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CONTENTS.

, INTRODUCTION.

Personal Sketch.—Highland Ancestors.—Family Traditions.—Grandfather removes

to the Lowlands.—Parents.—Early Labors and Efforts.—Evening School.—Love

of Reading.—Religious Impressions.—Medical Education.—Youthful Travels.—

Geology.—Mental Discipline.—Study in Glasgow.—London Missionary Society.—

Native Village.—Medical Diploma.—Theological Studies.—Departure for Africa.

—No Claim to Literary Accomplishments Page 1

CHAPTER I.

The Bakwain Country.—Study of the Language.—Native Ideas regarding Comets.

—Mabdtsa Station.—A Lion Encounter.—Virus of the Teeth of Lions.—Names

of the Bechuana Tribes.—Sechele.—His Ancestors.—Obtains the Chieftainship.

—His Marriage and Government.—The Kotla.—First public Religious Services.

—Sechele's Questions.—He Learns to Read.—Novel mode for Converting his

Tribe.—Surprise at their Indifference.—Polygamy.—Baptism of Sechele.—Oppo-

sition of the Natives.—Purchase Land at Chonuane.—Rotations with the People.

—Their Intelligence.— Prolonged Drought.— Consequent Trials.—Rain-medi-

cine.—God's Word blamed.—Native Reasoning.—Rain-maker.—Dispute between

Rain Doctor and Medical Doctor.—The Hunting Hopo.—Salt or animal Food a

necessary of Life.—Duties of a Missionary 9

CHAPTER II.

The Boers.—Their Treatment of the Nativesi—Seizure of native Children for

Slaves.—English Traders.—Alarm of the Boers.—Native Espionage.—The Tale

of the Cannon.—The Boers threaten Sechele.—In violation of Treaty, they stop

English Traders and expel Missionaries.—They attack the Bakwains.—Their

Mode of Fighting.—The Natives killed and the School-children carried into

Slavery.—Destruction of English Property.—African Housebuilding and House-

keeping.—Mode of Spending the Day.—Scarcity of Food.—Locusts —Edible

Frogs.—Scavenger Beetle.—Continued Hostility of the Boers.—The Journey

north.—Preparations.—Fellow-travelers.—The Kalahari Desert.—Vegetation.—

Watermelons.—The Inhabitants. — The Bushmen. — Their nomade Mode of

Life.—Appearance.—The Bakalahari.—Their Love for Agriculture and for do-

mestic Animals.—Timid Character.—Mode of obtaining Water.—Female Water-

suckers.—The Desert.—Water hidden 3!i

CHAPTER HI.

Departure from Kolobeng, 1st June, 1849.—Companions.—Our Route.—Abund-

ance of Grass.—Serotli, a Fountain in the Desert.—Mode of digging Wells.—

The Eland.—Animals of the Desert.—The Hyama.—The Chief Sekomi.—

Dangers.—The wandering Guide.—Cross Purposes.—Slow Progress.—Want of
xli • CONTENTS.

Water.—Capture of a Bushwoman.—The Salt-pan at Nchokotsa.—The Mirage.

—Reach the River Zouga.—The Quakers of Africa.—Discovery of Lake Ngami,

1st August, 1849.—Its Extent.—Small Depth of Water.—Position as the Reser-

voir of a great River System.—The Bamangwato and their Chief.—Desire to

visit Sebituane, the Chief of the Makololo.—Refusal of Lechulatebe to furnish

us with Guides.—Resolve to return to the Cape.—The Banks of the Zouga.—

Pitfalls.—Trees of the District.—Elephants.—New Species of Antelope.—Fish

in the Zouga Page 61

CHAPTER IV.

Leave Kolobeng again for the Country of Sebituane.—Reach the Zouga.—The

Tsetse.—A Party of Englishmen.—Death of Mr. Rider.—Obtain Guides.—Chil-

dren fall sick with Fever.—Relinquish the Attempt to reach Sebituane.—Mr.

Oswell's Elephant-hunting.—Return to Kolobeng.—Make a third Start thence.

