bold Aëronaut is a native of unfortunate Bailli)-refused to interParis, and the son of a Pewterer fere, saying, that the bufiness was not in that capital. His father, though far within the sphere of his jurisdiction. from being in opulent circumstances, The distracted father and mother then sent him to the University at an early waited on General La Fayette, who age ; but it cannot be said that he went was Commanderin Chief of the Parisian through any thing like a regular course Guard, and begged he would interpofe of studies, as he only remained three his military authority, and not suffer years at College, and never entered the giddy youth to ascend. M. La the class of Natural Philosophy. It was Fayette acquiesced, and sent a file of at the period that the noted Montgol. foldiers to put the young adventurer fier firit invented and exhibited his in confinement ; but Garnerin faw the balloon, that young Garnerin, more men approach, and, guelling what had captivated by the new discovery than been their orders, immediately drew in love with classical learning, con- his fabre, threatened to run the first ceived the idea of making little balloons person through who should interrupt for himself, and of letting them out him, cut the cords which kept the from his chamber windows. The Prin- balloon to the ground, and afcended cipal of the College, however, seeing with the utmost velocity, amidst the that he totally neglected his ftudies for acclamations of thousands. the pursuit of such baubles, told him, When the monster Robespierre filled in the most peremptory manner, that France with widows and orphans, the he lhould either abjure his balloon ma- Revolutionary Committee of Public nia, or quit the seminary. Garnerin Safety deputed Garnerin to the Ariny preferred the latter, and went home to of the North, then commanded by his father, who was far from being fatis. General Bonsonnet. He appeared fied with his conduct.

there in the capacity of Commissioner, When the Revolution broke out, and his functions called him to Mar. which was soon after his leaving Col- chiennes, in Flanders, a few days belege, he became a Volunteer in the fore the Austrians attacked that place Parisian National Guard ; and though and carried it. The Austrian division he proved attentive to his military avo was under the immediate command of cations, he did not lose light of his his Royal Highness the Duke of York, favourite amusement, Not having mo- and Garnerin became a prisoner to the ney fufficient to purchase a balloon British; he was fent, with the others, himself, he applied to a rich and avari- about 1600, to Oudenard, whence he cious person, who bought one for him, escaped about two months after, but and gave him a mere trifle for ascending was retaken almost immediately. He in it, on condition that he should re- palled into the hands of the Austrians, ceive the cash which the Public were to was conveyed up the Danube into Hunpay for admission. Even this proposal gary, where he remained till he was was acceded to by Garnerin. "His pa- exchanged. He complains of the French rents, however, learning that he was on Government's having refused to pay the eve of going up in a balloon, ap- him his arrears during the period of plied to the Mayor of Paris, and con his captivity! jured him to prevent their son from Garnerin is of a very diininutive exposing himself to such imminent dan- fize, and in his thirty-third year. ger. But the Magistrate (it was the



DESIRE to fly lias prevailed in all ceived the idea of rising in the air, fup

ages, and most children have a ported by exhauited balls of thin cop. wiih to imitate the birds. Roger Bacon, per. He was ignorant of the exiltence born at Ilchetter, in Somerlethire, in of light air, exidowed with as great an the beginning of the thirteenth century, elattic force as common air ; and therewas the tirit ihat is known to have con- fore, though his example of light balls



was the same as that on which balloons as complete as in its present state. are now made, it was impracticable.- Inflammable air, produced by iron We find, that Dr. Black, of Edinburgh, filings and vitriolic acid, was soon was the first person known to have sug- used in the inflation of larger balloons, gested the pollibility of inclosing in and by one of 271 feet diameter M. Hammable air so as to render it capable Charles and M. Roberts rose in Deof railing a vesel into the atmosphere, cember from the Garden of the Thuilwhich was done in his lectures in 1767 leries in Paris, and in an hour and and 1768 ; and Mr. Cavallo, in 1782, half descended about twenty-seven first made experiments upon the fub. miles from that city. In this voyage, ject; but he was unable to retain the the thermometer fell from 47 to 31, air in any material light enough for from which datum the balloon was fupthe purpose, except a thick solution of pofed to have reached the height of loup, which the practice of children 3500 feel. Subsequent experiments had thewn would alcend even with may rather be enumerated 'tian derespired air, rarefied by heat. In the scribed. The adventurers in them "same year Stephen and Jofeph Mont. goifier, paper-manufacturers of Anno M. 7. Montgolfier, who, in 1784, nay, about ten leagues from Lyons, ascended, with lix other persons, from filled a filken bag with air rarefied by Lyons, by a balloon 131 feet high and burning paper, which iofe first in a

