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fincé loft, and which indeed, if they happiness should not fet his affections on the
OBSERVATIONS ON THE SILK TRADE IN GENERAL, AND ITS OPERATION
ON THE SILK MANUFACTURE OF THE METROPOLIS.
BY JOSEPH MOSER, ESQ.
the Ladies respecting the claims conceiving I had done what, in my of the Silk-manufacturers in Spital. Situation, was imperatively my duty, fields, &c. upon them for encourage- I had determined to recline on my ment ;
and having stated that this oars, and wait the operation of events manufacture was then in a declining then afloat, which might either itiftate ; I am now happy to announce mulate or retard the Silk Manufacture that, rather from the influence of in its attempts to reach that acme of fashion, or perhaps from the operation perfection, on which it must be the of political circumstances, thin from patriotic with of every one to see it any aid that I can flatter myself it can placed : still prepared, if the time have derived from my poor endea- ihould arrive that might render any vours, it has, in a considerable degree, further observations upon the subject revived : and having also in another necellary, to endeavour again to attract paper * attempted to call the attention that attention I had before solicited. of the public to the fime subject, which, The time alluded to has (I will not, I have endeavoured to thow, places the for reasons which, in the course of these national interest upon the secure balis papers, will appear obvious, say unof individual exertions and ingenu. happily) arrived; but certainly an ity; and while, on the one hand, event has occurred, which, though was hinted the probability of an ex perhaps not totally unexpected, has tension of this great object of commer caused considerable interest, and has cial concern, I flightly alluded to the
excited much alarm, among the perpoffibility that this object might be tons dependant upon the Silk Manucounteracted in two ways ; ficit, from factory in this district ; I mean, the a restless fpirit of rivalry in another late prohibition of the exportation of nation, and secondly, from, perhaps, raw and organzine Silk of Piedmont, the desultory and unfixed principles and other parts of Italy, from the ports of fome of our molt ingenious artis of the Mediterranean, &c. fans, who, stimulated by ideal prof This prohibition, which seems a pects of advantage, and enticed by whole platform, a park of artillery, artful men, miglit be prevailed on to levelled at these branches of our comsilk the ease, comfort, security, and merce and inanufactures, it is supposed, comparative affluence which they enjoy as was indeed augured, originated in in this kingdom, for the hazard, anxi. that defire of our Gallir neighbours ety, obloquy, and indigence, which it for coinmercial aggrandizement, was morally certain, chey must en which has been, for some time, as ap. counter in another.
parent as the desire for territorial xWhen I had submitted these my quisition, which has lately, alas ! too
• Published in the European Magazine for October 1801, and December 1801, Vol. XL. pages 268 and 466.
fuccessfully, predominated, and which branches, and defend it against intelhaas in een formed the grand object on tine depredators. The barely quoting the tore pund or their political views the dates of the Itatutes in its favour from bea of Lewis the XIV:h. will be sufficient to show how much this
Tns, to consider the matter philo. elegant and beautiful branch of our sophically and historically, to compare domestic ingenuity, and industry has the paffius and propensities of rival beep the object of the care of Governnations at different periods, and their ment, though perhaps it may, in a situation with respect to each other future paper, be necessary to observe under different circumstances, has ever upon the tendency and operation of been the cate, during and after those some of them. great contentions that have at different It is a matter calculated to excite epochs existed in the world. It may some surprise, that, among the have been observed, that when the number of ancient and semi-medern operation of arms has declined, when statutes quoted in the note, there does every effort of force has been exhaust- not occur one for the encouragement ed, a commercial opposition has arisen, or regulation of the Silk Manufacture, which has frequently been pursued during the long period filled by the with equal afperity and avidity, until Reigns of Henry the Eighth, Edward freth causes for the commencement of the Sixth, Mary, Elizabeth, James, and hostilities have occurred, and this con- Charles the First, although thefe Mo. telt has continued, fometimes fiaming narchs are, most of them, known to into eruptions and buriting into ex- have had much at heart its extension; plosions, and fometimes inouldering but the reason why, parliamentary and boiling in the bowels of the severaj interference ceased in this respect countries, until, fuppressed and ex- about the nineteenth of Henry, I take hausted by the deltruction of one, or to be this :-It is well known, and perhaps both, it has been smothered by indeed the Itatute, book renders obtheir alhes.