—Reach Nchokotsa.—Salt-pans.—Links," or Springs.—Bushmen.—Our Guide

Shobo.—The Banajoa.—An ugly Chief.—The Tsetse.—Bite fatal to domestic

Animals, but harmless to wild Animals and Man.—Operation of the Poison.—

Losses caused by it.—The Makololo.—Our Meeting with Sebituane.—Sketch of

his Career.—His Courage and Conquests.—Manoeuvres of the Butoka.—He out-

wits them.—His Wars with the Matebele.—Predictions of a native Prophet.—

Successes of the Makololo.—Renewed Attacks of the Matebele.—The Island of

Loyelo.—Defeat of the Matebele.—Sebituane's Polity- His Kindness to Stran-

gers and to the Poor.—His sudden Illness and Death.—Succeeded by his Daugh-

ter.—Her Friendliness to us.—Discovery, in June, 1861, of the Zambesi flowing

in the Centre of the Continent.—Its Size.—The Mumbari.—The Slave-trade.—

Determine to send Family to England.—Return to the Cape in April, 1852.—

Safe Transit through the Caffre Country during Hostilities.—Need of a ''Spe-

cial Correspondent."—Kindness of the London Missionary Society.—Assistance

afforded by the Astronomer Royal at the Cape 88

CHAPTER V.

Start in June, 1852, on the last and longest Journey from Cape Town.—Compan-

ions.—Wagon-traveling.—Physical Divisions of Africa.—The Eastern, Central,

and Western Zones.—The Kalahari Desert.—Its Vegetation.—Increasing Value

of the Interior for Colonization.—Our Route.—Dutch Boers.—Their Habits.—

Sterile Appearance of the District. — Failure of Grass. — Succeeded by bther

Plants.—Vines.—Animals.—The Boers as Farmers.—Migration of Springbucks.

—Wariness of Animals.—The Orange River.—Territory of the Griquas and

Bechuanas.—The Griquas.—The Chief Waterboer.—His wise and energetic

Government —His. Fidelity.—Ill-considered Measures of the Colonial Govern-

ment in regard to supplies of Gunpowder.—Success of the Missionaries among

the Griquas and Bechuanas.—Manifest Improvement of the native Character.—

Dress of the Natives.—A full-dress Costume.—A Native's Description of the Na-

tives.—Articles of Commerce in the Country of the Bechuanas.—Their Unwil-

lingness to learn, and Readiness to criticise 108

CHAPTER VI.

Kurnman.—Its fine Fountain*.—Vegetation of the District.—Remains of ancient

Forests.—Vegetable Poison.—The Bible translated by Mr. Moffat.—Capabilities

of the Language.—Christianity among the Natives.—The Missionaries should

extend their Labors more beyond the Cape Colony.—Model Christians.—Dis-
CONTENTS. xiii

graceful Attack of the Boers on the Bakwains.—Letter from Sechele.—Details

of the Attack.—Numbers of School-children carried away into Slavery.—De-

struction of House and Property at Kolobeng.—The Boers vow Vengeance against

me.—Consequent Difficulty of getting Servants to accompany me on my Jour-

ney.—Start in November, 1852.—Meet Sechele on his way to England to obtain

Redress from the Queen.—He is unable to proceed beyond the Cape.—Meet

Mr. Macabe on his Return from Lake Ngami.—The hot Wind of the Desert.—

Electric State of the Atmosphere. — Flock of Swifts —Beach Litubaruba.—

The Case Lepelole.—Superstitions regarding it.—Impoverished State of the

Bakwains.—Retaliation on the Boers.—Slavery.—Attachment of the Bechu-

anas to Children. — Hydrophobia unknown.—Diseases of the Bakwains few

in number. — Yearly Epidemics. — Hasty Burials — Ophthalmia. — Native

Doctors. — Knowledge of Surgery at a very low Ebb. — Little Attendance

given to Women at their Confinements. — The "Child Medicine." — Salu-

brity of the Climate well adapted for Invalids suffering from pulmonary Com-

plaints. Page 124

CHAPTER VII.

Departure from the Country of the Bakwains.—Large black Ant.—Land Tor-

toises.—Diseases of wild Animals.—Habits of old Lions —Cowardice of the

Lion.—Its Dread of a Snare.—Major Vardon's Note.—The Roar of the Lion re-

sembles the Cry of the Ostrich.—Seldom attacks full-grown Animals.—Buffaloes

and Lions.—Mice.—Serpents.—Treading on one.—Venomous and harmless Va-

rieties.—Fascination.—Sekomi's Ideas of Honesty.—Ceremony of the Sechu for

Boys.—The Boyale for young Women.—Bamangwato Hills.—The Unicorn's

Pass.—The Country beyond.—Grain.—Scarcity of Water.—Honorable Conduct

of English Gentlemen.—Gordon Cumming's hunting Adventures.—A Word of

Advice for young Sportsmen.—Bushwomen drawing Water. — Ostrich.—Silly

Habit.—Paces.—Eggs-- Food 148

CHAPTER VIII.