104 broad. room, and afterwards to the height of M. Blanibard, in March of the same leventy feet, in the open air. Several year, role to an altitude which is calcurepetitions of the experiment were lated at 9500 feet, and descended in an made in the ensuing year, and finally hour and a quarter, having experienced dry straw and chopped wool were con. heat, cold, hunger, and an excellive lumned, inttead of paper. One of their drowsiness. balloons, about thirteen feet in diame M. Bertrand, in April, rose from ter, sose to the height of 3000 feet in Dijon to the height of about 13,@00 two minutes.

feet, and in an hour and a quarter At length, on the 15th of October failed 18 miles. 1783, M. Pilatre de Rozier rose from Madame Thible, who was the fuft the garden of the Fluxbourg St. An. female adventurer, afcended in June toine, at Paris, in . wicker gallery from Lyons, with M. Fleurani, in the about three feet broad, attached to an presence of the late King of Sweden, oval balloon of 74 feet by 18, wlich and reached the height of 8500 feet. had been made by M. Montgolfier, M. Moucbet, in the time month, and which also carried up a brusier, ascended tron Nantz, and travelled or grate, for the purpose of continu. 27 miles in 58 minutes. ing, at pleasure, the infation of the M. Rozier, in another experiment, balloon, by a fire of straw and wool. reached the height of 11,700 feet, and The weight of this machine was 1609 found the temperature of the air repounds. On that day it was perinitted duced to five degrees below the freez. to rise no higher than eighty-four feet; ing point. but on the igch, when M. Giraud de The Duke de Chartres (Orleans) Villette ascended with him, they role ascended in July from the Park of St. to the height of 332 feet, being pre. Cloud, with three other persons. vented from further a1cent only by Vincent Lunardi, on September 15, ropes. In November of the same year, role from the Artillery Ground, by M. P. de Rozier and the Marquis a balloon 33 feet in diaineter. In his D'Arlandes tirit trusted a balloon to uscent the thermomcter fell to 29, and the elements, wlio, after riting to the some drops of water round his balloon height of 3000 feet, descended about were frozen. five miles from the place of their ascent. M. Roberis and Hullin, in the same

About the fame time, Count Zam- month, failed from Paris to Arras in beccari sent up froin the artillery fix hours and a huf. , Ground, in London, a small gilt Mr. Sadler, who was the first Englife balloon, filled with inflamınable air, man that ascended with a balloon, rose which in two hours and a balf, reached in Oftober, from Oxford. a spot near Petworth, in Sussex, and Mr. Sbclior: ascended fiom Chelsea in would not then have fallen had it not the fame month. burit. The discovery was now nearly M. Blanchard and Dr. Jefferies, on

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the 7th of January 1785, crossed the having ascended from Dublin, was Channel between Dover and Calais, by taken up in the Channel by a boat, means of a balloon, but had such diffi. when on the point of expiring with culty to keep it above the water, that fatigue. they were obliged to throw overboard M. M. P. De Rozier and Romain every thing they had with them. ascended from Boulogne on the 15th

Mr. Crosbie ascended from Dublin, of July, with the intention of crossing in the same month, with such rapidity the Channel ; but their balloon, being that he was completely out of light in a Montgolfier, took fire at the height of tbree minutes.

1200 yards, and they were dathed to Count Zambeccari and Admiral Sir pieces by the fall. E. Vernon, in March, failed from Lon Mr. Crosbie, who again ascended from don to Horlam, 35 miles, in less than Dublin, and Major Money, from Noran hour.

wich, in the same month, both fell into Mr. Windbam and Mr. Sadler ascended the sea, and were with great difficulty from Moulley Hurit in May, and de. saved. fcended at the confluence of the M. Blanchard, in August, failed from Thames and Medway.

Lise to a distance of 300 miles before Mr. M'Guire, in the same month, he descended.



