When ev'ry zephyr sheeps ; then the shrouds drop;
The downy feather, on the cordage hung,
Moves nor ; the flat fea shines like yellow gold
Fus'd in the fire, or like che marble floor
Of some old teinple wide.---

The third set of objects, which I mentioned the found of words as capable of representing, confists of the passions and emotions of the mind. Sound

may, at firit view, appear foreign to these ; but, that here, also, there is fome sort of connexion, is fufficiently proved by the power which music has to awaken, or to aflift certain paffions, and, according as its strain is varied, to introduce one train of ideas, rather than another. This, indeed, logically speaking, cannot be called a refemblance between the sense and the found, feeing long or short fyllables have no natural resemblance to any thought or passion. But if the arrangement of fyllables, by their found alone, recal one set of ideas more readily than another, and dispose the mind for entering into that affection which the poet means to raise, such arrangement may, justly enough, be said to resemble the fense, or be similar and correspondent to it. I ad. mit, that, in many instances, which are supposed to display this beauty of accommodation of found to the sense, there is much room for imagination to work ; and, according as a reader is ftruck by a passage, he will often fancy à resemblance between the found and the fenfe, which others care not discover. He modulates the numbers to his own disposition of mind ; and, in effect, makes the music which he imagines himself to hear. How. cver, that there are real instances of this kind, and that poetry is capable of some such expression, cannot be doubted. Dryden's ode on St. Cecilia's day, affords a very beautiful exemplification of it, in the English language. Without much ftudy or re

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flexion, a poet, describing pleasure, joy, and agreeable objects, from the feeling of his subject, naturally runs into smooth, liquid, and flowing numbers,

Namque ipsa decoram
Cæfariem nato genetrix, lumenque juventz
Purpureum, et lætos oculis afflarat honores,

Æn. I.


Devenere locos latos.eç amana virefa
Fortunatorum nemorum, fedefque beatas ;
Largior hic campos æther, et lumine- veltit
Purpureo, folemque fuum, sua fidera norant.


Brisk and lively sensations exact quicker and more animated numbers.

Tuvenum manus emicąt ardens
Littus in Hefperium.

Æn. VII.

Melancholy and gloomy subjects naturally oxprefs themselves in flow measures, and long words:

In those deep folitudes and awful cells,
Where heavenly pensive contemplation dwells.

Et caligantem nigra formidinę luçum,

I have now given fufficient openings into this subject : a moderate acquaintance with the good poets, either ancient or modern, will suggest many instances of the same kind. And with this, I Anish the discussion of the structure of sentences ; haying fully considered them under all the heads I mentioned; of perfpicuity, unity, strength, and musical arrangement.




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AVING 'now finished what related to the HA

construction of sentences, I proceed to other rules concerning style. My general division of the qualities of style, was into perspicuity and ornament. Perspicuity, both in single words and in Tentences, I have considered. Ornament, as far as it arises from a graceful, strong, or melodious construction of words, has also been treated of. Another, and a great branch of the ornament of style, is, figurative language ; which is now to be the subject of our consideration, and will require a full discussion.

Our first enquiry must be, what is meant by figures of speech*?

In general, they always imply fome departure * On the subject of figures of speech all the writers who treat of rhetoric or composition, have insisted largely. To make references, therefore, on this subject, were endless. On the foundations of figurative language, in general, one of the most sensible and instructive writers appears to me to be

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from fimplicity of expression; the idea which we intend to convey, not only enunciated to others, but enunciated in a particularmanner, and with some circumstance added, which is designed to render the impression more strong and vivid. When I say, for initance, " That a good man enjoys « comfort in the midst of adversity ;" I just exs press my thought in the simplest manner poslible. But when I say, “ To the upright there ariseth “ light in darkness;" the same sentiment is expressed in a figurative style ; a new circumstance is introduced, light is put in the place of comfort, and darkness is used to suggest the idea of adversity. In the same manner, to say, “ It is im,

"pollible, by any search we can make, to explore " the divine nature fully,” is to make a simple proposition. But when we say,

" Canst thou, by “ searching, find out God? Canst thou find out " the Almighty to perfection ? It is high as hea

ven, what canst thou do ? deeper than hell, "what canst thou know?This introduces a figure into style ; the proposition being not only expressed, but admiration and astonishment being expressed together with it.

But, though figures imply a deviation from what may be reckoned the most simple form of speech; we are not thence to conclude, that they imply any thing uncommon, or unnatural. This is so far from being the case, that, on very many occasions, they are both the most natural, and the most common method of uttering our sentiments. It is impossible to compose any discourse without using them often ; nay, there are few fentences of any

M. Marsais, in his Traité des tropes, pour servir d'introduction a la rhetorique, et a la logique. Fór observations on particular figures, the Elements of criticism may be consulted, where the fubject is fully landled, and illustrated by a great variety of examples,

length, in which fome expreffion or other, that may be termed å figure, does not occur. From what causes this happens, shall be afterwards explained. The facts in the mean time, thows, that they are te be accounted part of that language which nature di&tates to meny They are not the invention of the schools, nor the mere product of kudy : on the contrary, the most illiterate {peak in figures, as often as the most learned. Whenever the imaginations of the vulgar are much awakened, or

their passions inflamed against one another, they will 1 pour forth a torrent of figurative language, as for

cible as could be employed by the moit artificial declaimer.

What then is it, which has drawn the attention of critics and rhetoricians so much to thefe forms of speech ? It is this : They remarked, that in them consists much of the beauty and the force of language; and found them always to bear some characters, or distinguishing marks, by the help of which they could reduce them under separate classes and heads. To this, perhaps, they owe their name of figures. As the figure, or shape of ont body, distinguishes it from another, so these forms of speech have, each of them, a cast or turn peculiar to itfelf, which both distinguishes it from the rest, and distinguishes it from simple expreffion. Simple expression just makes our idea known to others; but figurative language, over and above; bestows a particular dress upon that idea-a dress which both makes it to be remarked, and adorns it. Hence, this sort of language became early å capital object of attention to those who studied the powers of speech.

Figures, in general, may be described to be that language, which is prompted either by the imagination, or by the pallions. The justness of this de fcription will appear, from the more particular ac

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