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Nagnis, who with a patriotic zeal forsook has an extensive flock of them, and the the court, and devoted his attention to Agricultural Society of Zell inaintain, at agricultural pursuits. When he settled their cost, a mixed breed iniproved to the on lis eliates in 1786, he found himself last degree of oneness. Many of the poflefied of three thousand native fheep, flocks in the Electorate of Hanover, the which returned him one thousand two Duchy of Brunswick, the Palitinate, hundred rix-dollars per annum. Ile now Suabia, Badeu, &c. are also indebted to poßefles above nine thousand theep, im- the Merino theep for their palpable improved by the breeds of Hungary and provement. The breed was adopted by Spain, which yield bim twenty-lix thou- Brunfuick in 1783, by Suabia and Bafand ris-dollars per annum. This en- den, 1788. liglotener breeder conducts luis sheep-farın
« FRANCE. with admirable order and intelligent skill, “The first man, whose attention was die beyond all prailc. The fine manufactures rected to this important branch of naof Pruiiia are increased three-told within tional economy, was Colbert. This minithe lati thirteen years; and the encou- iter formed a design of improving the ragerneut given to the adoption of Me- French breeds of theep hy importing frotu rino thee;', makes it probable that the Spain and England such as were at that country will, ere long, be able exclusively time more perfect than France could to fupply itself with fine wool, which is boast of poftelling. Colbert's views were at prefent partly imported froin Sasony useful and well-digested; but they were by purchase at the Leipzig fairs before also new, consequently there were not mentioned.
wanting those who opposed the execuGERMANY, &c.
tion of them. Since that time, however, " The first importation of Merino Meep an able and accurate observer has ftept into this country, was made by the Em- førth to undertake this pursuit, and has press . Maria Theresa in 1775; but the rapidly caused the improvement of the fuccess was cominensurate with the at. French flocks to such an extent, that it tention paid to them, which was next to may almoti be said to have sprung at none, though there are till to be found once from infancy to maturity. Daufocks of improved wool derived from benton is the naine of the enlightened these, in the Auftrian states, and more par- agriculturist, who, with a success equal to ticularly in Bohemia and Ilungary. The his perseverance, has devoted himself to examples of Saxony and Silelia feem allo the cultivation of a race fo important to to have awakened the attention of the our fabfistence, to our clothing, and to a Austrian government, which is at this time multitude of arts connected with our inemploying agcuts in Spain to procure nunerable wants; a cultivation, evidently Merino theep.
tending to release France from a kind of " Anspach and Bayreuth applied them- tribute, wbich the annually pays to Spain selves to this useful pursuit in 1788, and for fine wool. The breed was first imstill more strenuously in 1790. So com- ported from that country in 1776, and pletc, indeed, was their conviction of its Daubenton having, by the experiments importance, that there are at this time made during feren years, ascertained that but few brecders, whose flocks have not he had by judicious intermixture proat leati begun to introduce the Spanish duced a breed bearing wool equal ir cross.
quality to that hitherto obtained froin " The Duke of Wirtemberg (who was Spain, fent various portions of it to diffond of agriculture,) imported Merino ferent manufacturers in 1783, and 1784; Theep in 1786, and afterwards established the result of which was, that the higheit a regular fale to his subjects. The thirty- price of the finest wools was otfered by two aniinals, which that brave and skilful ibem; nay, they even went fo far as to General Moreau presented to the Agri- point out qualities, in which this improved cultural Society of Strasburg, were bred French wool excelled the Spanisl. Sucha by the Duke of Wirtemberg. They had being the casc, many landbolders directed been gratuitously offered to the French their atteution to to lucrative im objcét; Ciepieral, after the conclusion of the ar. and M. Dangevillier, at that time govermifice, and are now near bwafburg at por of Rambouillet, applied to the Spanish Sula.
