cable to Bern, the Bear's) skin while more intimately acquainted with the the beast lived, or, in other words, the use of silver and gold, as the medium {pirit of the Swiss, depressed by the of traffick, from the circumstance of Proclamation, revived; upon the exi, the large quantities of both these spegence of the moment, they summoned cies of coin which they found in the their hardy bands, and gave him baggage of the officers of the flain, and battle on the plain of Morat, near a which they carried away by cap-fulls. town of that name, in the Earldom of Whether this acquisition has been Romant, and Canton of Friburg; in ultimately advantageous to them? let which encounter, the greater part of moralitts determine. his army was destroyel, and himself How the Skulls of those warriors, obliged to make a precipitate retreat, who at the latter end of the last cena with a few followers, towards his own tury attempted, upon the plan of the Country *

Duke of Burgundy, and I fear with Upon the plain where this battle far greater success, to illuminate the was fought, the victors erected a mo. minds and enlive the bodies of the nument with this infcription :

Swiss, have been disposed of, it is inie Invictissimi atque fortissimi Caroli Ducis pollible for me to state ; with respect to

their own carcasses, it is known even Burgundiæ exercitus Muratum Obfidens, contra Helvetios pugnans bic sui Monito

to a proverb, that, upon certain condi. mentum reliquit, An. 1476."

tions, they have been at the service of

almost every Prince in Europe ; and This Charnel. house or (as it is have been left upon almost every field termed by Philip de Comines, in his of battle upon the continent for these Memoirs, and Guichienon, in his Hift. last four hundred years. de Savoye,) Chapel itands, or rather As the Swiss have been so prodigal Itood, near the bank of the Lake of of their Skulls, one would naturally Morat, in the before-named Canton. have supposed that they considered The doors were composed of iron them but of small value; yet this is bars, through the spaces betwixt which, by no means the case; for it' is equally the Skulls and bones of the unfortunaté well known, that a very extraordinary Burgundians might be seen piled up in price has at times been paid for then, somewhat of a regular order, and though I never heard that in this kind bleached by time ; but it is said, that of traffick any distinction was ever the number of these Vestiges of the made with respect to their gibbosity, vanity, temerity, and indiscretion, of length, thickness, convexity, concavity, their Duke was, even at the beginning denlitý, or fragility; but that, like of this century, much diminished, from turnips, they were taken in lots, one the custom of the Swiss, who travelled with another; and, consequently, the that way (and indeed some that, ftimu. Skull of a peasant was as highly apprelated by their parents, who, in relating ciated as that of a philosopher. the warlike deeds of their ancestors, Having, at least for the present, done had not forgotten to display this mo- with exotic Skulls, I must confider nument of their prowess, made a jour. briefly (for a folio would not suffice to ney on purpose), picking out pieces of discuss the point minutely) those of them with the points of their swords : our own country; and, as two opposite these pieces they used to have cipped examples will tend to the elucidation witli, or set in, copper, silver, and some of the subject as well as two hundred, times in gold; they were frequently I shall therefore first observe, that in fold at their Fairs, and commonly the city of Coventry (as it must have worn, both by Calvinifts, Lutherans, occurred to many of my readers) stand and Roman Catholics, pendant to their two ancient Churches, near, as if they watches, sword hilts, nay, it has been were built to rival, each othert. In faid, to their rofaries, as military re the vaults under one of these, I some licks.

years since discerned, from the It has been stated, that after this Church yard in which they are both decisive victory the Conquerors became erected, a great number of Skulls, piled

This Duke of Burgundy, fell in a battle which he fought against the Duke of Lorrain the year after, viz, the sth of January 1477 ; his body was honourably buried at Nancy, which he had besieged. t One is dedicated to the Holy Trinity ; the other to St. Michael,


to the very roof in a tolerable metho appreciating the importance that, in dical arrangement. The operation of the general lyftem, ought to be attime upon there was as conspicuous as tached to thoie contentions for fame, upon those of the Burgundians; they fortune, power, or any of the various being, like them, bleached to a con. propensities which are the frequent fiderable degree of whiteness. Assum. itimulants of the human race; the ing that this large collection of human gales and breezes, the storms and veitiges was the last remains of some whirlwinds, which operate upon hu. of the former inhabitants of the City, man existence; and which, like the I could not belp revolving in my mind, effect of many of the anomalous eruphow quietly the beads of males and ţions in the physical world, when they females, old and young, friends and have spent their force, leave the breath enemies, were laid togerber! I could that produced them to mingle with the not indeed carry my ideas fo far back atmosphere, and the bodies they agias to suppose that any of these Skulls tated to fink quietly into that earth bad ever belonged to the heads of of which they were once the disthe Parliamentum Indoctorum *, once