LEIBNITZ, 1646–1716. of men of ordinary capacities, to whom WHEN a great man appears, his supe: a guide is absolutely requisire, who

riority over those who surround receive no impressions but such as are him is foon discovered. Thousands of instilled into them, and have no bias others who compare their own insigni. but the commands of a master. The ficance with his colossal height, com- boy of natural genius, on the contrary, plain that Nature should itrip a whole requires only to be taught the first generation to form the mind of one. principles of science ; the instinct of But Nature is just-the distributes to talent alone either impels to the study each individual the necellary attain. which Nature has chalked out for him, ments by which he is enabled to fulfil or, like Leibnitz, he aims at every spe. the career assigned him. To a chosen cies of learning. His mother was a few alone the referves the privilege of virtuous and enlightened woman, who possessing uncommon talents, and of had sufficient penetration to discern enlightening mankind by their exer. the genius the had produced. With tion. To one the lays open the means the alliitance of the learned who then of explaining her phænomena ; to an- flourished at Leipfic, he rapidly passed other Me afligns the task of framing or through the claties of ancient literature, expounding the laws which bind his mathematics, and theology. The tafellow creatures ; to a third it is given lents of Thomafius, Bofius, and Wei, to depict the cultoms of nations and gol, united in forming the great mind describe the revolutions of empires. of Leibnitz; under their guidance, it But each has in general pursued one acquired that decided superiority which track, and excelled only in one parti- altonished Europe. cular line. A man at length appeared, This is not the place to compare who dared lay claim to univerfality, Leibnitz withi Newton, or to enter into whose head combined invention with the merits of the astronomical and metamethod, and who seemed born to thew, physical disputes which so long kept in their full extent, the powers of the thele great men divided in opinion, human mind. That man was Leib- without lesening the elteem each felt nitz.

for the other. A few anecdotes have Godfrey William, Baron of Leib. been telected indicative of the man, nitz., was born at Leiptic, and lost his divested of his character as a philoso. father at the early age of fix. The pher. education of great men will generally A complaint has very generally been be found to be more simple than that made, that men of great literary merit


seldom meet with rewards in proportion in his room without ever leaving it ; to their talents. It is plealing in some a custom probably necessary for the few instances to find this assertion un completion of the work he had in founded. The transcendent genius of hand, but certainly very injurious to Leibnitz early commanded, and obe his health. It accordingly subjected tained, the notice and patronage of him to a disorder in his legs, which Sovereigns. The Flector of Hanover, he increased by attempting to cure it afterwards George the It of England, himself ; for he thought lightingly of whose subject he was, conferred on him physicians. The contequence was, that honours and pensions. These he also for the last year of his life he could obtained froni the Emperor of Ger- scarcely walk, and spent the greater part many and Peter the Great of Russia, of his time in bed. who even paid him a visit to consult He died at Hanover on the 54th of him on the means of effecting an entire November 1716. He employed his last change in the laws and customs of his moments in discussing the method proStill barbarous country. His corres- posed by Furstenbach, of tranfmuting pondence was universal, and extended iron into gold. When on the point of to the learned and scientific of every death, he called for ink and paper ; he country. Superior to the common wrote ; but attempting to read what he jealouly of authorship, he entered into had written, his eyes became dim, and every literary scheme, be offered to he expired at the age of seventy, others his assistance, he animated their When a German Nobleman compliexertions, and itimulated their endea. mented George the Ilt on being at vours. His reading was prodigious, once Elector of Hanover and King of embracing every department; and it England, bis Majesty replied, “ Rather was a common saying with him, that congratulate me on being the Suvethere was no book, however bad, but reign of two such subjects as Leibnitz something useful might be extracted and Newton." from it. With all this, neither pedantry nor pride formed a part of his charac PONTANUS, 1426–1503. ter. He was familiar and atfable wich The interval comprehended between men of every description. He even the dawn of learning after a long night courted the society of women, and in of ignorance and barbarism, and the their presence was more the man of time when it attained its meridian the world than the man of letters. Ipiendour, forms a period highly inteHis temper was in general even and resting to the literary engurei. To lively, occasionally roused into anger, Italy we mult look for this revival of but easily appeased.

learning and tatte, as the nurse of every He was never married. When he science, the countrywhich produced and attained the age of fifty, he had thoughts cherished a long list of scholars and poets, of so doing ; but the Lady whole hand whocontributed to the reitoration oflethe solicited having desired some time to ters, and recalled the glorious days of consider of his proposals, this also gave Augustus. When every other part of him an opportunity of making his own Europe was involved in darknets, Italy reflections, and the result was, that he alone retained in its bofom poets, hilo continued a bachelor,

torians, and lawyers. The fourteenth, He was of a robust constitution, and fifteenth, and fixteenth centuries, seldom incommoded with illness, till abounded in learned men of every late in life, when he was troubled with description, many of whom at present the gout. His manner of living was are barely known but by name, but fingular. He always took his meals whole works deserve the attention of alone, and these never at fiated hours, the present age, from the excellence of but as it suited his appetite or his their subject and the purity of their ftudies, After his first attack of the diction. The labours of Roscoe, Tengout, his dinner confitted only of milk, hove, and Grelwell, have contributed but at fupper he was a great eater,