vious, that our ancestors were not It is a fingular, a curious, and, fond of Legislating unless the circumfrom the authority of ancient records, stances of the times, or trade, made it a circumstance most indubitably found. absolutely neceilary. In this case, ed on fact, that our ancestors, leginat- when the Silk Manufacture had, though ing for themselves and their posterity, struggling into existence, little to fear have, from the time of the first eitab- from the fpirit of rivalry, it was only lithment of the Silk Manufactory in this necessary to shut out Italian fabrics, kingdom, a period much antecedent left our own should be hurt by the to jis introduction into France, confi. comparison; and when British ingedered it as a commercial point on which nuity foared to a perfection which, they were assailable, and therefore have from the first rude attempts, could formerly taken as much care to guard scarcely have been expected, such was against the introduction of foreign the situation of our affairs, and fuch commodities in a wrought fiate, so as to the consequence of this kingdom in the operate againit domestic exertions, as great scale of mercantile nations, that we have latterly to regulate all its it had still less reason to fear that the
6 & 7 Will. 3. c. 18.
8 & 9 Will. 3. c. 36. 3 Edw. 4. C. 3•
9 & 10 Will. 3. C. 30. and 43. 22 Edw. 4. C. 3.
5 Ann. c. 19. , Rich. 3. c. 9.
8 Geo. 1. C. 15. 1 Hen. 7. C. yo
9 Geo. 1. C. 8. 39 Hen. 7. C. 21.
23 Geo. 2. c. 9.
and 20. 13 & 14 Car. 2. C. 13, and 15.
26 Geo. 2. c. 21. 20 Car. 2. c. 6.
17 Geo. 3. C. $6. and 2 Will, & Mar. Nat. 1. c. g.
35 Geo. 3. C. 100. 5 & 6 Will. &. Mar. c. 20. The laf Aatute, which had evidently in view the encouragement of our home ma. nufactures, was enacted for the permitting importation of organzined thrown Gilk, fax a:d fax seed, into this kingdom, in tips or vessels belonging to any kingdom or fate in amity with his Majesty.
Rream of commerce, with respect to the with this Commercial Colossus, at raw commodity, would be impeded in least to impede him in his endeavour its progress to our shores, or dammed to tride across the channel, and upat one of its sources. The Stateinen ravage this country. In this enterof these reigns probably found that the prile, the folly of the French seconded laws enacted by their forefathers, and, the exertions of the English; and, I conceive, strictly enforced by them, from a zeal which we, who now coolly were fully fuffi sent to answer all the view the page which records the. purposes for which they were intended; history of thote transactions, are alnarnely, to serve as sentinels upon the most tempted to term infanity, led operations or foreign traffic, and regu- them to banish from their kingdom lators of domestic industry.
incalculable numbers of those proIn the reign of Charles the Second, moters of their national prosperity; owing to a variety of well known and this too at a period when causes and events, the times had con National Aggrandizement might, acfiderably changed. When the afpe- cording to the quaint jargon of modern rity of men's passions had been re times, have been termed « the Order pressed by the misfortunes they had oc of the Day." This, in a people to calioned; when the fluctuations of po..
altert to their own interest, was cerlitics, and the ebullition of the public tainly an over-light; bit, let it be mind, had in some degree subsided ; remembered that it is alınoit the only " When the tired nation breathed
one of which they have been guilty in from Civil War ;"
any case where their interelt or ambition
were concerned; and the consequences the merchants had an opportunity to that have flowed fhow, in a pretty look about them; to turn their atten- Itrong light, how difficult it is to tion from domeitic derangement, and regain what the folly of a short period domestic business, to the commercial had, perhaps, dislipated. But although kate of Europe : they then discovered it may be difficult to reclaim loit, to the strides that had, during the raile declining, or to guard and supperiod of our political insanity, been port feeble, manufactures, the aitomade by other nations; the commer. nihing exertions which that nation cial and manufacturing advantages has made, and is making, to rettore, which had been taken of our diftreis; renovate, and give new energy, to and this discovery, combined with other theirs, ought to keep us upon the causes, produced the famous Naviga- alert, and render us eagle-eyed with: tion A&, to which in a former (pe. respect to every change in the Polis culation upon this subject I have tical, and every encroachment in the alluded.
