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many children were nursed up for ters are partial to the memory heaven. She imitated God's com- of their patrons and benefactors, mon providences in relieving the but person's good works do not necessitous, the undeserving ;- flatter them. I appeal to her and his special, in her more tender noble almshouse, built and exregard to those who were useful actly paid nine or ten years before and truly good. Multitudes will she died, where, in the space of feel the loss of her. If her private that time, she expended above charities were all known, they £1,500. I might mention her other would amaze you; her silver charities in this city, and her sevestreams ran along the vallies, to ral schools not far from it, to water the adjacent parts. Many rescue some of the rising generathat knew not the spring-bead, tion from damnable ignorance. But when they find the stream dried if I were silent, her works would up, will know the reason, when praise her in the gate. Some of they hear that Lady Hewley is her works went before her, as a dead.' May not many say, 0 memorial before God; others folLady Hewley, would to God I low to perpetuate and perfume her had died for thee! Not that she name in the churches, to continue was unfit to die, but more fit to her serviceableness still upon earth, live than any of us. She was one to increase her glory in heaven, of those the Apostle speaks of, and to excite others to an imitafor whom some would even dare tion of them. . to die. These are but dark sha. After all these, she thought herdows of the bright star that once self an unprofitable servant, and shone in our heavens, but now when any have told her of some disappear, never to lend her light good work she had done, she to us more, but is removed to a would sometimes answer with higher orb, where she shall shine divine Mr. Herbert, "6 yes, if it brighter than the sun. To enter were sprinkled with the blood of into the particulars of adorning Christ.” She thought none had her character, requires loftier more need of the merits of a Sa. strains than I am master of, es- viour to justify and save her. Her pecially under the discomposure finishing and most ardent breathoccasioned by the just sorrow for ings were into his bosom, " Come, the loss of the most entire and best Lord Jesus, come quickly," and friend I had in the world; and they are now met never to part am more fit to trail along with more. The loving Jesus and the the silent mourners, to pay the humble believing soul are now poor tribute of my tears unto her met in eternal embraces. Heaven hearse, than to utter a panegyric. had often heard of her before, But this little I was owing in by the multitudes of petitions that conscience to the memory of this daily crowded thither; but now incomparable lady, which will be heaven has received her longing, second and precious in the esteem sanctified soul, and there she lives of all, but those who think nothing without pain and sickness, and well but what is done by them- without sin. There she sees, and selves. It is possible, indeed, loves, and adores, and enjoys her aud too often happens, that minis- God and Saviour as she would.

· ORIGINAL ESSAYS, COMMUNICATIONS, &c.

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ON THE IMPORTANCE OF THE the ten commandments, and the

SABBATH, CONSIDERED MERE. subsequent inscription of those LY AS A CIVIL INSTITUTION.* commandments upon tablets of

stone, by the finger of God himself, « Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and

all unite in bearing testimony to morality are indispensable supports; the permanency of the Sabbath, the mere politician, equally with the and to the universality of its obpious man, ought to respect and to ligation. cherish them.”--Wushington's Farewell Address.

It is not, however, our inten

tion to inquire into the origin of To those who acknowledge the this institution, or into the spiritual divine authority of the Scriptures, duties and blessings connected no arguments can be necessary with it; but to prove that the temto prove the benign influence of poral benefits resulting from it, the Sabbath on civil society. That are alone sufficient to entitle it to the Sabbath was made for man, the countenance and protection of we have the assurance of Christ the civil authority. We shall, himself; and it would be impious therefore, consider the Sabbath to question the wisdom or bene- merely in the light of a civil involence of any institution esta- stitution, being one day in seven blished by the Almighty, for the peculiarly appropriated by the benefit of his creatures..

laws to religious instruction, and · Were it relevant or necessary the practice of religious rites, and to our present design, we could on which the ordinary occupa. readily show, that the Sabbath tions and public amusements of was not exclusively a part of the society are prohibited. Mosaic dispensation; and con- st would not be difficult to sequently, that the design of its prove, that such an institution appointment, and the duty to ob. would be attended with many and serve it were not confined to the great advantages under any sysJewish nation. The period of its tem of religious belief, whether establishment, coeval with the true or false. We shall not, howcompletion of the creation-its ever, give so extensive a range observance by the Israelites ante- to our inquiries, but confine them cedent to the promulgation of the to the more natural and practical law from Mount Sinai-its incor- consideration of the Sabbath, as poration into that law from which connected with Christianity. It all the precepts peculiar to the is obvious, from the very nature of Jewish religion were excluded this institution, as already de the awful and sublime circumstan- scribed, that it must have a powerces which attended the delivery of ful tendency to preserve and dif

fuse the knowledge and influence

of the religion of any country in * A premium of 50 dollars was offered by a gentleman of New York, for the best

which it is established, and of Essay on this subject, and it was awarded

course that its utility here, is to be to W. Jay, Esq. of Bedford, Westchester, estimated by the importance of N. Y. He generously gave the 50 dollars Christianity to the welfare and to the Female Sabbath School, Union Society, and published the Essay at the

happiness of the community. close of last year, in the New York Ob Every government of which server, from which we copy it.

