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ject of dispute, the time for the inherited the virtue, without the celebration of Easter, and the ability of his predecessors, and the fashion of dressing the hair to be opportunity thus presented for observed by ecclesiastical persons, encroachment was eagerly imare particularly mentioned. The proved. It is also important to Roman computation required the observe respecting these injured paschal solemnities to commence men, these patriarchs in the cause on the first Sunday after the four- of English nonconformity, that to teenth, and before the twenty- the latest period of their influence, second of the equinoctial lunation. their piety and zeal, their devotion But the Britains and Scots had and their learning, were such as to been taught to commence their extort the plaudits even of their Easter services on the first Sunday enemies, a fact which may in some after the thirteenth, and before the measure account for their being twenty-first day of the same moon. abandoned by a prince, who, while Hence, when the Sabbath occurred giving law to the Octarchy, could on the thirteenth, their rejoicings reconcile the conduct of the assasbegan a week earlier than those of sin with the hope of the Gospel.* such as were in communion with The above statements are supRome.
ported by indisputable evidence, It was in the year 664, that and if correct, the question as to Oswy, who had recently united the extent of Anglo-Saxon obligathe powerful kingdom of Mercia tions to papal Missionaries, is not to that of Northumbria, invited to be determined by a comparison the opposing parties to meet him between the paganism of the at Whitby. The leading dispu- Saxon hordes on the shores of the tants were patiently heard; but it Baltic, and the faith embraced by was asserted, that the keys of their descendants in England, in Paradise were entrusted to St. the days of Theodore or Bede; Peter alone, and this politic but between the probable influence tenet is said to have influenced of the faith published by the the royal mind in favour of the preachers above adverted to, and papal advocates. The decision of that promulgated by the more Oswy became an act for unifor- effective instruments of the papal mity, and led to the ultimate authority. For it will hardly be expulsion of the Scottish teachers supposed, that the men whose zeal from the Anglo-Saxon territories. scattered the seeds of the kingdom, They saw, that to conform with from the northern extremities of this enactment would be to con- Saxon Britain, to the borders of cede to the churches planted by her southern provinces, were of a the Romanists, a supremacy on character to halt even there, had account of their connection with not the ground been already occuthe papacy, unjust in itself, and pied by foreign agents. If the dangerous to the Christian cause. reader will bear in mind, the conThe thing required might be trivial, cession as to the character of these but the principle of subjection was instructors, which has been cited not to be admitted.
from their enemies, and connect The scheme of usurpation thus with it what is known of the state established, had been long de- of religion among our Saxon favised ; but the sanctity and talent thers, he will scarcely be at a loss of Aidan, and of Finanus, his to determine whether this enterprise successor, were the safe-guard of of the papacy, should not be viewed liberty to their clergy and con- by every Englishman with much verts. Colman, who was next raised to the see of Landisfarne, * Bede, iji. 14. 21. 25, 26,
less 'of pleasure than regret. If it tually urged in both instances, and were in the heart of Gregory the that which in both instances was Great, or of Austin, generally to indignantly spurned, was the absoserve our pagan ancestors, the lute supremacy of the Roman motive is surely worthy of respect; Pontiff. but your present correspondent is The independence of the Angloconstrained to utter a useless la- Saxon Church has been a favourite ment over the success of their hypothesis with many of our antischeme, however well intended. quarian divines. It is, however,
I am aware that a Catholic dis- fearfully shaken by events, which putant would attempt to free him- immediately followed the dispute self from the difficulty which this before Oswy. Four years later, paper may put before him, by Theodore, a monk of Tarsus of claiming the Scottish Missionaries Cilecia, was appointed to the see themselves, as the fruit of the la.. of Canterbury, by the authority of bours of St. Patrick, or of the the Pontiff Vitalian, while the monk Palladius. But it happens successive appeals of Wilfrid of somewhat unfortunately, that even York, from the decision of the the existence of the former eccle- English metropolitan, to the tribusiastic has been thought, by cer- nal of the Pope, were found to be tain antiquaries, to be rather pro- still more hostile to the ecclesiasblematical, and of the latter still tical freedom of the country. Such less is in any way reported. The also as may be disposed to laud views of either, therefore, as to the influence of papal Christianity matters of doctrine or discipline, on the ferocious passions of our may be justly considered as lost fore-fathers, will do well to ponder in the injst of those distant ages, over the history of the avowedly with wbich their names have been Christian Thanes of Northumbria, connected. Admitting the exist- during the eighth century. In that ence of these apostles, it remains brief interval, the sceptre passed to be proved, that the seeds of through the hands of fourteen the Gospel were until their day princes, of whom certainly not wholly unknown among the bar more than one escaped a death barous people, who are said to unconnected with violence or dishave been so greatly benefited grace. The crimes of the succesby their generous labours. It is sive aspirants shocked the humacertain that the Irish, the Scotch, nity of Charlemagne, and comand the Welsh believers, in the pelled him to denounce the Norseventh century, were contem- thumbrian nation as more despeplated by the papal Missionaries rate than pagans. Nor could the as of one faith and one order ;* civil liberties of a people have and equally certain, that their been of a very envious description, Christianity, come whence it may, which were so easily passed into was of a less pliant texture than the hands of such ecclesiastics as had at that period obtained among Dunstan and Odo. The reader, the nations of the west. The spirit also, who would see the debasing which dictated the rejecting of the effects of the monastic spirit on claims of St. Austin on the part of the feelings of a nation, may conthe Britons, was that which sug- sult Bede's epistle to Egbert, and gested the same line of conduct to the fulfilment of the Presbyter's the Scottish Missionaries in the de- prediction, as detailed in the rebates at Whitby. The point vir- volting story of the Danish inva
sions. In a word, of the princes * Usber's Religion of the Ancient Irish
who filled the English throne, from and British.