Commercial, World. Among the many branches which With respect to the latter, looking, had, during our civil contention, with an impartial though inquisitive eye declined, or had rather been, in a con. upon the conduct of our Gallic neighfiderable degree, transferred to France; bours, I dlo (as I have observed) conit was found that this very important ceive the ihutting the French and one, the Silk, had been, from neglect Italian ports againīt the exportation at home, raised to an incredible height of the raw or organzine filks of Piedin that country. It was discovered mont, &c. to be a kind of signal x that the city of Tours had, from a for a commercial attack; and that, small beginning, grown into such a ever fanguine, they entertain a hope Itate of manufacturing opulence, that that, by the withholding articles deemed eight thousand looms, and eight fo necellary as there, they shall be bundred mills, were employed therein ; able to depress, perhaps annihilate, * and that Lyons had become the empo our manufacture, and eitablish their rium of the filk business, having at own upon its ruins. leaft eighteen thousand looms in con But there is one, and a material, Itant operation ; so that these cities, circumstance which they ought firft tó together with their provincial de have considered ; namely, whether the pendencies, employed, either directly articles I have mentioned, are fo ab. or collaterally, upwards of two millions folutely necessary in the construction of people. Struck with this disco- of an elegant and usetui fabrick, as very, our merchants found it ne their commercial cupidity would cessary to endeavour, if not to contend induce them to believe; or, whether
we have not resources within our. When the Grecian Monks, in the felves (I mean within the territories reign of Justinian, brought from the appendant to the Crown of this realm) remotest parts of Asia a large quantity that, called into action by the necess of the eggs of folk worms into their sity of the case, more generally prac own country, it was the received opi. tised upon, and consequently better nion, both in that country, andaa understood, may, through the exer Rome, that the land of the Seres i was tions of manufacturing industry, be too remote, for them to expect that adapted and adopted, 10 as to serve the insects would, in their climate, as a substitute, equal in durability, in find a sufficient degree of warmth utility, and beauiy ?
and verdure to nurture them into, and It is well known, although it has to insure, their existence. not been much speculated upon, that, When Henry the Second t prowith respect to trade in general, and posed to raise large plantations of manufactures in particular, many false White Mulberry Trees in France, and and unfoundel prejudices have arisen to introduce and erect fik manuin the minds of commercial men and factories, both at Lyons and Tours, artificers again it the hazard incurred the people, struck with the fingularity by attempting new discoveries, and and extravagance of the attempt, were the uncertainty of new experiments: unanimously disguited, and exclaimed, and although, in consequence of the “ Though tilk worms have been successgood sense and liberality which mark fully nurtured in several parts, when the British Mercantile Character, these was there one of that species ever prejudices predominate less in our seen in France ?" yet filk worms were countrymen than in those of any other introduced, and manufactories erected, nation, yet we know that prepossession with what advantage to the nation in favour of particular materials, and is well known! Experiment in this mode of workmanship, learned and event has trampled upon Prejudice; adopted in early life, have not (even as I hope and trust it will in another to give place to better) very haitily which will forin the subject of an enreceded from the minds of our arti- suing speculation or speculations, for ficers. It may ftill be remembered, the reception of which, indeed, this that the attempts to introduce Ma. is meant to clear the ground. In that, chinery, equally new and ingenious, or those, I shall endeavour to show as the means of shortening labour, was, that we have little reason to dread lo every art to which it was applied, the prohibition of the Piedmontese attended with considerable difficulty; Silks; and that, whatfoever alarm and that the prejudices of the work: the report may have excited, the thing men, aided by their fear, slowly receded itself is, in no instance, an injury to before even conviction; and allo, that this country, but, on the contrary, in some instances it has itill been found may, in many, be attended with ada impoilible to bring it into operation. vantage ; as it will force that truly This obfervation will fully apply to uteful and elegant article, Bengal Silk, manufacturing materials; the weavers into a more general circulation; and, in particular have an idea, that Pieel- while the adoption of this atfords emniont filks are absolutely neceffary ployment to thoufands, perhaps mil. to frame a Warp, whereon a fabrick lions, of people in the East Indies, its of fuperior beauty and elegance can more extensive importation will add be constructed; and nothing but the to the naval strength and commercial fuperior neceility of working without opulence of this Country; fo that, ir, or, in other words, of introducing at the same time that its reception and generally Bengal silk in its stead, will manufacture causes a new epoch in the convince them to the contrary. history of traffic, it is likely to become
The time kind of prejudice operated a stimulus to the ingenuity and inEcth in Italy in ancient, and France in duttry of our artificers, and to open more modern times; not indeed par new sources for the acquisition of in. ricularly againit any material or mode dividual riches, and consequently of of workmanship, but generally against National revenue. The Silk Manufacture itself.
