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Little hands clapping and little tongues chattering,
And, like fowls in a farm-yard when barley is scattering,
Out came the children running.
All the little boys and girls,
With rosy cheeks and flaxen curls,
And sparkling eyes and teeth like pearls,
Tripping and skipping, ran merrily after
The wonderful music with shouting and laughter.

XIII

The Mayor was dumb, and the Council stood
As if they were changed into blocks of wood,
Unable to move a step, or cry
To the children merrily skipping by,

Could only follow with the eye
That joyous crowd at the Piper's back.
But how the Mayor was on the rack,
And the wretched Council's bosoms beat,
As the Piper turned from the High Street
To where the Weser rolled its waters
Right in the way of their sons and daughters !
However, he turned from South to West,
And to Koppelberg Hill his steps addressed,
And after him the children pressed ;
Great was the joy in every breast.
“He never can cross that mighty top!
He's forced to let the piping drop,
And we shall see our children stop!”
When, lo, as they reached the mountain-side,
A wondrous portal opened wide,
As if a cavern was suddenly hollowed ;
And the Piper advanced and the children followed,
And when all were in to the very last,
The door in the mountain-side shut fast.

XIV
Alas, alas! for Hamelin !

There came into many a burgher's pate
A text which says that heaven's gate
Opes to the rich at as easy rate

As the needle's eye takes a camel in!
The Mayor sent East, West, North, and South,
To offer the Piper, by word of mouth,

Wherever it was men’s lot to find him,
Silver and gold to his heart's content,
If he'd only return the way he went,

And bring the children behind him.
But when they saw 't was a lost endeavor,
And Piper and dancers were gone forever,
They made a decree that lawyers never

Should think their records dated duly
If, after the day of the month and year,
These words did not as well

appear,
And so long after what happened here

On the Twenty-second of July,
Thirteen hundred and seventy-six : '
And the better in memory to fix
The place of the children's last retreat,
They call it the Pied Piper's Street -
Nor suffered they hostelry or tavern

To shock with mirth a street so solemn;
But opposite the place of the cavern

They wrote the story on a column,
And on the great church-window painted
The same, to make the world acquainted
How their children were stolen away,
And there it stands to this very day.
And I must not omit to say
That in Transylvania there's a tribe
Of alien people who ascribe
The outlandish ways and dress
On which their neighbors lay such stress,
To their fathers and mothers having risen
Out of some subterraneous prison
Into which they were trepanned
Long time ago in a mighty band
Out of Hamelin town in Brunswick land,
But how or why, they don't understand.

CHAPTER VIII

VOCAL QUALITY

34. Definition of vocal quality. THE term vocal quality is applicable to two conditions of voice. It denotes (1) that distinctive and relatively permanent character, or timbre, by which the voice of one person is distinguished from that of another, and (2) the modulations of tone of an individual voice by which emotional states, such as joy, sorrow, fear, doubt, or affection, are expressed. 1)

35. What determines vocal quality The difference in the quality of voices is due to difference in the form of vibrations. The tone produced by the vibration of the vocal bands alone, if these could be set out from the rest of the vocal instrument, would be thin and characterless, but when it is reinforced by the secondary vibrations of the resonant spaces of throat, nasal chambers, and mouth, the tone assumes definite character and quality. As the sound of the flute differs from that of the violin because of difference in the material, texture, shape, and construction of the two instruments, so the quality of voices is determined by the texture of the vocal bands and

1 The voice of every human being has a quality of tone peculiar to it and different from that of any other voice. We recognize our friends and the individual members of the family by their voice even after long periods of separation and though we do not see them when they speak. Yet, each voice, while preserving its distinctive character, is susceptible of marked change of quality through the influence of imagination and emotion. The child knows by the tone of the mother's voice whether she is sympathetic or impatient; the voice of a friend tells us whether he is happy, sad, calm, or excited.

all parts concerned in the making of tone, and by the size, shape, and condition of the vocal cavities of chest, throat, nose, and mouth, - wherever, indeed, the tone vibrates.

But while the quality of a particular instrument is more or less stable, that of the voice is subject to notable modification. A change in the condition of any part of the vocal apparatus will change the quality of the tone. A cold is at once perceptible in the voice. Emotions, affecting as they do the muscular texture of the entire body, exert a marked influence over the delicate muscles controlling the voice, and consequently they modify the tone according to the character and intensity of the emotion. Joy brings a sense of firmness throughout the whole body -- the tone of joy is clear, firm, and strong. Grief relaxes, — the tone of grief is dull, monotonous, and sometimes not voluntarily controllable. Anger hardens and tightens the muscles, — the tone of anger is high, strident, tense. Affection, tenderness, love, soften the muscular texture, — of these the tone is low, tender, soothing.

36. Control of tone quality It is obvious that the quality of the voice is partly within the control of the will, partly beyond it. In so far as the character of the tone is predetermined by the size, the shape, and the texture of certain firm and fixed parts of the vocal organs, such as the roof of the mouth and the nasal chambers, it cannot be changed at will. To these fixed parts of the instrument the distinctive, individual quality of voices is attributable, while the emotional qualities are the result of adjustments of the flexible and adaptable muscles and tissues of throat, soft palate, and tongue, these being subject to the influence of the will and the emotions. It follows that the expressive qualities of the voice may be extended, improved, and brought under control. This may be

accomplished by technical vocal exercises 1 and by bringing the voice into intimate and responsive relation to mind, imagination, and feeling through the sympathetic vocal rendering of all forms of poetry and imaginative literature.

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37. The sympathetic rendering of literature The most effective way of improving the quality of the voice and of making it obedient and responsive to the demands of the mind and the emotions, is found in the sympathetic voicing of selections from literature embracing all varieties and shades of thought and feeling. As modulations in tone quality are the result of the direct influence of thought, imagination, and emotion on the voice, it follows that the training of the voice in quality depends on educating and strengthening these faculties through an awakened appreciation of various types of literature. Read aloud the lines quoted below and observe that, as the spirit of each is understood and felt, the quality of the voice undergoes a distinct change in passing from one to the other. Shylock. Who is he comes here?

Enter Antonio
Bassanio. This is Signior Antonio.

Shylock (aside). How like a fawning publican he looks! I hate him for he is a Christian ; But more, for that in low simplicity He lends out money gratis, and brings down The rate of usance here with us in Venice. 1 The discussion of the technique of tone production does not come within the province of this chapter. However, it should be remarked in passing that technical vocal exercises, when wisely used, are highly important and beneficial means of securing voluntary control of tone and of overcoming weaknesses and faults in the speaking voice. Thus, certain exercises may be effectively used in removing nasality, huskiness, thinness of tone, and the like. But' mechanical exercises do not suffice for the training of the voice in qualities of sympathy and in spontaneous responsiveness to thought and feeling. These qualities cannot be secured by mechanical devices, and a deliberate attempt to simulate sympathy of tone when sympathy is not felt results in obvious insincerity and artificiality.

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