Alfred the Great, to Edward the Confessor, there is no one to be of the conclusions which his readadduced as affording the evidence ers are likely to draw from his of scriptural piety. The fairest observations would be unjust, both
be preferred by that once ferocious At the same time, I wish it chieftain, Canute the Dane. to be understood that, on far Kensington. VERITAS. higher grounds than some of
those taken by your correspon
dent, the friends of Missions in ENGLISH LIBERALITY ASSERTED,
the south should ever be willing, IN ANSWER TO A 6 REPLY OF
according to their ability, to asA FRIEND OF MISSIONS.”
sist the religious Institutions of (To the Editors.)
the north, when urgent and suffiGENTLEMEN,-I noticed, with cient claims are presented. I hope pain, a communication in your nothing I am about to say will number for March, signed “A lessen this readiness, but, on the Friend of Missions."
contrary, tend to promote that I was grieved, because it was a mutual co-operation among the statement fitted to excite improper Christian inhabitants of Britain feelings in the minds of persons on in supporting religious Instituboth sides of the Tweed. I fear tions, which will, I trust, increase, that the impression which the pa. as the wants of the heathen world per is likely to make on the minds are more discovered. of many of your readers can only I expect that I am not misreserve to injure that cause the writer presenting the intentions of the professes to advocate.
writer of the Reply, when I say, The writer's intention seems to that it appears to be his wish that be, not only to reply to the Lon- the following inferences should be don minister, and to vindicate the drawn from his paper : objectionable passage in the Re- . 1st. That, hitherto, Scotland port of the Scottish Missionary has been generous towards EngSociety, but to take that passage lish religious Institutions. as a point d'appui, from whence to 2dly. That England has hitherdirect rather heavy charges against to been ungenerous to the rethe friends of Missions in the ligious Institutions of Scotland ; south, and also to make an appeal and, to his countrymen about the pro- 3dly. That, should England priety of showing, for the future, make no alteration for the better less liberality to the religious In- in her conduct, it will be the duty stitutions of England.
of Scotland to restrain her libe. Without entering into the ques- rality, or direct it to the support tion between your two corre- of her own Institutions. spondents, respecting the reasons The first inference I admit. I why the Deputation from the think Scotland has done much, north was not favourably received and done well, in assisting many in London last year ; or with the of the religious Institutions existvarious points mooted concerning ing in this country. Considering the suitability or non-suitability of the amount of her population, and the members of the Deputation, the means possessed by the peowhich would be an invidious task; ple, she has been liberal. I am I consider it my duty to lay be- most happy in having this opporfore your readers some corrections tunity of declaring my opinion on of the writer's statement of ac- this point. counts between the two countries. The second inference I do not and endeavour to show that some admit. Before I could do so, it
must be shown that Scotland pos- pressing the complaints of other sesses more religious Institutions Institutions in Scotland. How than she really does; that the an- far such is the case will, I trust, nual expenditure of her Societies be seen as we proceed. is much greater than it really is;. First. From the writer's rethat when applications were made marks, we might suppose that the to England by Deputations from conduct of the London ministers the north, less had been given, towards the Deputation of the in proportion to the claims of the Scottish Missionary Society imInstitutions, than what had been plicates, in some degree, the whole given to the Deputations of simi- of England. Hence the array of lar Societies from England; and figures against this country, which also that there are in Scotland would never have appeared had Societies which have the very the circumstance alluded to not same object in view, with some of taken place. the English Institutions assisted Paris was once considered only by the friends of religion in the another name for France; but I north.