to diseminate in this country a talto though he drank little, and always for Italian literature. But much yet mixing water with his wine. He would remains to be done. New, or iin. often sleep in his chair, and awake next proved, translations of Guicciardini, morning as refreshed as if he had risen Giannone, Fra. Paolo, Bembo, and from his bed. At the time when he Denina, are obvious defiderata in our Hudied molt, he would be, whole months language. There are allo many de,


tached portions of Italian history which, Honeftaverunt Reges, Domini. from the richness of materials, the mul. Scis quis fim, aut potiùs quis fuerim, tiplicity of events, and the interest they Ego, vero te, Hofpes ! nofcere in tene would excite, would amply repay the bris nequeo : time and labour bestowed on them. Sed teipsum ut noscas rogo, vale. Among many others may be pointed out, A History of the Republics of Florence, Pita, Lucca, Genoa, and

MAUPERTUIS, 1698-1759, Venice e ; Memoirs of the House of born at St. Malo, of a noble family, Visconti, Sovereigns of Milan, on the discovered from bis early youth a great admirable plans of Tenhove's “ Honfe inclination for matliematics and miliof Medici," or Roscoe's “ Lorenzo ;' tarý tactics. He entered among the a continuation of the latter work to Mousquetaires in 1718, and employed the extinction of the House of Medici, in ftudy the leisure which his occupa. which we beg leave to suggest to its tions allowed him. Having served two elegant author ; the work of Tenhove, years in this corps, he obtained a com.. however judicious in its outline, being pany of horse in the regiment of La defective, and incomplete in its execu- Roche-Guyon, which he loon resigned, tion. To these may be added, A Phi. and with it all thoughts of a military lofophical History of the Popes, as tem- life, that he might devote his time to poral Sovereigns of Rome, from the the sciences. He soon obtained a place Age of Leo the Xth to the present in the Académie des Sciences at Paris. Time. A very pleafing volume might A few years after, the defire of inftruc. also be formed of specimens of the va. tion induced him to visit London, rious minor poets who have flourished where the Royal Society admitted lin in Italy, with poetical versions of their a Memler. On his return to France, Italian and Latin poems. Among these, he went to Batle to visit the two BorJoannes Jovianus Pontanus would hold nouillis, the literary ornaments of Swita distinguished rank.

zerland. His talents, and the reputaHe was born at Cerreto, in Umbria. tion he had now acquireil, placed him He was Secretary of State, and filled at the head of those Academician's various offices under Alfonso and Fer- whom the King sent in 1736 into the dinand, Kings of Naples; yet he found North of Europe, to ascertain the leisure and inclination for the pursuits figure of the earth. He was the chief of literature, in which he was so fuc- promoter and director of this scheme, cessful, that many have considered him which was executed in one year with as the most accomplished poet and scho- every possible diligence and success. lar of his age. He also diftinguished lle was then invited to Berlin by the himself as a writer on various subjects. King of Pruflia, who gave him the His poetical works were published by Pretidency and chief direction of the Aldus, in two volumes, in 8vo. 1505, Academy he had just eitablished. That and his profe works in three volumes, Monarch was then at war with the 8vo. 1513, 1519. He is said to have Empress of Germany. Maupertuis, injured his reputation by writing hastily whole military ardour now revived, whatever occurred to him, and neglect- was desirous of tharing all the dangers ing afterwards to retrench any part of of the King his patron. He exposed what he had thus written. So sparing his person with the most undaunted was he of the file, that it was iis custom courage, was even made prisoner, and rather to add than diminish upon every conducted to Vienna. But liis capti. revifal of his works. A better founded vity was not of long duration, and far objection, and more injurious to his from being unpleasant to him. The clinracter, has been urged against bim, Emperor and Empress-Queen permitted and that is, the indecency which per- him to return to Berlin, after loading Vides many of his poetical compofi. him with favours and expressions of tions.

elteem. He then pased into France, Ilc is faid to be limself the author of where his friends and admirers Hats

tered themselves he would remain, the following inscription, which wils after his death engraven on his tomb : But his ardent imagination, his eager

ness after every novelty of literature, Sum Joannes Jovianus Pontanus never fuffered him to remain long in 1.2 m amavcrunt bont Mufix one place, and precluded every proInspexerunt Viri probi,

pect of domeitic peace and happiness.

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