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page XIX. General characters of style.Simple, af
felied, vehement – Directions for
355 XX. Critical examination of the fiyle of mr. Addison, in No. 411 of the Spe&a
374 XXI. Critical examination of the style in No. 412 of the Spectator.
393 XXII. Critical examination of the style in No. 413 of the Spectator.
409 XIII. Critical examination of the syle in No. 414 of the Spectator,
424 XXIV. Critical examination of the style in a
pallage of dean Swift's writings. XXV. Eloquence, or public Speaking--Hifiury
of eloquence--Grecian eloquenci
459 XXVI. History of eloquence continued-Ro
man eloquence Cicero-Miodern
L E c T U R E I.
providence has conferred upon mankind, is the power of communicating their thoughts to one another. Destitute of this power, reason would be a folitary, and, in some measure, an unavailing principle. Speech is the great instrument by which man becomes beneficial to man : and it is to the intercourse and transmission of thought, by means of speech, that we are chiefly indebted for the improvement of thought itself. Small are the advances which a single, unaffifted individual can make towards perfecting any of his powers. What we call human reason, is not the effort or ability of one, so much as it is the result of the reason of many, arising from lights mutually communicated, in consequence of discourse and writing.
It is obvious, then, that writing and discourse are objects entitled to the highest attention. Whether the influence of the speaker, or the entertainment of the hearer, be consulted--whether utility or pleasure be the principal aim in view-we are prompted, by the strongest motives, to study how we may communicate our thoughts to one another with most advantage. Accordingly we find, that in almost every nation, as soon as language had extended itself beyond that scanty communication Vol. I,
which was requisite for the supply of men's necessities, the improvement of discourse began to attract regard. In the language even of rude, uncultivated tribes, we can trace fome attention to the grace and force of those expressions which they used, when they fought to persuade or to affect. They were early sensible of a beauty in discourse, and endeavoured to give it certain decorations, which experience had taught them it was capable of receiving, long before the study of those decorations was formed into a regular art.
But, among nations in a civilized state, no art has been cultivated with more care, than that of language, style, and composition. The attention paid to it may, indeed, be assumed as one mark of the progress of society towards its most improved period. Por, according as society improves and flourishes, men acquire more influonce over one another by means of reasoning and discourse ; and in proportion as that influence is felt to enlarge, it must follow, as a natural consequence, that they will bestow more care upon the methods of expressing their conceptions with propriety and eloquence. Hence we find, that, in all the polished nations of Europe, this study has been treated as highly important, and has pofféffed a considerable place in every plan of liberal education.
Indeed, when the arts of speech and writing are mentioned, I am sensible that prejudices against them are apt to rise in the minds of many. A sort of art is immediately thought of, that is oftentatious and deceitful ; the minute and trifling study of words alone ; the pomp of expression; the studied fallacies of rhetoric ; ornament substituted in the room of use. We need not wonder, that, under such imputations, all study of discourse as an art, should have suffered in the opinion of men of understanding: and I am far from denying, that rhetoric and criticisin have sometimes been so managed as to tend to the corruption, rather than to the improvement, of good taste and true eloquence. But sure it is equal ly possible to apply the principles of reason and good sense to this art, as to any other that is cultivated among men. If the following lectures have any merit, it will consist in an endeavour to substitute the application of these principles in the place of artificial and scholastic rhetoric ; in an endeavour to explode false ornament, to direct attention more towards substance than show, to recommend good. ? sense as the foundation of all good composition, and simplicity as essential to all true ornament.
When entering on the fubject, I may be allowed, on this occasion, to suggest a few thoughts concerne. ing the importance and advantages of such studies, and the rank they are entitled to possess in academical education*. I am under no temptation, for this purpose, of extolling their importance at the expense of any other department of science. On the contrary, the study of rhetoric and belles lettres supposes and requires a proper acquaintance with the rest of the liberal arts. It embraces them all within its circle, and recommends them to the highest regard. The first care of all such as wish either to write with reputation, or to speak in public so as to command attention, must be, to extend their knowledge ; to lay in a rich store of ideas relating to those subjects. of which the occasions of life may call them to discourse or to write. Hence, among the ancients, it was a fundamental principle, and fre
* The author was the first who read lectures on this subject in the university of Edinburgh. He began with reading them in a private character in the year 1759. In the following year he was chosen professor of rhetoric by the magistrates and town council of Edinburgh; and, in 1762, his majesty was pleased to erect and endow a profeflion of objetoric and belles lettres in that university; and the author was appointed the first: regius professor: