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late; then the trees begin to sway; everywhere there is action and pause, the rhythm of motion.

Peabody: Mornings in the College Chapel ("The Rhythm of Life").

c. Animated, joyous, fanciful thoughts and moods, and gay, excited, or rapid action are naturally expressed by short vowel sounds, as illustrated in the subsequent examples.

Puck. How now, spirit! whither wander
Fairy. Over hill, over dale,

Thorough bush, thorough brier,
Over park, over pale,

Thorough flood, thorough fire,
I do wander every where,
Swifter than the moon's sphere;
And I serve the fairy queen,

To dew her orbs upon the green.
Shakespeare: Midsummer Night's Dream, II, i.

you?

I sprang to the stirrup, and Joris, and he ;
I galloped, Dirck galloped, we galloped all three;
“Good Speed !” cried the watch, as the gate-bolts undrew;

Speed !” echoed the wall to us galloping through ;
Behind shut the postern, the lights sank to rest,
And into the midnight we galloped abreast.

Browning: How They Brought the Good News. 3. Stress. The word “stress " is used to indicate the x way in which vocal energy is distributed over the vowels, or, in other words, the way the voice strikes them. The greatest vocal force falls, obviously, on accented vowels. But the chief part of this energy is not always expended on the same part of the vowel. For example, we do not say, “I'm sorry," with the same stress we should use in speaking a determined, or defiant, “I won't!” The emotional import of the words, the speaker's relation to the thought, that is, his interest in and responsiveness to it, his motive in speaking, and his attitude toward those addressed, as well

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as the circumstances under which he speaks, determine how the voice shall treat the vowels. The greatest degree of energy may be applied to (a) the first part of the vowel, or (b) the middle, or (c) the end.

a. In most of our utterances, and in all normal mental and emotional conditions, the greater energy is given to the 'first part of the accented vowel in what is known as the radical, or initial, stress. This stress is well illustrated in statements of conviction, authority, or command. 1

“Forward the light brigade !
Charge for the guns!” he said.

Tennyson : Charge of the Light Brigade. Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my cause, and be silent, that you may hear; believe me for mine honor, and have respect to mine honor, that you may believe; censure me in your wisdom, and awake your senses, that you may the better judge.

Shakespeare: Julius Cæsar, III, ii. b. Sometimes, in the expression of exalted emotions, as awe, admiration, wonder, and reverence, the vocal energy Jis most strongly applied to the middle of the vowel. This

stress is called “median," and corresponds to the swell of tone in music. The difference between “radical” and “ median” stress is obvious in the ardent “Rah! Rah! Rah!” of the college yell, and the long drawn out “Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah!” of exultation and triumph. Occasionally one hears the median stress in boastful, pompous, swaggering utterances, as in the sentence: “Oh, I tell you, I'm not afraid of you or åny of your relåtions.” The “median” stress prevails in many passages of Scripture, and in prose and poetry

1 In apathetic, indifferent reading, where the thought makes little impression on the reader and where he has slight purpose or desire to communicate it clearly or vigorously to others, there is little stress of any kind. When there is no definite purpose in speech there is little purposeful direction of vocal energy. A definite stroke of the voice on the vowels is always perceptible in clear, convincing, and persuasive speech.

expressive of conceptions which strike the spirit with a sense of grandeur, sublimity, or power, and awaken awe, wonder, or reverence. No passage in the Bible makes a stronger appeal to the imagination or expresses thoughts that have in them greater power to stir the spirit than do the opening verses of Genesis. Yet this familiar passage is so often read in a business-like, prosaic, and hurried utterance, without giving the imagination time to dwell upon the majesty of the scene and events described, that few seem to realize its sweep, grandeur, and spiritual appeal. It should be read aloud again and again, until something of its power is felt and revealed through the voice.

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

And the earth was without form, and void ; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

And God saw the light, that it was good : and God divided the light from the darkness.

