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garded as importantoruseful. That Under the influence of these many of their productions were the views, we are exceedingly glad to ephemera of the day, occasioned be furnished with the first coinby the excitement of local or plete and portable edition of the tėmporary circumstances; and works of Bishop Reynolds. Sevewhich must, therefore, be very ral of the larger pieces have been uninteresting to us. . That some frequently printed before, and what of them wrote too much, and with are called his so
Works,” have apvery little care; and that, if their peared more than once in one vowritings contain a large portion of lume folio. That volume, howwheat, there is also no small por-- ever, does not include several contion of chaff. That publishing all siderable productions of his pen, their works subjects the buyer to which are now included in this a very heavy tax, as it compels very handsome edition in 8vo. from him to buy much in order that he the press of Bentley. may enjoy a little.
Reynolds was one of the most Without pretending to say there respectable of the small number is no force or truth in these objec- of respectable men, who, after obtions, we conceive that the force jecting to Episcopacy, and contriof them may be greatly invalidated. buting to
buting to its downfal, at last We dislike abridgments, though conformed to it, and died in the some of them have been more use- possession of its - honours. He ful that the original works; be- was never, we believe, so decided cause we are never sure whether in his hostility as many of those we are reading the author himself, with whom he acted. He again or the meaning put upon him by and again accommodated himself his epitomizer. We also dislike to the peculiar circumstances of selections, because, though we the times; so that his final return may be sure we have got the to the church, and his acceptance author himself, we are not very of a bishopric, are less matters sure that the editor has not left of surprise. We cannot approve out what would be equal, if not of his conduct; yet his character, superior, in importance, to that as a religious man, always stood which he has selected. Besides, high, and his moderation remained that which one man considers of to the last. no use, another may find of vast Mr. Chalmers, one of the most importance. Controversies, the faithful and industrious of biogramost peculiar in their nature, orphers, complains that he has been limited in their operation, or fierce able to procure only very scanty or moderate in their spirit, may materials for a memoir of Bishop throw light on the character and Reynolds. We shall extract some state, of the age to which they portion of this narrative, which belong, and enable us to meet the these materials have enabled him same difficulties or circumstances, to put together. should they again occur. . And,
“ Dr. Edward Reynolds, forty-ninth though the
expense of purchasing Bishop of Norwich, was the son of Au. these complete editions must be gustine Reynolds, one of the customers considerable, no one is under the of Southampton. This Augustine was necessity of charging himself with the son of John Reynolds, of Longport,
or Langport, in Somersetsbire, and grandit, unless voluntarly, as most of to another John Reynolds of the the important pieces are usually to sąme county. be had in a separate form; while,
“ Our prelate was born in the parish of as a collection of documents, many ampton, in November, 1599. His mo
Holywood, or rather Holyrood, Southof which would be in danger of ther's family we have not been able to perishing, they are really invalu- ascertain : her Christian name was Bridget
“ He was educated at Southampton, in ' built in 1609, there appears to have been the frec-grammar School, founded by no preacher, under that name, before the Edward VI. in 1553, near the termination year 1599. Those who formerly officiated of his valuable life. The letters patent were called Divinity-readers, of whom are dated the 4th of June, in the seventh there were two in 1580; and in 1592, two year of his reign. When Mr. Reynolds were recommended by Whitgift, Archattained the bishoprick of Norwich, be bishop of Canterbury, to be elected from gave a benefaction of fifty pounds to the each University; but it does not appear school; and his son Edward, then Arch- whether four were accordingly elected. In deacon of Norfolk, gave another bene- the list preserved in the Inn, a single difaction of twenty pounds.
vinity-reader is named in 1593. “ Among the distinguished men edu. “ At the time when our author's apcated at this school, were the very cele- pointment took place, there certainly were brated Dr. Isaac Watts, and Dr. Thomas two, although his name only appears in the Lawrence, an eminent physician in Lon- list, as preacher. It is probable that the don, and father of the late Sir Soulden one was preacher, and the other assistant, Lawrence, one of the judges of the Court as is the case at present. of King's Bench.