never knew before that London The third inference may appear included England. The London to be plausible in theory; but I ministers, numerous as they are, trust, for the sake of Scotland, as do not compose one fiftieth part well as England, that it will never of the Dissenting ininisters of Engbe realized in practice. I cherish land ; and while we in the counthis hope on account of the inte try wish to cherish towards our rests of the Redeemer's kingdom; metropolitan brethren sentiments for I am prepared to show that of respect for their works' sake, such a procedure would be inju- and willingly commit to their marious, not so much to England, as nagement, and that of their friends, to the cause of religion in the our contributions for religious Inworld. Neither can I imagine stitutions, we acknowledge no suthat the good sense, and good premacy, no superiority. We principle, of my countrymen will cheerfully act in union with them, allow them to moderate their libe- in the great cause of Christianity ; rality, because one Society in but we are Congregationalists, Scotland has called upon them to and every church acts independo so. They will justly question dently, when applications are the right of any single Institution made to assist any object of to dictate, or even to recommend, Christian benevolence. Before a restraining of their contribu- such a sweeping charge should have tions to the religious Societies of been brought against the whole of the south, although that Institu- England, the various counties tion should bear the national ought at least to have been atname.
tempted; and, after presenting In farther directing the atten- claims which deserved the consition of your readers to this sub- deration of the Christian public, ject, my intention is to show that these had been rejected, then, and your correspondent wishes his not till then, should the Dissenters readers to take too much for of England be charged with indifgranted ; that he has made partial ference to the religious Institutions representations respecting the ob- of the north. ligations of England; and that he - Secondly. The writer appears to has so written, as if the complaint take it for granted, that while of the Scottish Missionary Society Episcopal, Moravian, Hibernian, should not be viewed as that of Continental, Jews', and Wesleyan one Society, but rather as ex- Methodist's Societies have all received pecuniary aid from Scot, speak thus, because they compose land, the Congregational churches the class of persons chiefly spoken of London, or England, are to against for not showing more libebear all the blame for not being rality to the Scottish Institution. more liberal to the Scottish So- Surely, it would have been more ciety ; that they are liable for all candid in the writer to have conthe sums transmitted to England sidered (as he was going on the for religious purposes ; and that, principle of reciprocal contribuif they do not return an equi- tion) what assistance those relivalent, they are ungenerous and givus Institutions had received unjust.
from Scotland, which the London . Now, this is not friendly of ministers, and the churches in the the “ Friend of Missions." Why country, principally support. If should the Congregationalists, he had done so, how very different (Baptist and Pædo-baptist) be would have been the state of the viewed as having incurred the account ! debt of £150,000., of which, ac- I apprehend that a much smaller cording to his statement, not one balance will appear against the eighth part has been returned, in Dissenters of England; for, be it kind, to Scotland ? If the Scot- remembered, it is against them the tish Missionary Society is indeed principal charge is made. Other the representative of all the reli- denominations were not tried ; so gious Institutions in Scotland, that, in common justice, they canwhich, by the way, is rather an not be condemned for non-compliassumption, why did not its Com- ance. mittee apply to the supporters of But, before I estimate the acthe Church Missionary Society, counts on this principle, there is and the Jews' Society, and obtain rather a formidable mistake of collections in the parish churches your correspondent's which must of London, and throughout Eng- be corrected. He commences the land ? Why not apply to the account between the Scottish MisWesleyan Methodist Conference sionary Society and the English to be permitted to make col. public in 1815, and that of the lections in their numerous chapels Congregational Union in the same in the metropolis and elsewhere? year. Now, he should have Was all this done? If it was, known that the Edinburgh (now and unfavourable answers were the Scottish) Missionary Society returned, why not distinctly state did not make any application to the fact, and let those who were England till 1819, and that the equally, nay more uncourteous Congregational Union did not apthan the Congregational ministers ply till 1820. He may therefore of London, bear their share of the deduct four years, at least, from blame? But was no application his statement, and make his calmade to any of the Denominations culations for six, instead of ten, mentioned ? Then, with what can years. This will make the Cr. dour can the Friend of Missions side a little less; but it will mabring his array of sums, as contri- terially alter the Dr. side of the buted to ten different Institutions by Scotland, as a charge pro- don fessedly against English Christians, but surely no objection could be made by but in reality against the Con- any of them to a Presbyterian Institution gregational ministers and churches receiving collections from their congrega
T of London and England ?*
I am therefore supposing that all
this want of co-operation was on the part * lam aware that there are a few Scot- of the Congregationalists. Am I right in tish Presbyterian congregations in Lon- doing so ?
· towns of