turbers.; held in this City, and lo termed from In the more particular pursuit of the exclusion of Lawyers from its the subject of this speculation, I muit debates; or that which was likewise ccondly remark, that having had leheld here, which had, if possible, an ob veral opportunities to hear the late Dr. ject itill more mischievous in view, Hunter explain the theory of his namely, the attainder of the Duke of brother, Mr. John Hunter, upon the York, with the Earls of Salisbury and human Skull, it has always struck me Warwick, and which, from its effects, that it was one of those eccentric, and obtained the epithet of Parliamentuin therefore in many instances favourite, Diabolicum t; but I did conceive, what ideas concomitant to men of genius. I think will be scarcely called in The Doctor, referring to his brother's question, that the Skulls, how so quiet hypothelis, did not attempt, like the and harmless, had once contained philosopher whom I have quoted at the brains and tongues that had at times beginning of this Article, to form contrived, both in municipal and mili- any conjecture respecting the means tary coiteits, to set the whole neigh- by which the cranium was rendered bourhood in confusion; that they had thick or thin, hard.or soft I; he did acted, at different periods, capital parts not explain to his pupils that it would in the attack or defence of the City; be more to the advantage of their that they had given energy to the armis brains, to have them detended by a of rebels, and to the pers of addrefers! bone of an inch in thickness, than What a variety of countenances, it then one as thin as a leaf of gold; but he occurred to me, had been moulded infilted that the human genius was to upon thole blocks! With what a va. be marked by the elevation or depression riety of paffions had they been bright of the human Skull; as an inttance of ened, animated, agitated, and de- which, he used to produce upon the formed! Looking upon this great mass table of the lecture rooin, the Skull of of mortality, and tracing, in idea, the a White Man, the Skuil of a Negro, situations and circumnitances of the that of a Monkey, and lastly that of a bodies to which thele veitiges had Dog; these were the only examples once belonged through the active pe. which the Doéter thought it neceffary riods of their existence; who, it struck to exbibit, in order to elucidate his brome, could avoid moralizing upon their ther's hypothesis ; but I understand present quiescent itate? and properly that the latter gentleman had carried

6th of Henry the Fourth. t 37th of Henry the Sixth. It appears that the ads of this Parliament were repealed, and every thing done under its authority reversed by the 39th of Henry the Sixth, 1460.

| Yetihe Doctor, in the course of this lecture, always exhibited a human Skull, upon which (in confequence of ditcale) an excrelcence had grown of a very confiderable bze, something resembling a multiroom. It appeared, upon inspection, to be perforated in many parts, and to be composed of cells, in some degree resembling thofe of a boneycomb ; the buain was consequepily splacetsted, yet the patient lived


his ideas upon the subject much fur. nion that however curious the sugther, and had a variety of specimens of gestion might have been, it certainly each of these, and many other human never was a very useful or valuable: and animal species, eminent either for one, I must contend that it was indigetheir fagacity or their stupidity. Yet nous to this climate, and promulgated, this doctrine, ingenious as it certainly as I have observed, by Di: Hunter near was, like every other theoretical sug: five-and-twenty years since; but hav. gestion, unsupported by facts the result ing, perhaps, for so long a series of of experience, is liable to be overturned years laid dormant, it is caught up by in a moment by two ancient, and two some philo'cphical cormorant, and thousand modern, instances; of the comes forth, like the suit of Settle, in two former, I need only direct the at the Dunciad, tention of the Reader to the portraits «Old in new state, another yet the fame." of Socrates * and Ælchylus, the intaglios of which have come down to us It will, however, be proper to hear in seals. This divine philosopher, and the substance of wbat these two celes fublime poet, muit, according to the brated literary productions, which fyítem alluded to, have been as have mentioned, lay upon the subject. markably it upid as we know that they In these papers it is stated, “that the were ingenious ; for it appears that doctrines of this learned German are their skulls were depressed, as if (which not only curious by the celebrity that is the case with those of negroes) they has been given to them, from their had been moulded by the plastick hand being prohibited from being publickly of their mothers, and so bald that it is taught at Vienna t, but are remark. well known that an Eagle, which has able for their results: As the brain, the ever been esteemed a quick-lighted Doctor thinks, is nioulded by the bird, took the head of the latter for a Skull, he also imagines that he has fione. With regard to the modern in- found, in the conformation of the stances at which I have binted, the ob. cerebram and cerebellum, an explaservation or recollection of every reader nation of the moral and intellectual will furnish him with facts too obvious faculties of Man ; and, for a rule de. to require to be pointed out, and too duced from this general principle, numerous to be here defcanted on, establishes the convexity or depression which will completely overthrow the of the Skull as a criterion upon which theory of the speculator.

