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court against an inhabitant of the United States, by any original process in any other district than that whereof he is an inhabitant, or in which he shall be found at the time of serving the writ; nor can any district or circuit court have cognizance of any suit to recover the contents of any promissory note or other chose in action in favour of an assignee, unless a suit might have been prosecuted in such court to recover the contents if no assignment had been made, except in cases of foreign bills of exchange. The circuit courts have also appellate jurisdiction from the district courts, under certain regulations and restrictions. In suits commenced in state courts, against an alien, or a citizen of another state, if the matter in dispute exceeds $ 500, the defendant may remove the cause for trial into the circuit court. And in any action commenced in a state court, where the title of land is concerned, whose value exceeds $ 500, if either party claims under a grant from a state other than that in which the suit is pending, the cause may be removed for trial to the circuit court, although the parties be citizens of the same state.
$ 27. The attorney general of the United States is the public prosecutor before the supreme court. It is likewise his duty to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law, when required by the president. He may also be consulted by the heads of departments, touching any matters that may concern those departments. He has a salary of $ 3000 per annum.
$ 28. The public prosecutors before the circuit and district courts are the district attorneys, of whom there is one in each district. These attorneys are compensated by fees, which are taxed by the respective courts. In Louisiana the district attorney receives an additional compensation of $600 per annum from the United States ; there is also an allowance of $ 200 per annum to the attorney of each of the districts except Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and South Carolina. * 29. There is a marshal for each district, with the powers of a sheriff, who attends both the district and circuit courts. His fees are regulated by law. The marshals for the districts of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New Jersey, North Carolina, Kentucky, Ohio, East Tennessee, West Tennessee, and Louisiana, have each an additional compensation of $ 200 per annum from the United States.
830. There is a clerk of court in each district, who attends both district and circuit courts. Their fees and compensations for attending court, and for travelling to attend circuit courts, are fixed by law.
031. The clerks of courts are appointed by the courts, the attorneys and marshals by the president, by whom they are removeable at pleasure.
$ 32. Jurors and witnesses in the United States' courts, are allowed i dollar 25 cents per day, and five cents per mile for travelling to and from their respective places of abode. .
The conclusion of the Review of the Political Institutions of the United States will be given in the commencement of the third volume. This will contain an account of the following institutions, viz. the army, including a list of the general staff, the departments of the adjutant-general, inspector-general, paymaster-general, and quarter-master-general, the ordnance and hospital departments, and the duties of the respective officers as to the instruction of the troops, military correspondence, the selection of places of encampment, and posting guards; the mustering and inspecting the regulars and militia detachments, the regulation of the police of the camp and of the march, the opening and repairing roads and constructing of bridges for the passage of the army, &c. &c. the formation of the corps of engineers, and of the regiments of artillery, dragoons, riflemen, infantry, and rangers ; the militia and volunteer corps ; the rules and regulations of the army, as to rank, promotion, uniform, &c. An account of the arsenals, magazines, and armories of the United States. The navy and marine corps. Navy regulations. The navy pension fund. The light-house establishment. The regulations of privateers and letters of marque. The regulation of ships in the merchant service. The revenues of the United States, with statements of the receipts and expenditures from the establishment of the federal constitution. The rise and progress of the public debt. The sinking fund. The landoffices and surveyor-general's department. The post-office and post roads, &c. &c. To conclude with a review of the nature and form of government in the District of Columbia.
PROCEEDINGS OF CONGRESS. 12th CONGRESS-2 SESSION.
f 1. Meeting of congress. 5 2. President's message. $ 3. Expedition of general Hull.4. War on the ocean. § 5. Refusal of the militia. 5 6. Pacific advances to Great Britain. $ 7. Armistice. $ 8. Corres. pondence with admiral Warren. $ 9. Subjects recommended to the consideration of congress. 10. Merchants' bonds. $ 11. State of the treasury. 12. Conclusion.
91. ON Monday the 2d of November, 1812, being the day fixed by law, congress convened at Washington City. A quorum of the house of representatives appeared that day, but the requisite number of the senate did not meet till the 3d, when a joint committee from both houses waited on the presi.. dent, to inform him that they were ready to receive his communication.
92. On the following day he as usual transmitted his introductory message, accompanied with documents containing copies of letters from the secretary of state, authorizing Mr. Russell to conclude an armistice with the British government; Mr. Russell's correspondence with lord Castlereagh upon this subject; a correspondence between admiral Warren and the secretary of state ; a previous correspondence between Mr. Russell and lord Castlereagh on the subject of the repeal of the orders in council; and Mr. Erving's letter to the secretary of state, inclosing a correspondence with the Danish minister of foreign affairs. In subsequent messages the president communicated further information relative to the pacific advances of the American government, and the correspondence between the department of war and the governors of Massachusetts and Connecticut, on the subject of the militia. In taking a view of this introductory message, we shall, for the sake of perspicuity, class the whole of these papers together.
$ 3. After congratulations on the unusual degree of health enjoyed throughout the country, the abundance of the harvest, and the successful cultivation of other branches of industry, the
president adverts to the unfortunate issue of the expedition under general Hull, the causes of which, he observes, will be investigated by a military tribunal. This leads to observations on the hostile employment of the savages by the British, which he contrasts with the benevolent policy of the United States, which“ invariably recommended peace, and promoted civilization, among that wretched portion of the human race.”
“The misfortune at Detroit,” he continues, " was not, however, without a consoling effect. It was followed by signal proofs that the national spirit rises according to the pressure on it. The loss of an important post, and of the brave men surrendered with it, inspired every where new ardour and determination. In the states and districts least remote, it was no sooner known, than every citizen was ready to fly with his arms, at once to protect his brethren against the blood-thirsty savages let loose by the enemy on an extensive frontier, and to convert a partial calamity into a source of invigorated efforts.” .
The invasion of Canada from Detroit, it appears, was undertaken as well for the purpose of intercepting the hostile influence of Great Britain over the savages, and obtaining the command of lake Erie, as to co-operate with the forces employed against other parts of Canada. As soon as its unfortunate termination was known, measures were taken to provide a naval force on * the lakes superior to that of the enemy.
04. The message next notices the attack upon Queenstown, and the successful commencement of the war on the ocean, by the capture of the Guerriere, and the activity of our private cruizers.
05. The refusal of the militia by the governors of Massachusetts and Connecticut, “ founded upon a novel and unfortunate exposition of the provisions of the constitution,” forms another topic of the message. From the correspondence upon this subject, it appears, that by a circular letter from the war department, dated April 15, 1812, the executives of the several states were called upon to organize, and hold in readiness to march at a moment's warning, their respective quotas of 100,000 militia authorized by the act of April 10th, 1812. On the 12th of June, the secretary of war requested governor Strong of Massachusetts to order into the service of the United States, on the requisition of major-general Dearborn, such part of the quota of Massachusetts as he might deem necessary for the defence of the sea coast. On the 22d, general Dearborn called on the governor for 14 companies of artillery and 27 companies of infantry, for the defence of the ports and harbours of the state and the harbour of Newport, at the same time communicating