elected in the same year with Mr. Rey“ From the grammar-school Mr. Rey- nolds, was a divine of great fame in his nolds was removed to Merton College, day, Dr. John Preston, who died in 1628. Oxford, under the wardensbip of the cele- “ It appears from his Latin dedication bratep Sir Henry Savile. Here, in 1615, to the society of Lincoln's Inn, that our he was admitted a portionist, or post- author either preached or lectured before master, one of the exhibitions founded in them on the subjects which form the first 1380, by John Willyott, chancellor of volume of the present edition of his Exeter, the value of which was increased works. These must have attracted consiby subsequent benefactors before the time derable attention, not only for the matter, of Mr. Reynolds. He took the degree of but for the style, which was far more eleBachelor of Arts on October 15, 1618. gant than many of his brethren had at.
“ Wood says that the warden Savile, tained at that time. for the improvement of his college in “ This employment probably obliged literature, always made choice of the best him to reside in London during the scholars, at the usual election of bachelor greater part of the year ; but he frefellows. In the last choice which he quently visited Oxford. On one occasion made, about three years before his death, (Aug. 5, 1627), he preached before the which consisted of six, four of them University, in Merton College Chapel ; (whereof two of them were afterwards and in his sermon adverted to the controbishops), were esteemed eminent, namely, versy between Dr. Heylin and Dr. Pri. Dr. Reynolds, of Norwich, Dr. Earl, of deaux, taking the part of the latter, who Salisbury, John Doughty, and Alexander had accused Heylin of a leaning towards Fisher.'
popery. “ Mr. Reynolds became probationer is In March, 1631, Mr. Reynolds was fellow in 1620. This, Wood informs us, presented to the living of Brampton, in he acquired by his skill in the Greek lan- Northamptoushire, by the interest of guage; and adds, that, throughout his Isaac Jobnson, Esq. ; and as the duties of bachelorship, he showed himself a good this rectory were, in his opinion, incomdisputant and orator. His early works, patible with the preachership of Lincoln's the dates of which we can ascertain, Inn, he resigned the latter, and was suc. discover an intimate acquaintance with ceeded by Mr. Joseph Caryl, well known Greek and Latin writers, a facility of as the author of a voluminous commentary quotation which proves most extensive on the book of Job, who held the office reading, and an apt memory. He was until the year 1654. Mr. Reynolds took continually enlarging his mind by study, up his residence at Brampton, in April, not foreseeing that such continual seden- and held the living until he was made. tary employment as he and his distinguished bishop of Norwich. contemporaries indulged in, would lead to “ On tire commencement of the rebelthe disease which embittered many years lion, which Wood dates from 1642, but of his life.
which might have been dated much earlier, " The time at which he took his mas. Mr. Reynolds is said by that author to ter's degree is not mentioned; we are only bave sided with the Presbyterians, having told that this occurred before he went been long before that time puritānically into holy orders. In 1622, when scarcely inclined. It is not, perhaps, very difficult twenty-three years old, he had a great ho- to guess what Wood means by Mr. Rey. nour conferred upon him, by being elected nolds's being puritanically inclined.' to succeed the celebrated Dr: Donne, af. The same, or a similar expression, he has terwards dean of St. Paul's in the preacher- 'employed in the case of many others reship of Lincoln's Inn.
corded in his useful biograpby, who either is In the ebapeł of this inn of court, res were, or afterwards became members of New SERIES, No. 21,
the Church of England. It seems most volving in their minds the importance of a generally to imply that they were Calvi. change which many of their friends might nists. The first Calvinists, including most think diametrically opposite to all their of the reformers, and of the compilers of former professions. This, we shall see, the Liturgy, have been classed among Pu- was considered to be the great obstacle to ritans. Scruples respecting certain cere- one of these divines, but not to the monies of the church, and the vestments other. of the clergy, when performing duty, “ At length, on the same day that the created the first distinction known by the king's declaration was published, the Lord name of Puritanism, and afterwards of Chancellor asked Baxter if he would acnonconformity.