he founds his judgment. He there. Since the writing of the preceding fore (like Dr. and Mr. Hunter) conpassage I have seen in the Gentleman's tends that the greater the convexity Magazine, the fame theory of Skulls ex of the Skull, the greater is the capacity plained, I will not say elucidated, by of the individual, and vice versa with Dr. Gall; extracted from the Clef du respect to its depression; this argument Cabinet and the Journal du Soir ; in hefupports by the examples of the Skulls which this learned Gentleman seems of many celebrated men I; but (conto consider the hypothesis of my late tinues Dr. Gall) handsome men, whose ingenious and scientific friend as a new heads are more round and gracefully discovery: now, although I am of opi- formed, have seldom much genius g."

. It is a curious circumstance, though I think it has hitherto escaped ch. servation, that the formation of the head and countenance of Peter the Wild Boy, who could never be brought to articulate a single word, and was evidently an Idiot, resembled this Philosopher.

t One would suppolc, though for what reason it is impossible to divine, that there was upon the Continent a defire to spread the le doctrines, as the prohibition of thein muft certainly be attended with this effect: every one knows the advantages of perlecution; it immediately raises a party in favour of the sufferer ; prohibition is the next best thing ; damn a play, or suppress a pamphlet , you, in many instances, confer immortality upon, and make the fortune of, the author, however itupid., Io fact, it is like burning sinuggled goods at the door of a milliner ; you send all the Town to the shop:

I There might, as this is a subje&t of the imagination, be quoted in op pofit on to it an imaginary subject, namely, the Spectator; the gibboấty of whole counte. bance, Addison has contrived to immortalize.

s How the learned Dostor makes the distinction betwixt a semi-globular and a convex form, I hould be delighted to hear him explain. Vol. XLII. Dec. 1802.

H hh


This great philosopher who, whether as many experiments upon Skulls as any his cranium be elevated or depressed, nation under heaven) to observe that seems to poffefs full as much credulity the theories of Dr. Gall are very cu. as genius, believes, though I do ex- rious; how far they are well founded, ceedingly doubt his proposition, that it is not for us to determine;" to which be is able to determine the place of it is only necessary to add each of our mental faculties in the

Finis coronat Opus. brain. The faculty of observation, lo obvious in children, be Itates to be PAULET, MARQUIS OF WINCHESTER. “ just behind the forehead, which is,

Two short anecdotes of this Nobles in these, very convex, but which dimi- man, and of his fifth fucceffor in the nishes, and becomes a concave, excepe Marquisate, are introduced to show a in great observers." I suppose, as they contralt in their dispolitions, as itrong approach toward maturity, from tbis as it is remarkable : The former, who he sagely concludes, that " liberty and to use the bold metaphor of Shakecustom may produce great changes in 1peare) seems, in many instances, the faculties of man !" He (Dr. Gall) is in poffeffion of the

" To have o'er-walk'd a current, roar. $kulls of many celebrated persons, par

ing loud, ticularly those of Bulmaner, Alexinger,

« On the unsteadfast footing of a spear," and Wurmser ; but he does not was, by Henry the 8th, advanced from Aate whetber these celebrated craniums the rank of a Baronet to that of a Baron, are depressed or elevated. In the brain Master of the Wards, Knight of the of the latter he pretends to have dif. Garter, and finally Executor of the covered the organ of coinage ! (Sure, King. The mode in which he " this is the very coinage of the balanced himself, in times when it brain," or he ought to have linted was so difficult to preserve a proper his discovery to the solicitor of the equilibrium, it is certainly curious to Imperial mint,) which he states to

trace, as, to the weight of his otber have its place above the ear. The places, upon the removal of the Earl of Skulls of animals furnith him with nezu Southampton, was added that of the and important discoveries : 'he has Custody of the Great Seal. In the found in the Skulls of singing birds, short period of Edward the Sixth, in those of celebrated musicians, and honours were heaped upon him that particularly in that of Mozart, the might have funk an Atlas; for, in the organ of music! Whether, if he had third year of this reign, he was created had the opportunity of dillecting the Earl of Wiltfire, Lord Treasurer of Skulls of Tome exquisitely-erchanting England, and, in the fifth, Marquis of vocal performers, he would have dil Winchester ; soon after which he sat covered the organ, by the means of as Lord High Steward at the trial of which they attracted from the pockets the Duke of Somerset. of their admiring auditors (who may

At the demise of the King, it áp. with propriety be deemed, from their pears that he was one of the first, and being turned to notes, Paper.skulls) large consequently of the Chief, of thofe fortunes in short periods, we yet re that proclaimed Queen Mary, in opmain to be informed ?

position to Lady Jane Gray; he was The Doctor finally states, as the very therefore in great favour with that acme of discovery, '“ that the wily Princess, who, very foon after lhe brains of the Fox, as well as those of ob'ained the Crown, confirmed his men remarkable for their craft and patent of Lord Treasurer, but who, subtlety, point out to him the organ whether from religious motives, or of cunning.

what other cause is uncertain, did not It is but justices(say the French' raise him a step higher than she found Editors, whose countrymen have made him.