Effects of Missionary Efforts.—Belief in the Deity.-*-Ideas of the Bakwains on Re-

ligion.—Departure from their Country.—Salt-pans.—Sour Curd.—Nchokotsa.—.

Bitter Waters.—Thirst suffered by the wild Animals.—Wanton Cruelty in Hunt-

ing.—Ntwetwe.—Mowana-trees.—Their extraordinary Vitality.—The Mopane-

tree.—The Morals —The Bushmen —Their Superstitions.—Elephant-hunting.—_

Superiority of civilized over barbarous Sportsmen.—The Chief Kaisa.—His Fear

of Responsibility.—Beauty of the Country at Unku.—The Mohonono Bush.—

Severe Labor in cutting our Way.—Party seized with Fever.—Escape of our

Cattle.—Bakwain Mode of recapturing them.—Vagaries of sick Servants.—Dis-

covery of grape-bearing Vines.—An Ant-eater.—Difficulty of passing through

the Forest.—Sickness of my Companion.—The Bushmen.—Their Mode of de-

stroying Lions.—Poisons.—The solitary Hill.—A picturesque Valley.—Beauty

of the Country. — Arrive at the Sanshureh River. — The flooded Prairies.—A

pontooning Expedition.—A night Bivouac.—The Chobe.—Arrive at the Village

of Moremi.—Surprise of the Makololo at our sudden Appearance.—Cross the

Chobe on our way to Linyanti 175

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from his Sister.—Mpepe's Plot.—Slave-trading Mambarl—Their sudden Flight.

I —Sekeletu narrowly escapes Assassination.—Execution of Mpepe.—The Courts

of Law.—Mode of trying Offenses.—Sekeletu's Reason for not learning to read

the Bible.—The Disposition made of the Wives of a deceased Chief.—Makololn

Women.—They work but little.—Employ Serfs.—Their Drink, Dress, and Orna-

ments.—Public Religious Services in the Kotla.—Unfavorable Associations of the

place.—Native Doctors.—Proposals to teach the Makololo to read.—SekeletuV

Present.—Reason for accepting it.—Trading in Ivory.—Accidental Fire.—Pres-

ents for Sekeletu.—Two Breeds of native Cattle.—Ornamenting the Cattle.—The

Women and the Looking-glass.—Mode of preparing the Skins of Oxen for Man-

tles and for Shields.—Throwing the Spear Page 19C

CHAPTER X.

The Fever.—Its Symptoms.—Remedies of the native Doctors.—Hospitality of Se-

keletu and his People.—One of their Reasons for Polygamy.—They cultivate

largely.—The Makalaka or subject Tribes.—Sebituane's Policy respecting them.

—Their Affection for him.—Products of the Soil.—Instrument of Culture.—The

Tribute.—Distributed by the Chief.—A warlike Demonstration.—LeehulatebeV

Provocations.—The Makololo determine to punish him. — The Bechuanas.—

Meaning of the Term.—Three Divisions of the great Family of South Afri-

cans k 2U'

CHAPTER XI.

Departure from Linyanti for Sesheke.—Level Country.—Ant-hills.—Wild Date-

trees.—Appearance of our Attendants on the March.—The Chief's Guard.—They

attempt to ride on Ox-back.—Vast Herds of the new Antelopes, Leeches, and Na-

kongs.—The native way of hunting them.—Reception at the Villages.—Presents

of Beer and Milk.—Eating with the Hand.—The Chief provides the Oxen for

Slaughter.—Social Mode of Eating.—The Sugar-cane.—Sekeletu's novel Test

of Character.—Cleanliness of Makololo Huts.—Thtir Construction and Appear-

ance.—The Beds.—Cross the Leeambye.—Aspect of this part of the Country.—

The small Antelope Tianyane unknown in the South.—Hunting on foot.—An

Eland ! 221

CHAPTER XII.

.Procure Canoes and ascend the Leeambye.—Beautiful Islands.—Winter Land-

scape.—Industry and Skill of the Banyeti.—Rapids.—Falls of Gonye.—Tradi-

tion.—Annual Inundations.—Fertility of the great Barotse Valley.—Execution

of two Conspirators.—The Slave-dealer's Stockade.—Naliole, the Capital, built

on an artificial Mound.—Santuru, a great Hunter.—The Barotse Method of com-

memorating any remarkable Event.—Better Treatment of Women.—More relig-

ious Feeling.—Belief in R future State, and in the Existence of spiritual Beings.