The latter was the more cept a bishoprick. Baster, who had just intelligible, and implied some dislike either seen the Declaration, acknowledged, with to the church government, or to doctrines. thankfulness, the moderation of its terms, Puritianism was originally a nick-name, but desired more time for deliheration, allırding to strictness of personal piety; best and his principal reason appears to have was at length adopted as an honourable been that he wished first to see the Declatitle, if not by the parties themselves, cer- ration become a legal authority. The tainly by their biographers and historians. Chancellor acqniesced in his request for According to Baxter, about the time of more time to deliberate, without noticing the restoration, or perhaps sooner, the what certainly implied a suspicion of the name of Puritan was very generally ex- king's sincerity, or rather the sincerity of changed for that of Presbyterian.
those around him, by whose advice he ". The ? Puritanical inclination of Rey. was supposed to be guided. nolds seems to be discoverable only in his “ In a conference, however, with Dr. religious principles, or probably in the Reynolds and Mr. Calamy, Baxter agreed strict piety and decorum of his life. His with them, that a bishoprick might be ac. character, in these respects, stood high cepted, without any violation of the Covewhen he was at college, and was well nant, or owning the ancient prelacy. But it known to the religious world, long before is not easy to discover by what process of the meeting of the Assembly of Divines, reasoning he could arrive at the conclusion, by his explication of the cxth Psalm, that the acceptance of a bishoprick, even first published in 1632; and afterwards if the declaration had passed into a law, three or four times, by his · Exposition of would not be a violation of the Covenant. the xivth chapter of Hosea,' 1638 ; and Baxter, we have already noticed, was by his • Meditations on the Holy Sacra- averse to the Covenant, and prevented all ment of the Lord's Supper,' published in persons over whom he had influence, from 1639."--pp. xix--xxiii.
taking it; but instead of putting a meanDr. Reynolds was chosen a
ing on plain words which they cannot pos. member of the Westminster Ase sibly bear, might he not have acted more
wisely in recommending an acknowledg. sembly, of whose proceedings Mr. ment of error ? Chalmers gives a long, and not
“ The voice of the city, he goes on to altogether uninteresting account.
tell us, was for him and Dr. Reynolds to
accept of bishopricks, because they were Reynolds does not appear to have known to be for moderate episcopacy;' taken any very leading part in but Calamy's case, he adds, was different. their discussions, so that the story Calamy bad preached and written, and of the Assembly is rather attached done so much against that church-goverato his name than necessarily con
ment, that his acceptance of its higbest
office would be too grossly inconsistent to nected with his life. The way in be tolerated, even for a moment, by his which he was led to accept of friends and admirers. Baxter, on the the bishopric, Mr. Chalmer's thus
other hand, although he seemed deter.
mined from the first to refuse, yet pro. details.
fessed he did not refuse the preferment, as “ It appears that the first offer of a a thing which he judged unlawful in itself, bishoprick was made to Baxter, by a pri. but for certain reasons, or rather doubts, vate courtier, who knew that the Lord which had much weight in his own mind. Chancellor intended to make the offer " While in this humour, Dr. Reynolds more publicly, and etiquette required that and Mr. Calamy consulted him again as it shonld be known whether it would be to what he purposed bimself, and what he as publicly accepted. Bishopricks were
would advise in their case. On this occaalso offered, through the same medium, to sion, he repeated his opinion of the lawDr. Reynolds and Mr. Calamy. Baxter fulness of the episcopacy described in the demurred, until he should acquire more Declaration, where better cannot be had," koowledge of the church-government to but added, that 'scandal' might make it be established. The others gave no ina- more unfit for some men than for others;' mediate answer, but were, no doubt, re- alluding, probably, to Calamy, to whom,
he says, be would give no counsel. As biography of the ejected clergy. It canfor Dr. Reynolds, be persuaded him to not, therefore, be thought surprising that accept a bishoprick, provided lie publicly the Bishop of Norwich, who held a like declared that he accepted it on the king's faith with the ejected, should take every Declaration, and would lay it down when opportunity cither to retain them in the he could no longer exercise it on those church, or to win them over to it, or to terms.”—pp. lxi. lxii.