And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

Genesis, 1, 1-5. c. Sometimes in expressions of insistence, impatience, intolerance, and antagonism, the greater force of the voice is thrown toward the end of the vowel, with cumulative energy. This is called final stress. This peculiar vocal action is most

1 There is little profit in conscious attempts to acquire this style when the spirit is not moved to such expression. Deliberate efforts to secure “median" stress are apt to sound forced and unnatural. Only as the feelings are deeply stirred will the tone be produced in this way. The chief value of considering it at all is found in the recognition that when full, strong stress is lacking in the utterance of passages of genuine spiritual appeal, when the tone is flat, spiritless, and impassive, the spirit of the reader is not strongly stirred or profoundly impressed. Effort should then be directed to opening the mind and awakening the soul to receive impressions of noble and exalted thoughts. Then only will the expressive power of the voice be realized.

2 The over-use of the final stress is a habit and a fault which some individuals occasionally drop into. Its frequent use gives the impression of peevishness, petulance, or irritability, and of an abnormal state of feeling. Any

noticeable in prominent and central words, and is seldom the dominant stress of the accented syllables of an entire sentence.

Ah miserable, and unkind, untrue,
Unknightly, traitor-hearted ! Woe is me!

Tennyson : The Passing of Arthur.

Ye gods, it doth amaze me,
A man of such a feeble temper should
So get the start of the majestic world,
And bear the palm alone.

Shakespeare: Julius Cæsar, 1, ü.
O, you and I have heard our fathers say
There was a Brutus once that would have brook'd
The eternal devil to keep his state in Rome
As easily as a king.

Ibid.
I am the king, and come to claim mine own
From an impostor, who usurps my throne!

Longfellow: King Robert of Sicily.

PROBLEMS IN VOCAL ENERGY

1. Earnestness, reverence, martial and exultant moods,

and solemnity 1. There is not, throughout the world, a friend of liberty who

has not dropped his head when he has heard that Lafayette is no more. Poland, Italy, Greece, Spain, Ireland, the South

American republics, - every country where man is struggling how, as a modulation of voice for daily, common use, it does n't need much practice. In impressive reading aloud, however, it is required, and is a necessary part of tone vocabulary, since in literature we find all thoughts and moods. If the spirit of the line or selection is caught, the stress will reveal it, when once the voice has been trained to responsive obedience.

to recover his birthright, -have lost a benefactor, a patron, in Lafayette. And what was it, fellow-citizens, which gave ta our Lafayette his spotless fame? The love of liberty. What has consecrated his memory in the hearts of good men ? The love of liberty. What nerved his youthful arm with strength, and inspired him, in the morning of his days, with sagacity and counsel ? The living love of liberty. To what did he sacrifice power, and rank, and country, and freedom itself? To the horror of licentiousness, — to the sanctity of plighted faith, to the love of liberty protected by law. Thus the great principle of your Revolutionary fathers, and of your Pilgrim sires, was the rule of his life - the love of liberty protected by law.

Everett: Eulogy on Lafayette.

2.

When Freedom, from her mountain height,

Unfurled her standard to the air,

She tore the azure robe of night,
And set the stars of glory there.

J. R. Drake: The American Flag.

3.

This I beheld, or dreamed it in a dream :-
There spread a cloud of dust along a plain ;
And underneath the cloud, or in it, raged
A furious battle, and men yelled, and swords
Shocked upon swords and shields. A prince's banner
Wavered, then staggered backward, hemmed by foes.
A craven hung along the battle's edge,
And thought, “Had I a sword of keener steel -
That blue blade that the king's son bears, — but this
Blunt thing — !” he snapt and flung it from his hand,
And lowering crept away and left the field.
Then came the king's son, wounded, sore bestead,
And weaponless, and saw the broken sword,
Hilt-buried in the dry and trodden sand,
And ran and snatched it, and with battle-shout
Lifted afresh he hewed his enemy down,
And saved a great cause that heroic day.

Sill: Opportunity

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