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He returned to Berlin, and had not nual motion of his head and eyes. been there long before he repented This, with the manner in which he having ever left his native country: dressed and behaved in company, gave Frederick endeavoured by the most him a great air of singularity. He foothing kindness, and the most un. was however, occafonally, polite and reserved and confidential intimacy, to friendly, and spoke with contiderable repair his losses, and add to his com. facility and presence of mind. But forts ; but his disposition was natu. he never enjoyed a happy moneit. rally peevith and discontented, and he Warm, imperious, and overbearing in was wretched, with every honour and his temper; his natural lispolition corevery pleasure within his reach. Such responded not with his philosophy, and a temper could insure neither peace to was injurious to his peace. He lomehimself, nor gratification to others; times copied Fontenelle in his style-it confequently he had several literary would have been fortunate if he had quarrels, particularly with Voltaire imitated the serenity of that amiable and Professor Kænig. At length and happy old man. As a writer, he a disorder which attacked him foon was possessed of genius, wit, and a after his return to Berlin, and which strong imagination. But in all his afterwards proved incurable, compelled works we observe a perpetual attempt him once more to try his native air. at conceit, an affectation of brevity, He remained two years in France, and a dryness and obscurity in his remarks, then went to Bane on a visit to Messrs. which have rendered him not so popular Bernouillis, in whose arms he died, on as he might have been with greater the 27th of July, at the age of fixty. fimplicity in his style and peripicuity
This philosopher posseiled uncom in his method. mon activity of mind, and a vivacity which manifested itself in the conti.
(To be continued.)
TRANSLATION OF A NOTE WRITTEN BY PETRARCH'S OWN HAND IN THE MAR.
GIN OF A MANUSCRIPT VIRGI WHICH FORMERLY BELONGED TO HIM, AND 16
famous by her virtues, and who brance of a loss so afflicting, I have has been the subject of my verse for written these particulars in a book which many years, appeared to my eyes for I am continually reading : thus have I the first time on the sixth of April prepared myself a pleasure mingled with 132?, in the church of St. Clair, at grief. This loss, conftantly present to Avignon.
my memory, will instruct me, that no. “ In the same church, on the same thing here below can contribute to my day, at the fame hour, in 1348, that happinels ; and that it is time for me Juminary, that fun, retired from the to renounce the world, since the bond world. I was at Verona, and knew that held me to it by the tenderest not the misfortune that had befallen attachment is broken. I hope, with me : but the nineteenth of the follow- the aslistance of Heaven, this renunciaing month I received a letter from my tion will not be difficult : my mind, friend Lewis, which acquainted me incesantly turned to the past, will per: with the fatal news. On the very day ceive, that the cares which employed of her death, her body, so beautiful, it were vain, that the hopes which it !o pure, was diepolited, after vespers, cherished were deceitful, and that the in the church of the Cordeliers. i schemes it formed terminated only in doubt not but her foul, to speak in the sorrow or disappointment 1" words of Seneca, returned to hea en, from which it had defcended.
VOL. XLII. JULY 1802.
FOR JULY 1802.
QUID SIT PULCHRUM, QUID TURPL, QUID UTILI, QUIP NON.
An History of Marine Architecture ; including an enlarged and progressive
View of the Nautical Regulations and Naval History, both Civil and Military, of all Nations, especially of Great Britain. Derived chiefly from Originař Manuscripts, as well in private Collections as in the great Public Repositories, and deduced from the earliest Period to the present Time. By John Charnock, Esq. F. S. A. Three Vols. Royal 4to. R. Faulder, and all the other
confiderable Bookseller's of London. THUN THIS elaborate performance, on a present state, of Marine Architecture ;
subject of the firit national im- being accompanied and illustrated by portance, is ushered to public notice, elegant engravings of the relpective with every advantage that could be objects of inquiry and investigation. expected from the well-known literary In a review of to complex a subject talents and professional skill of the in- as “the historical account of an abgenious duthor. Encouraged to pur- stract science,” laboured criticism would lue such an arduous task, and to com- only serve to bewilder and perplex the plete lo comprehensive a plan by the minds of general readers; and we should moit respectable Patronage ; enabled, think it presumption to interfere with as a , Meinber of the Antiquarian So- professional men, whose proper office it ciety, to examine the earlielt authentic is to decide on the merits of the scien. documents respecting our Naval Hilo tifis arrangements, distributions, and tory; he also had access to the public technical explanations, of the three oftices, not only to inspect, but to volumes; from whose found judgment copy, or make extracts from, every and candour we make no doubt the original record that could supply him Author will receive a most favourable with any material information or eluci. report. Our duty prescribes a limited dation of his grand subject ; in addio and more easy talk, that of giving an. tion to which aid, the professors and outline or sketch of each volume, exhiamateurs of nautical science gave him biting the most striking and entertainfree liberty to avail himself
of their ing occurrences, and pointing out the private curious collections. Thus ani- plates, which, in our humble opinion, mated to fulfil a long-existing contract, are most worthy of public attention, it appears, that our Author spared no from the comparative view they give of pains in its execution, and that “the the difference between the ancient and helt powers of his mind, and the strong- modern construction of vessels and ships, est efforts of his activity, Jiave been for for the purposes of war or commerce, in many years unceasingly devoted to it.” our own and other countries.