overlook their irregularities as far as this “ We have already noticed that Baxter was possible. Calamy bas not advanced advised Dr. Reynolds to accept a bishop- a single instance of oppression in the diorick, provided he publicly declared that cese of Norwich; on the contrary, in one he took it on the terms of the king's de. or two instances, where he has occasion to claration, and would lay it down irhen he notice the Bishop's conduct, le speaks of could no longer exercise it on those terms. him with respect. In one case, which may All this Dr Reynolds had previously con. be found in Kennet's Register, the latter sidered as his duty, and now read to thinks that our prelate went further than Baxter an address to the King, in which he he was justified, in allowing a ininister to expressed the sentiments be was to avow preach who had refused re-ordination. to his Majesty when he accepted the office. Many of the Presbyterians might bave Baxter adds, rather uncharitably, because been retained in the church, had they not he might easily have ascertained the fact, refused to acknowledge the invalidity of that he cannot tell,' whether he did or no.' the orders they received at the hands of There seems, however, no reason to doubt the Presbyterials, and consented to be rethat he did what he engaged to do, for the ordained according to the form 'now estasatisfaction of his own mind, and it may blished in the church. Among these was be safely presumed, in the absence of all the pious Philip Henry, who, un account evidence to the contrary, that he performed of bis excellent character, was afterwards the duties of his office with a tender re- included in the commission of the peace, by gard to the conscientious scruples of the the name of Pbilip Henry, Esq. Non-conformists in his diocese. No com. 6. Another proof of Dr. Reynold's mò. plaint whatever has been made of his deration is afforded in Fairfax's Life of conduct in this respect; nor has Calamy Owen Stockton, a divine of considerable recorded the name of any of his clergy eminence. We are told that he officiated, who were treated by hiin with barshness. withont molestation, at Chattisham in Mr. Pierce (from Kennet) says, that · He Suffolk ; and other neighbouring pacarried the wounds of the church in his rishes wanting ministers, called in the heart and bowels to the grave with him, as help of Nonconformists, who enjoyed the is well known to many who knew him.' liberty of their ministry for many years, if Nor is he the only prelate who deeply re- not until this day.' gretted the loss of those clergymen whom, “ In 1676, the year of our prelate's by the severe letter of the law, he was pre- death, a census was taken of his diocese, vented from retaining in the church." which was then said to contain 16,876 pp. Ixiv. Ixv.
Conformists, and 7934 Nonconformnists, a After giving a short account of small proportion, being only 21 to 2146. the Bishop's conduct at the Savoy In bis predecessor Bishop Hall's time, conference, Mr. Chalmer's con
out of 1500 clergymen in the diocese, not
30 were either excommunicated or suscludes" bis narrative by noticing pended for noncouformity, or, as it was the last years of his life.
then called, Puritanism. From Calamy “ Dr. Reynolds passed the remainder we learn, that the number of the clergy of his life on his diocese, with the excep- ejected was only 163; and Walker repretion of a very few visits to London, prin- sents only 200 as the number ejected by cipally during his attendance on Parlia- the various Committees under the usur. ment. On such occasions, in 1666, 1667, pation. and 1669, he appears to have occasionally “ For many years before his death he preached before the House of Peers, and suffered much by the stone and gravel, before the King'; three of these sermons,
disorders contracted by a sedentary life which are now among his works, were during his many years of close study. Mrs. printed singly in his life-time.