history has preserved a record,

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bas called to its aid, either more covered, and his guilt established or less directly, the influence of by proof; and the fear of punishreligious sentiment. Nor is it diffi- ment is often counteracted by the cult to understand, why the magis- possibility and the hope of eluding trate has in all ages sought to avail detection. But the votary of rehimself of those awful sanctions ligion knows that he serves a with which every religion enforces Master, whose omniscience and its own precepts. Religious obli- omnipotency render escape hopegation is founded on the will of less, and punishment inevitable. the Deity, discovered either by So conscious are all governments revelation, or by reason. This of the inefficacy of penalties to will, correctly understood, is, and secure obedience to their law, that ever must be, consistent with the in a great variety of cases, they call good both of nations and indivi- in the aid of religious obligation, duals; and, in innumerable in- and bind their subjects by oaths, stances, acts which are injurious to the performance of their duties. to society, are by common consent Human laws trust solely to the admitted to be offensive to God. influence of terror, while religion Hence false religions are even to addresses herself to the hopes as a certain extent conducive to the well as the fears of mankind, and public welfare; because, with their offers rewards as rich and glorious falsehoods are usually mingled as her punishments are awful and some truths relative to the divine appaling. attributes. But inasmuch as Chris- Even if it were possible to imtianity excels all other religions, part to the police an energy equal in the fulness and certainty of its to the detection and punishment exhibition of the divine will, so of every delinquent, what an much the more conformable must enormous and hateful mass of it be to the wants and propensities, wickedness, cruelty, and injustice, the peace and happiness of the would still remain unnoticed and human family. Indeed, were every unrestrained by the laws!. At citizen wholly to govern his con- what human tribunal could we duct by the precepts of this re- arraign avarice, ingratitude, unligion, and to do to others as he kindness, falsehood, selfishness, would they should to him, violence pride, and a host of vices, which and injustice would cease, and are alike the bane of private hapthe sword of the magistrate would piness and public peace? But the slumber in its sheath.

believer in Christianity is taught, A slight view of the compara.. that neither the words of his mouth, tive influence of human laws, and nor the meditations of his heart, religious sentiment, in correcting escape the observation of that the evils, and promoting the hap- Being, who will “ bring every piness of society, will afford abun- work into judgment, with every dant evidence of the superior effi. secret thing.” cacy of the latter. Human laws Could human laws restrain men forbid only the commission of from crime, their highest aim crimes; they presume not to take would be attained; they attempt cognizance of thoughts and in- not the task of inciting them to tentions. Religion, on the con- virtue. No statute could compel trary, erects her throne in the us to love our neighbour as ourheart, sways its affections, con- selves, to pray for those who distrols its passions, and directs its pitefully use us, and to do good as motives." Before the magistrate we have opportunity to all men. can enforce the sanctions of his The Christian, however, is aslaws,- the offender must be dis- sured, that “ love is the fulfilling New SERIES, No. 18.

