when at rest it lies backwards, as if of the body and limbs with irregular black | the animal was swallowing the tip.' This spots; the lower, or under parts, are of a enables the creature to throw it out to pale greenish yellow cast. Beneath each some distance from the mouth, which it eye is a long mark, reaching to the setting | does with great celerity, and being glution of the fore legs, The frog frequently nous at the extremity, the prey is easily casts its skin.

caught; which is swallowed with such I have often been displeased with you at celerity that the eye can scarcely follow it. seeing you scream and start when a frog Frogs do not attain their full size till has come across your path in the garden they are five years old; they live to the after a shower of rain; not only because | age of twelve or fifteen years. They cannot it is a most harmless animal, but if you dispense with the want of water, and a would divest yourself of foolish girlish an- dry air and hot sun inevitably cause their tipathies, and observe the creature well, it | destruction: they are unable also to supis extremely elegant, and has a very lively || port intense cold. and smart appearance: its limbs are finely The bull frog, a native of North Ame. calculated for all its peculiar motions: the rica, is uncommouly large, and derives its hind feet are strongly webbed, to assist its name from its voice, wbich resembles the progress in the water, to which it occa. lowing of a bull : it measures, in general, sionally retires during the summer heats : | eighteen inches from the tip of the nose to in the frosts of winter it lies in a torpid the end of the hind feet. The people of state in the soft mud at the bottom of stag. Virginia will not suffer it to be denant waters, till it again awakes at the stroyed, as they believe those kind of frogs approach of spring.

purify the water and keep it sweet. They The frog goes through two or three are, however, dreadful enemies to the young changes before it attains its perfect form, || ducks and goslings, which they swallow from the time, it issues from the egg. The whole in great numbers. first 'is a tadpole, and so unlike the frog I have written more on the frog than I that one can hardly imagine it to be the should have done had not you causelessly same animal, as they seem to consist merely been prejudiced against a barmless and in. of a head and tail; their motion is ex. ll offensive little being of our own climate :

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beware of those prejudices ; they appear in shunning carefully, without sending forth a well-informed female, especially, a ridi- frightful screams, those creatures which culous affectation; which, in spite of every are really noxious, and tracing the hand of exterior advantage, so far from rendering the Almighty in the formation of the mia young lady interesting, makes her apputest creature, is the heartfelt wish of pear silly and disagreeable. To see you, Your truly affectionate mother, a sensible woman, an admirer of the won

ANNA. derful works of a creative Providence,

TOPOGRAPHICAL MUSEUM.-No. XX.

DOVER.—The first striking object of were deposited the remains of many great Dover is its Castle, which shews in all its men; among whom was Henry Howard, vast extent of defence and forms a most Earl of Northampton, and one of the magnificent sight; in every point of view Wardens of the Cinque Ports; he had a its grandeur amazes. The town of Dover most magnificent monument erected to his beneath, forms a crescent terminated by memory, which, when the chapel was vast chalky precipices at either end, and about to fall into ruins, was removed to id-part overhung by others.: A deep vale, the Hospital at Greenwich. watered by a small stream, and bounded After the battle of Hastings, William tlre by lofty downs, finish the view on the Conqueror presented himself before Dover Deal side: on the other, the celebrated Castle ; it was then crowded with soldiers, strait, the town of Calais, and the French but the dread of his valour soon forced shore, with correspondent' cliffs streteh- them to surrender. During the Couing far to the south, form a most beautiful | queror's ystay of eight days, he gave new and uncommon coup-d'æil.

strength to the fortress, and appointed his It is now upwards of two thousand and balfibrother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, yothirty years ago since Cæsar sailed on his vernot. i The treachery of Odo, however, first expedition against Britain, intending unused him to lose his situation, and it was to land at Dover. At that period, instead given to John Fiennes. William fortified of an open sea, was a harbour penetrating the Castle by towers distinguished by diffar into the land, 'very narrow, and so ferent names, and which were rebuilt by bounded by mountains that the Britons those persons whose titles they now bear. were enabled to annoy the Roman forces One is named De la Pole's, from the unfrom the heights which hung over the fortunate Duke of Suffolk; others of king shore. Cicero mentions the very difficult Arthur and bis Queeu Gwynever; only, accěss to our island; for the orator had a we imagine, in honour of those illustrious very indifferent opinion of Cæsar's expe- persons, who certainly had no pretensions dition ; and, indeed, that conqueror himself to the architecture. was astonished at the sight of a mountain In the centre of this precinct is a noble ous coast covered with armed men, and keep, or square tower, rebuilt by Henry II. therefore made his attempt elsewhere, and on the model of those erected by Gunlanded on the fat Rutapian shore. dulphus, Bishop of Rochester. This is