Reynolds appears to have been afflicted in “ On September 29, 1671, he had the a similar manner, but survived her hushonour of entertaining, at his palace, the
band some years.
He appears to bave King, Queen, the Dukes of York, Mon- been much debilitated by frequent atmouth, and Buckingham, and other no- tacks; and for a considerable time before bles, then on a short visit at Norwich. his death, was obliged to employ an ama
“ It has already been noticed that some nuensis in bis ordinary correspondence, prelates of this period exercised their au- having little more strength than to apthority, in executing the laws against the pend bis signature in a hand evidently separatists, with considerable moderation. enfeebled. Towards the close of his life, of this, we have ample proofs in Calamy's and when on his death-bed, he suffered,
but bore patiently, the torture of repeated Remarks on Oaths, principally showfits of gravel and suppression. He died at his palace in Norwich, between ten and
ing the Duty of Legislative Intertwelve in the forenoon, July 28, 1676, in
ference to abolish some and to the seventy-sixth year of his age.”- reform others of the Oaths admipp. lxvi-Ixviij.
nistered in this Country, as being From the life of Bishop Rey- false, or frivolous, or unnecessary. nolds, we must now turn to his
Hatchard and Son, 1826. pp. 92. works, in which a permanent
Price 2s. 6d. monument is erected to his charac- The continued and apparent inter and talents. The first volume crease of our national calamities contains, besides the memoir, the must press upon every reflectVanity of the Creature-the Sinful- ing mind an anxious inquiry reness of Sin—and the Life of Christ. specting the latent causes which The first of these treatises is one have, in the midst of plenty, proof the chief performances of the duced famine, and which, in the Bishop's pen. And certainly few midst of exulting confidence and human productions contain more abounding wealth, have spread the striking, impressive, and deeply most alarming suspicions and dishumbling views of the nature and tressing embarrasments through circumstances of man. In it and the land. We are not politicians the following, which is closely we meddle not with the sudden connected with it, we have de- transition from war to peace-the seriptions of depravity and in- return to a metallic currency—the firmity, not more powerful than necessary effects of over-tradingthey are correct, and from the the consequences of speculationpainful assurance of which, we can
tbe baneful influence of the corn find no relief but in that Gospel, laws—the repeal of the ancient which Reynolds endeavours to commercial code, or any other of illustrate in the last treatise, under those topics with which men dethe title of the life of Christ. In light to amuse or to perplex tbemhis description of sin, he occa- selves. : It is for us to regard, not sionally descends too low, and the speculations of political ecoemploys a phraseology, from which nomists, but the admonitory voice the good taste of the present times of experience, which, from amidst will revolt. But to compensate for the ruins of empires, once as prosthis, there are many beauties of perous and as proud as our own, sentiment and style. He comes proclaims, in the language of renearer, in our estimation, to Leigh-velation, that “righteousness exton than any other author of that alteth a nation, but sin is a reperiod. There is not indeed al- proach to any people.” Guided in ways that inimitable softness and our inquiries by this infallible heavenly unction, which distin- aphorism, we may easily account guish the writings of that saintly for our afflictions; and to avert writer; but there is much of his divine judgments, it becomes the spirit, bis felicity of expression, duty of every one “ who sighs and his evangelical tone of think- and cries for the abominations of ing. He had mixed more with the land,” not only to deplore, but the world than his distinguished publicly to reprobate them, that contemporary, from wbich he de- they may be forsaken. Amongst rived, perhaps, a greater insight other national offences, we have into its deformity, and a greater been long guilty of the shamevigour of character ; but from less abuse and violation of solemn which he could scarcely escape oaths ; yea,
“ because of swearwithout sustaining injury.
ing the land mourneth.” « La(To be concluded in our nert.)
mentable is "it,” said Sir Walter