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of the law," and that freedom rites and worship of the house of from vice, unaccompanied by be- God. Without a periodical and nevolent affections and exertions, general cessation from labour, the will not entitle him to the rewards public worship of the Deity, and of Heaven. No temporal penal- the religious instruction connected ties can so effectually controul the with it, would be greatly intervindictive passions, and restrain rupted, if not wholly abandoned. the violence and outrage which The ministers of religion could not proceed from them, as the recollec- advantageously exercise their function that we must forgive others, tions, unless their people were before we can hope to be forgiven. permitted, at stated periods, to At the same time that Christianity suspend their ordinary avocations, exerts her influence in securing in order to attend their ministrathe public tranquillity and welfare, tions. Religious services, if casual she penetrates the recesses of do- and precarious, would afford but mestic privacy, whispers conso- little benefit, and be offered to but lation to the bereaved, soothes few auditors. Under such cirthe pangs of the sufferer, and dif- cumstances, the sacred order itself fuses love, and joy, and peace, would ultimately cease to exist; throughout the social circle. We or it would sustain itself only by might pursue our subject, and an usurped authority over the exhibit, in its various bearings; the consciences of the people. Ignopropitious influence of this religion rance of the truths of Christianity upon human happiness, by insti- would lead to their perversion, tuting a comparison between the and a blind and debasing supermorals, customs, and civil polity stition, would take the place of of the most enlightened nations that religion which, while it sancof antiquity, and those of our own tifies the heart, enlightens the age and country. But enough has understanding. The clergy would, been said, to show that Christianity in time, become the sole deposiis eminently conducive to the taries of religious knowledge, and welfare, both of rulers and of sub- would exercise a spiritual dojects; and of course, that the minion, founded upon ignorance Sabbath, if essential to the main- and superstition. If, at the present tenance of this religion in vigour day, we take a survey of the and purity, ought to be guarded various churches in Christendom, and cherished by the state with we shall find that the observation affectionate solicitude. • of the Sabbath, affords an accurate · If we reflect for a moment, standard of the degree of religious what a vast proportion of mankind truth and freedom prevailing in are doomed to daily labour for each; and that with the profanatheir subsistence, we shall be sen- tion of this day, moral obligation sible, that multitudes are neces- is relaxed, religion sinks into susarily deprived of all opportunity perstition and unmeaning cereof acquiring religious information, monies; and the power of tho except such as the Sabbath affords. priesthood rises superior to conWere the Scriptures universally science and to reason. distributed, there would still be The agency of the Sabbath in many without either ability or preserving and extending the iuleisure to peruse them. To such fluence of religion, is not, however, persons the Sabbath brings not the only benefit it confers upon merely a respite from toil, and con- society. No political institution sequently time for religious study whatever, contributes so much and meditation, but also the in- to the actual comfort and enjoystruction of the pulpit, and the ment of mankind; and multitudes

who derive no religious advantages to themes of high and eternal from it, participate largely in its interest-he unites with his fellow temporal blessings.

citizens, of every rank, in the The returning day of rest brings adoration of the Deity; and rerepose and quiet to thousands, turns to his dwelling with enlarged who would otherwise spend their conceptions and elevated hopes. lives in unremitting labour. The His shop and all its concerns are avarice of the rich would extort dismissed from his thoughts—other from the necessities of the poor, and delightful subjects engross the utmost exertion of human his contemplation-the powers of strength and endurance. But the his mind are called into actionSabbath, like an angel of merey, and as he meditates on death, pays its weekly visit to the chil- judgment, and eternity, his heart dren of poverty and of labour, swells with a sense of his own suspends their toil, revives their high and immortal destinies. He exhausted strength, and cheers calls his offspring around him, their drooping spirits with visions and after teaching them to parti. of future happiness and glory. cipate in his own hopes and con

Every occupation naturally solations, closes the day by kneelleads to the formation of certain ing with them before the throne habits, both of mind and body, of mercy, to offer his thanksgivings and when the occupation is pur- for the past, and his prayers for sued without intermission, these the future. On the morrow he habits are formed, to the exclusion returns to his work, his body inof all others, and man is degraded vigorated by repose, and his mind into a mere machine, and rendered stored with useful topics, for the unfit for the high and various duties exercise of his own faculties. to which bis Creator has called Would we know, then, the value him. But the relaxation afforded of the Sabbath, as a civil instituby the Sabbath, allows the bodily tion, in rescuing the laborious and mental faculties to recover poor from moral and mental de. their wonted tone and elasticity, gradation, let us compare the and preserves them in health and picture just drawn, with that of a vigour. With the return of this being compelled to pass his life season of rest, the artizan removes within the narrow precincts of a from his person the filth contracted work-house, and occupied only in by a week of labour, and from turning a wheel, or throwing a his mind the thoughts and anx, shuttle. No Sabbath interrupts ieties peculiar to his calling. his labour--the voice of instrucArrayed in clean and decent ap- tion never breaks upon his earparel, he goes forth into the the sphere of his knowledge is society of his fellow men. New bounded by the rules of his art ideas crowd upon his mind, and his acquaintance with mankind is new scenes open to his view. If limited to his fellow-labourers ; he has been taught to appreciate while his few and casual moments the privileges of this sacred day, of relaxation are devoted to riot he repairs to the house of God. and debauchery. There, in the presence of Him But it is not in the humbler who is no respecter of persons, walks of life alone, that the Sabhe feels the natural equality of bath has a tendency to purify and the human family, and rejoices in elevate the moral and intellectual the reflection, that, however hum- faculties of man. The frequent ble and obscure may be his present recurrence of a day devoted to lot, he is the heir of a blessed and repose and reflection, occasions glorious immortality--he listens a pause in the turmoil of worldly

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