Thele teftimonials are sufficient to in the Preface to the first volume, stamp a general character of fidelity and the subject of our prefent Review, we veracity on the work; and we can find the following curious remark. Safely affirm, that it is executed in a “ The strict analogy, in respect to manner highly gratifying to curiosity, contour, which the gallies of the Roand contains an ample fund of bilto. mans, and most probably of the Grericai intormation, conveyed to the cians, bore to those possessed by the reader in a most pleating and enter inhabitants of many places among the taining manner; the most interesting islands lately discovered in the South narratives of the origin, progrels, and Seas, may perhaps, at a future period,
call forth the allertion of some ingeni- racters in the historical drama of Marine ous commentator and critic, that the Arcbitecture, moit probably owe that circumftance alone proves, beyond con- attention which they have excited in troversy, that the inhabitants of the the minds of the learned, more to the Sandwich Illands originally passed thi- fancy and vanity of their celebrators, ther from Athens or from Rome. The and the heightened colouring bestowed British watermen might claim, on the on them, than to their true, their natufame authority, the same genealogical ral character and rank. descent: the wherry of the Thames ** The filme observations to the differ. being, in effect, little else than a galley ent historical accounts of the naval in miniature."
affairs of Britain, for the early ages, The apparently extravagant accounts are so inveloped in doubt, furmise, and given by various authors of the Heers romance, that little can be collected possessed by nations whole history they from them on which mankind ought have recorded, and the apparently hy: to place any dependence. Mention, perbolical ttories toll of certain velieis, indeed, is inade, says our Author, conitructed even in the remotett ages, of iminense Heets, raised as it were is thus accounted for: “A variety of by necromancy, and which disappear causes have contributed, from the tar as the enquirer may endeavour to per. lieft ages of literature down to the pre. funde himself by the same kind of insent moment, and will certainly conti. Huence. The itrong degree of popular nue as long as literature thail exist, to attachment to that particular pursuit, cause an extravagant ebullition, which by which the inhabitants of a country may, on many occafions, excite the have first raised it into public confeincredulity of the reader. For in. quence as a naval power, may induce dance, the historical Itudent of the them to dwell with infinite pleasure on present day, provided he were totally the naval exploits of Uther, Pendragon, unacquainted with every illustrative and the renowned Arthur; on the victocircumitance concerning it, would cer. ries of Alfred, and the naval triumph of tainly be inclined to believe, on reading Edgar the Great ; but admitting the many relations written at the very time, accounts Strictly true in every parwhich might consequently be confi. ticular, yet when adduced as irrefradered as most authentic, that the Spa- gable proofs of the aboriginal naval aih Armada, compared to the fleet of supremacy of Britain, they apper Britain which opposed it, was, in re
rather to invalidate than fiipport any spect to the vesels of which it con. claim that can be fuppoled to rest on so dilted, their magnitude, and lofty ap- weak a foundation;" and taking the pearance, nearly as far fuperior as a whole evidence, politive and circumvefsel of any description is to the boat Itantial, into confideration, the result the carries to attend her; yet it will be will demonitrate, unprejudiced found on examination, there were only minds, " that the pre-eminent rank four thips in the whole Acec that were which Britain has, as it may be fai!, fuperior to the Triumph, commanded for centuries, held among maritime by the English Admiral Sir Martin powers, did by no means exist in the Frobither. It follows, therefore, that more remote ages :--Many other coun. although, in the comparative statement tries or states since fallen into complete of the two armaments, that of England decay were her predecessors and tutors, might be considerably inferiorin respect as well in the art of navigation as of to tonnage, taken in the aggregate, to thip-building; and it is somewhne finthat of its enemy, yet the high terms gular, that ihe renovation of the art, made use of to excite wonder and ex. after the ravages committed against tort applause on the valour and gene- science by the Goths, should have tüken ral conduct which produced the victo- place among a people now almost un. ry, were certainly carried beyond the known (the Venetians) or, to speak of bounds of truth or propriety of the them in the highest terms, funk into a same complexion, and moit probably very low state of obscurity, as a mariowing to the same cause, are the ac time power.” counts of the fleets of Darius, of After eltablishing these truths, by a Xerxes, and of Mark Anthony: the candid investigation of ancient docu. vessels of Sefoftris, of Hiero, of Deme- ments, Mr. Charnock, as a proper intrius, of Ptolomy, and other person- troduction to his truly great work, ages, which form fucb prominent cha. gives his readers a preliininary dir.