—Gardens.—Fish, Fruit, and Game.—Proceed to the Limits of the Barotse

country. —Sekeletu provides Rowers and a Herald.—The River and Vicinity.—

Hippopotamus-hunters.—No healthy Location.—Determine to go to Loanda.—

Buffaloes, Elands, and Lions above Libonta.—Interview with the Mambari.—

Two Arabs from Zanzibar.—Their Opinion of the Portuguese and the English.—

Reach the Town of Ma-Sekeletu.—Joy of the People at the first Visit of their

Chief.—Return to Sesheke.—Heathenism 231

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CHAPTER XIII.

Preliminary Arrangements for the Journey.—A Picho.—Twenty-seven Men ap-

pointed to accompany me to the West.—Eagerness of the Makololo for direct

Trade with the Coast.—Effects of Fever.—A Makololo Question.—The lost JourJ

nal.—Reflections.—The Outfit for the Journey.—11th November, 1853, leave Lin-

yanti, and embark on the Chobe.—Dangerous Hippopotami.—Banks of Chobe.—

Trees.—The Course of the River.—The Island Mparia at the Confluence of the

Chobe and the Leeainbve.—Anecdote.—Ascend the Leeambye.—A Makalaka

Mother defies the Authority of the Makololo Head Man at Sesheke.—Punishment

of Thieves.—Observance of the new Moon.—Public Addresses at Sesheke.—At-

tention of the People.—Results.—Proceed up the River.—The Fruit which yields

Nux vomica.—Other Fruits.—The Rapids.—Birds.—Fish.—Hippopotami and

their Young Page 247

CHAPTER XIV. •

Increasing Beauty of the Country.—Mode of spending the Day.—The People and

the Falls of Gonye«—A Makololo Foray.—A second prevented, and Captives de-

livered up.—Politeness and Liberality of the People.—The Rains.—Present of

Oxen.—The fugitive Barotse.—Sekobinyane's Misgovernment.—Bee-eaters and

other Birds.—Fresh-water Sponges.—Current.—Death from the Lion's Bite at

Libonta.—Continued Kindness.—Arrangements for spending the Night during

the Journey.—Cooking and Washing.—Abundance of animal Life.—Different

Species of Birds.—Water-fowl.—Egyptian Geese.—Alligators.—Narrow Escape

of one of my Men.—Superstitious Feelings respecting the Alligator.—Large

Game.—The most vulnerable spot. —Gun Medicine.—A Sunday.—Birds of

Song.—Depravity; its Treatment.—Wild Fruits.—Green Pigeons.—Shoals of

Fish.—Hippopotami 265

CHAPTER XV.

Message to Masiko, the Barotse Chief, regarding the Captives.—Navigation of the

Leeambye.—Capabilities of this District.—The Leeba.—Flowers and Bees.—

Buffalo-hunt.—Field for a Botanist.—Young Alligators; their savage Nature.—

Suspicion of the Balonda.—Sekelenke's Present.—A Man and his two Wives.—

Hunters. — Message from Manenko, a female Chief. — Mambari Traders.—A

Dream.—Sheakondo and his People.—Teeth-filing.—Desire for Butter.—Inter-

view with Nyamoana, another female Chief.—Court Etiquette.—Hair versus

Wool.—Increase of Superstition.—Arrival of Manenko; her Appearance and

Husband.—Mode of Salutation.—Anklets.—Embassy, with a Present from Mn-

siko.—Roast Beef. — Manioc. — Magic Lantern. — Manenko an accomplished

Scold: compels us to wait—-Unsuccessful Zebra-hunt 285

CHAPTER XVI.

Nyamoana's Present.—Charms.—Manenko's pedestrian Powers: —An Idol.—Ba-

londa Arms.—Rain. — Hunger —Palisades.—Dense Forests.— Artificial Bee-

hives.—Mushrooms.—Villagers lend the Roofs of their Houses.—Divination and

Idols.—Manenko's Whims.—A night Alarm.—Shinte's Messengers and Present.

—The proper Way to approach a Village.—A Merman.—Enter Shinte's Town:

its Appearance.—Meet two half-caste Slave-traders.—The Makololo scorn them.

—The Balonda real Negroes.—Grand Reception from Shinte.—His Kotla.—

Ceremony of Introduction.—The Orators.—Women.—Musicians and Musical

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