The ancieut Phiaros still remains almost very large, with square towers. The en. entire; tbe lower part of which is of much trance is by a flight of steps on the outside, greater circumference than the upper; it but within is a magiiticent series of stairs is square within, excessively strong, and round two sides of the Castie, leading entirely composed of Roman masonry; the through one vestibule to another, and 10. a windows are sıralkı arched with Roman grand portal as bighi as the third story, in tiles, as is the entrance: the walls are ten which were the state apartnients. The feet thick: 41011 yig!"

vestibules and portal were closed by strong Adjacent to the Pharos are the ruins of gates, possibly to guard against a sudden the church -- the royal chapét is "evidently attack. lu tliis upper story the governor of Norman architecture"; and in tleis chapell resided, or the King when he visited the

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TOPOGRAPHICAL MUSEUM:

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Castle. The garrison was stationed in the little way up the valley, in places where Becond floor, and the lower was devoted to once rode lhe navies of Rome; anchors, the keeping the stores and provisions : be- and other naval remains, have often been neath was a dark and miserable dungeon | found under the soil. for prisoners.

The situation of Dover is very beautiful; The well is three hundred and sixty feet it is bounded by lofty verdant downs, and deep; the water-bucket is brought up by faced with snowy precipices of chalk : a two men yorking within an immense long street runs beneath, called Snare. wheel.

street. The great yate is large and lofty, square In early times Dover was much more in form, with two round towers in front. | populous than it is at present : there were This was called Fiennes' New Gate, or the seven churches, two of which, St. Mary's Coustable's Tower, and it was supposed to and St. James's, alone remain. Duver have been his principal residence: the seems to have been a very considerable present gate must certainly have been built place in the seventh century; for in 697, since the days of Fiennes, on the site of the Wihtred, King of Kent, removed the ancient oue. Edward IV. laid out ten cauons from their college in the Castle, to thousand pounds, by the advice of Lord the church of St. Martin in the town, and Cobham, in repairing, fortifying, and beau- increased their number to twenty-two; tifying the works; and Henry VIII. to he found it incompatible with the safety guard agaiust a surprise by sea, built at of the Castle to let them continue there, the foot of the cliff, ou the shore, one of their lives being very irregular: Cobbett, the many little castles he erected in the Archbishop of Canterbury, complained of year 1539; it was called the Mole's Bul- their licentioustiess to Henry I. who gave wark, and remains garrisoned

him all their possessions, expelled them, Matthew Paris styles Dover Castle the and desired the Archbishop to seek out a key and barrier of the whole kingdom : more moral set ; they were replaced by his but, however it might be deemed impreg- successor, by the authority of Henry II. nable, we find the Saxons panic-struck, by Benedictine monks. Some remains of and yielding it up to the Couqueror. the church built for the cauons, by Wih. Stepben, during his war with the Empress tred, are yet visible near the market-place. Maud, easily persuaded the Coustable to Numbers of Princes have landed at Dodeliver it into his hands. King John in ver at different times. William Rufus in trusted it to his fastbful Hubert, who, in 1095, the Emperor Sigismund in 1416 ; on 1216, defended it against all the efforts of his arrival the Duke of Glortcester, and Louis, Dauphiu of France, who, uniting several other great men, went into the sea with the discontented Barons, vigorously with their swords drawn, and declared they besieged it: though repulsed coutinually would oppose his landing if he came in wih great loss, Louis swore he would not any other character than their King's reraise the siege till he had taken the place lation and friend, not as an Emperor or and hanged the whole garrisou; for his superior ; his errand was to make peace father had sworu to him by St James's between the Kings of England and France. arm, that, till he hai gained possession of At Dover also landed the Emperor Charles Dover Castle, he had not gained one foot V. and was met by Henry VIII with all in England. This was soon verified on the that romantic pomp he usually affected. death of King Jobu. Louis attempted to lu 1382, Aune, sister of the Emperor corrupt the fidelity of Hubert, but in vain;'. Winceslaus, in her way to the solemnizahe continued firm in his allegiance to the tion of her nuptials with Richard II. had young momareh, and by his wise conduct no sooner lauded at this port thau the sea preveu'ed his country from becoming a became violeutly agitated from the shock province of France.

of au earthquake; the ship she had just The riesceut from the Castle to the town left was beat to pieces, aud many others is extremely rapid: the entrance of the greatly damaged; too sure omens of the harbour of the ancient Dubris is now solid turbulent reign experienced by the hus. land, covered with streets, which extend a band of this matchless woman.

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