course, in which he reduces the mari. possessed a fleet ; and as the conquest time history of the world to a regular was effected, so was it maintained by system, and considers it as fairly divisi. an armyfor though the Norman ble into seven different sections, clearly invader had rendered himself master pointed out by as many remarkable of the kingdom, he was not able to epochs.
avert a Danish debarkation of troops The first may comprehend all that three years after that event. dark and intricate space of time pre “ The first authentic testimony, then, vious to the foundation of Rome. of the birth of the British navy, is the The second section comprises a period invasion of Normandy by Henry, su somewhat less obícure ; it will extend nanel Beauclerc, in the year 1106; from the foundation of Rome to the and the Crusading expeditions which destruction of her rival Carthage ; and immediately followed, contributed, in from thence, a third may find its ter. some degree, to cherith the puling mination in the conversion of the re infant." But it must be remarked, public into an empire. The death of that these temporary fleets fitted out Charlemagne may be considered as the on various occalions principaliy for fourth grand epocli, when a revival of the purpose of invasion, confited only maritime pursuits, which had long lain of transport velfels, not equipped at dormant, took place. From this pe- the expence of the Sovereign, but by riod the science of navigation appeared the ditterent sea-port towns, to which progressively gaining strength, and ob- certain privileges were granted, in taining followers, who induitriously consequence of their furnishing an. and moft laborioully attempted to ettablished quota of vessels whenever attain considerable perfection in mari. they were regularly demanded by the time knowledge, but this knowledge Monarch ; and as soon as the purpote was limited, and may be accounted was answered for which they were ihe fifth section, terminating with the called forth, they were laid up: discovery of the properties of the load " To recapitulate the several events Aone. The subsequent invention of the which took place from this time till the Mariner's Compass, stated to be about reign of Henry the Eighth, when the the year 1260, dispelled the mist which naval force of England first acquired a had so long obscured that summit to permanent establishment, would be litwhich the art was, without much diffi- tle interesting to the reader, especially culty, capable of being advanced, and in the abridged contracted scale inmay, therefore, be considered as the evitable necesity would compel it fixth division, which continued on to should be given." Notwithstanding the commencement of the lixteenth this senlible observation, our Author century, when the general introduction seems to have reconsidered the matter, and use of cannon on board of thips, by giving a chronological and brief together with the contrivance of port. minute of the different naval occurholes, gave birth to the seventh and last rences that took place from the Con. epoch, by attaching, to vessels those quest to the reign of Edward the Third, requisites and properties which, though which, if not to interesting as those of imperfectly supplied and provided for modern times, is, however, both curi. in the beginning, have, by repeated ous and entertaining ; two or three experience, gradually improved into specimens will serve to justify this aller. that excellence, and almost unimprov. tion. able state of perfection, which the thips “ A. D. 1215. King John fitted out built at the present day are, by fome, the most powerful feet against France fupposed to poffels.