* If the Doctor had read Dr. Tyson's curious observations on a stone found in the brain (Philos. Transactions, No. 228, p. 553), I should have been gold to have been informed of which of our mental faculties he believes the said stone to have been the organ?

I understand that, upon the principle of Dr. Gall, fome discoveries, of the utmost importance to the Philosophical World, have been made by diffecting the Skull of Col. O'Kelly's celebrated Parrot, who died a few days since.

Having been a friend to the Refor. I think was obvious in the instante mation, of which the honours he at of the Marquis of Winchester, if we tained under Henry and Edward are use thiar key which he has put into our Sufficient evidence; a friend to the bands to develope it. If we consider zealous restorer of the ancient syitem, him as a Willow, bending to every which the confirmation of his patent gale, bowing his head to every ele. evinces; the Marquis appeared in the mentary vicillitude, we shall no longer Court of Elizabeth. With what part wonder that he survived and flourithed of his character she was fascinated it in {torms which levelled many of the is impossible to lay: That fagacious strongest and noblest Oaks of the and penetrating Princess viewed it, Foreit. unqueitionably, in every light in which In the character of this Nobleman it could be placed either by his friends we find an instance of that successful or his enemies; and the result was, versatility t in the upper rank of that, after mature consideration, the society, of which I think History also confirmed his patent of Lord affords but few examples; but although Treasurer, which, if we confider how the principle, or rather the want of tardily she conferred honours, is suffi. principle, to which he owed his cient to convince us that the approved honours and pability in office, have of his conduct.

been' much admired by Statesmen in This very extraordinary Nobleman more modern times and particularly died on the roth of March, 1571, in by one who to his other talents com. the 14th Eliz. at the very great age of bined that of being one of the most ninety-leven; having' lived to see elegant writers of his age. I much one bundred and three persons of his doubt whether Moralists would hold it own generation, his immediate descend up as an object of imitation. ants. He was more than thirty years of a far different disposition was, Lord High Treasurer of England ; and, as I have observed, the fifth lineal it is stated, that, upon being aiked how descendant of the Marquis. Such was he had preserved himself in that ele. the fteady loyalty of this excellent vated and consequently dangerous Nobleman, and rich his attachment Station, in such critical and turbulent to his Monarch, the amiable but un. times? he answered, By being a fortunate Charles, that in the year 1645, Willow; not an Oak." A reply that a period when Rebellion was at its height, perhaps does more honour to his wit, he, after resolutely refusing every overthen cither to his discretion or inte. ture that was ma le to him by the Parliagrity.

ment, the leaders of which would have It is usual (to allude to Trade) to exulted if they could have persuaded to draw a small quantity of a commodity, eminent a character as himself man as a lample of the whole: it has, in like whole example would have had such manner, been frequently seen, that a influence to swerve from his duty ; small, a fingle, trait bas afforded a key after having been three times besieged to the general character of a man. This in 1 Baling House, in the county of

Hants, Baker, whose authority I by no means think decisive, in his Chronicles, Nates the Marquis to bave been only Eighty-seven. To dispure about the age of a man, who has been dead almost two centuries and a half, would be absurd ; perhaps the truth lies betwixt the two extremes.

+ In the character of Nevill, Earl of Warwick, we see an instance of versatility of another kind. This Nobleman, inftcad of bowing his head and luffering the ttorm to pass over, chose to ride on the whirlwind and direct it. When we contider his talents, his andaunted courage, his unlimited generosity; what he had done, and what he had endured, to promote a caute in which he at filt confcientiously engaged ; we lament that such a man should be itung by those whom he had nurtured, and die a Martyr to wounded fenfibility, valiantly fighting in support of a family which it had been the business of his former lite to endeavour to dettroy.

It appears from Dugdale (Bar. V. I. P. 463,) that Hugh de Port, who held of the King (William the Conqueror) fifty-five Lordships in this county (Hants), was the Lord of Baling, the principal. In the 9th of W. Rufus, disgusted with the world, or induced by the fanctity annexed to the Monastic character, which the ignorance and prejudice of the times so bighly favoured, he took the habit of a Monk at



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