(To be continued.)
A country of ancient Scythia, called by the Latins Sericum, remarkable for its production of vast quantities of filk.
+ Of France.
FOR NOVEMBER 1802.
QUID SIT PULCHRUM, QUID TURPE, QUID UTILI, QUID NON.
Lectures on the Gospel of St. Matthew; delivered in the Parish Church of St.
James, Westmintter, in the Years 1798, 1999, 1800, and 1801. By the Right Reverend Beilby Porteus, D. D. Bithop of London.
THE pious and benevolent design of while, at the same time, it must be these Lectures, and delivering them of the higher classes, there prevailed, publickly to numerous audiences, con. in the midst of all our distresses, a spi. litting chiefly of persons of the higher rit of dissipation, profusion, and volupe and middle claffes of the people, is so tuous gaiety, ill suited to the gloomiclearly set forth in the preface, and ness of our lituation, and ill calculated at the same time presents such power to secure to us the protection of Heaful inducements to all well-disposed ven against the various dangers that persons " to mark, learn, and inwardly menaced us on every fide. Under digest,” their important contents, that the le circumstances, it seemed to be the we shall need no apology for quoting duty of every friend to religion, mothe Bishop's own words, as the belt rality, good order, and good governrecommendation of the arduous task ment, and more especially of the Mi. he undertook, under circumftances the nisters of the Gospel, to exert every moit unfavourable, to renovate primi- power and every talent with which tive Christianity, in a gay, luxurious, God had blested them, in order to metropolis, in which the sovereignty counteract the baneful effects of those of fathion, the idolatry of plealure, peftilential writings which every day and the love of ease, had but too gene- issued from the press; to give some Tally luperseded the facred obligations check to the growing relaxation of of the Christian religion, which most of public manners; to state, plainly, and us, it is presumed, have solemnly vowed forcibly, the evidences of our faith, and promised to perform.
and the genuine doctrines of our reli“At the time when the following gion, the true principles of submission Lectures were first begun, the political, to our lawful Governors, the mode of moral, and religious itate of this king conduct in every relation of life, which dom wore a very unfavourable alpečt, the Gospel prescribes to us; and to and excited no smail degree of un vindicate the truth, dignity, and di.
eatinels and alarm in every serious vine authority, of the sacred writings. and reflecting mind. The enemies of All this, after much deliberation, I this country were almost every where conceived could in no other way be triumphant abroad, and its itill more fo effectually done, as by having reformidable enemies at home, were in- course to those writings themselves, defatigably active in their endeavours by going back to the very fountain to diffuse the poison of disaffection, in. of truth and holiness, and by drawing fidelity, and a contempt of the Holy from that facred source the proofs of Scriptures, through every part of the its own celestial origin, and all the evan. kingdom, more especially among the gelical virtues springing from it, and lower orders of the people, by the most branching out into the various duties offensive and impious publications ; of civil, locial, and domestic life,