that had ever been known in England. From general history our Author Necellity appeared to require it ; for proceeds, in the next place, to an exa it is reported, that the French navy minition of the naval transactions of consisted of one thousand seven hunour own country, commencing at the dred thips. In the same year, the memorable era commonly called the English fleet, commanded by the Earls Conquest, at which period it is evident of Salill»ury and Boulogne, totally dethat Britain had no navy, and that feated the French fleet, and took three Williain only made ule of transport hundred fail, driving on shore ar burn, veflels to convey his troops to our ing one hundred more.” coasts, having nothips of force sufficient 1295. A feet of three bụndred and for a naval encounter, if Harold bad fifty or dixty hips was sent to Guienne,
under the Earls of Lancaster, Rich- Chapter of Canterbury, our Author mond, and Lincoln. Three other has been enabled to annex a very squadrons also were equipped to guard curious list, affording the first specific the coasts. The Yarmouth, or Eaitern, information on record of the force under John de Bottetot; the Ports and numbers of an English fleet. mouth, or Southern, under Williain London, upon this occation, furbilhed de Leyborn; and the Irish, or Western, 25 ships and 662 leamen. Dover, 16 Commander not named. In this King's thips and 336 mariners. It is remarkreign (Edward I.), fo vebemently was able what a small proportion the iniand the dominion of the sea atlerted, that principal cities and towns furnithed the Dutch were obliged to obtain towards this armament. York, for licences to enable them to fith on the instance, provided only I thip and English coatts.”
9 mariners. "1340. The French committed great The catalogue of thips, &c. is fol. depredations at Guernfey, Portsmouth, lowed by a correct account of the exand on the western coait. In this year pence attending the armament, equally was fought the firit engagement by sea curious and aitonithing, if compared in which any King of England had with the wages of leanien and falaries been personally engaged. It appears of officers at the present day. “The also to have been one of the most del Prince of Wales was allowed by the perate, and the first regular astion re- day for his diet, zos. A Duke for his corded in history. The English fleet, diet by the day, 135. 4d. If he be of confifting of two hundred and fixty fail the blood royall, having in his comof Ihips of war, was commanded by pany 300 horse, for every man and King Edward the Third in person; horse by the day 12 pence. the feet of the French amounted to The names of the great Princes and four hundred fail, of which one liun- Nobiemen, Estrangers (Foreigners) dred and twenty were very large bolden in the King's retinue and pay, vessels. The action was long, del not being comprised in the foregoing perate, and bloody. As a prelude to account, we infert two articles from victory, the Great Christopher, for- this extraordinary document. merly taken from the English, was “ The Emperour to him delivered in retaken by them, and towards the prest at dyvers times for his wages evening many others. As night came 8227£. 125. To the Archbishop of on, several endeavoured to save them- Magodonew (Mentz) for his wages and lelves by flight. In one of which (the his men 450€. With this expediJames of Dieppe), taken by the Earl of tion," lays our Author, “the exertions Huntingdon, after being eng.ged the of England, in a maritime point of whole night, four hundred persons view, might be said to have cealed were found killed. Numbers of the for the Ipace of an entire century. French threw themselves into the sea, As a proof of this total neglect of seeking refuge, in vain, from the words naval affairs during the civil contest of their enemies, and preferring to between the rival houses of York and encounter a certain and instant death, Lancalter, it appears, that Richard the rather than risk a casual one from the Third had not a lingle ship calculated hands of the English. In fine, up- to prevent the free passage to England wards of two hundred of their ships of his rival and antagonist Henry; in were taken, and thirty thousand of their whose succeeding reign maritime purmen, with their Admiral B.huchet, suits were revived a Cominerce bekilled or drowned. De Keruel, their came considered as one of the first rup. other Admiral, was taken prisoner ; porters of the State, and the dreadful and Edward the Third, as he was the improvements which were rapidly made first English Monarch who had ever
in the science of naval war, gave birth fought on an element new to English to that marine which, under fucceed. royalty, had the honour of obtaining a ing Monarcbs, in defiance of a variety victory, than which none was ever of opposing difficulties, has attained it's more complete and decisive."
present power and consequence among 1347. Edward besieged Calais, nations." which was blockaded by sea with a Our readers will perhaps be sur. feet of seven hundred fail." From an prised at the latitude we have taken, original manuscript preserved in the when they are informed, that they are library belonging to the Dean and fill detained from the first Chapter of