Court for a flock. The king gave orders "In other parts of Germany, the same for a selection to be inade from the mott race is also been adopted with the molt perfoćt breeds, and three hundred and decitive fuccelk. The Chainberlain Von fixty-leven were feot in 1786. They proAlolk, wlyfe domain is in Mecklenburg, peeded by moderate jowneys to Rume
bouillet, after having passed the winter in and Friesland, with complete success, and the neighbourhood of Bourdeaux; and from holding forth promise of ftill greater adthe time of their original departure to vantages. His fpirited exertions have that of their final arrival, about three encouraged others in the same pursuit, fcore of them died. The survivors gave and the public partiality towards the rife to the extensive Rock now kept at celebrated Merino race, which is founded Rambouillet; and to the considerable on experiments in almost every civilized nunber which have been fold to indivi- nation of Europe, gives reason to believe duals, as the breed progresively increas that fine-wooled theep, will ultimately ed. At first, feveral rains and ewes were cause the common breeds to disappear. girer to encourage enterprifing farmers;
“CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. but as it appeared that these were de "Agriculturists have told us that animals, spised merely because they were a gift, a which are transported from North to lale was fubstituted. The provincial ad- South, viz. from a climate less warm than miniftrations, then establified, made ap- that to which they are removed, will deo plication for them, and had a preference. generate, whether they breed among Since that time, and especially of late, themselves, or cross any other race of the prices at Rambouillet have been the country; and that, vice versa, animals much increased, and have indeed reached taken from Sout, to North, improve those * height, which appears extraordinary in with which they are connected. Many a country, where it is not customary, as facts, however exist, in opposition to this in England, to expend considerable sums opinion ; besides which, it is easy to prove for the purpose of acquiring a theep pare that the degeneracy complained of, thould ticularly suited to the breeder's purpofe. be afcribed to other causes than thoso The Merino race having thus been proved which are adduced. When a fufficient to carry as valuable a fleece in France as number of experiments fall have been in Spain, an opposition has next. been made by accurate observers, it will be made to the mutton ; those, who willicd found from a comparison of them, that to depreciate it, having asierted that the want of knowledge, a bad choice, neglect, animal was not dilpoted to fatten kindly, and improper nutriment, tend as much and that its flesh was very coarse; affer- and even more towards degeneration of tions, which have both been experimen- the species, than the greater or less de tally proved to be totally destitute of gree of heat which prevails under a diffoundation. There are at present in ferent latitude. The success of fines
Frace more than fifteen thouland of the wooled sheep at the Cape of Good Hope, pure Merino breed, besides an immense proves that this general opinion is not number improved by the cross.
founded upon facts. I am convinced, 6 HOLLAND.
indeed, after the observations, which I *There are few regions of Europe, whose have collected in Spain, upon the breeds temperature and foil differ more than of that country, upon their mode of rearthose of Spain and Holland. The Merino ing, upon the nature of the soil and cliAheep, trasported from a scorching cli- mate, that the general caufes of their fine mata to a cold and tharshy country, have, wools are not those usually supposed. nevertheless, preferved, in Holland, che The preservation in its utmost purity of qualities which distinguish them from the Merino race, at the Cape of Good other brceds, and have remained vigo- Hope, in the marshes of Holland, and unroudly healthy. It was not till 1789, that der the rigorous climate of Sweden, add Mr. Twent made the fire fmall importa- an additional proof to this my unalterable tion, which be placed upon his farın be- principle: finc-rcooled sheep may be reared beca la den and the Hagad. It con- wherever indufàrious men and intelligent fled of mu mms and four ewes, which breeders exif. u The Spanilla brced was
Dome includ to two hundted, besides taken to the Cape in 1782, and Lord a fold from this bang the number Somerville received specimens of its ex
HT, is obliged to confine cellence, with an aflurance from his cor
the Indit af his farm. It is respondent, that the wool Imad rather with the lealt perfect aniinals, gained than doft in quality, from its ng buta nobabear die growth of eighteen years in that colony. fiet wools that he bas
K ITALY. Redky preferable, int * Is Italy then, which bas-fo long des olland. Mr. Twent fpified the useful arts, willing to awake
ne dont hreeds of from the trance, into which ignbrance theft of die Idel wi fanaticism have, ull now, plunged
her? Has her connexion with France, hare boen introduced. Wbei ebe come a mntion hitherto 1o fatal to lier, produced increial spirit and patriotitin which attini an clectrive movement which leads her mate this nation are couldered, 140 doubt to objects of real utility? Piedinont can exist but that the Merino theep will polieties many flocks boih of the pore: 1peedily be naturalized in that iland, and and improved native breeds. Cognt became a new fource of wealth to a Granorie, a man of genius, and a found people ever ready to avail themselves of patriot, a warm protector of arts and of fources opened to their habitual indairy.. commnerce, becoming a member of ad- The papers on this fubjeći, published lige ministration, on his return from his ein- the Board of Agriculture, Ilse efforts of bally to Spain, conceived the project of various Agricultural Societies, as well as. securing to Piedmont this fourec of of initividuals, prove that a breed, fo inBalth; for which purpote he obtained tnately connected with the profierity from the court of Madrid permillion to' of their manuactures, will weet with the zake from that country one hundred and reception due to its vaft utility. The titiy of ifie beli Segovian breed, felected late Duke of Bedfiwed, a powertul patron by the Prince of Matieraw. The war, of agriculture, Lord Somerville, elle kmy, which prevailed at this period, did not of England, and fome other agriculturisis, permit the government to pursue the pro- have procured Merino Bicep, tron which gress of this new etiablillinent; and then the stock is beymuing to morense. It is Jofs of the minitier would have been fok gratifying to see the head of a governlowed by the lofs of the fine-koolcd race,' ment, as well as the men woft ditlinbut for the interference of the Academy guitbed by their intluence; their wealth, of Agriculture, and spirited individuals, and their knowledge, encourage, bv ali who have thereby encreased the profene the means in their power, the wiok uictul hoek to five thoutund; and unanimoutly of the arts.". affcrt liat the Heece is not inferior in As I thall berc, Sir, conclude my ketch quality to that of the animals originally of Montieur Lafeyrie's publication, it imported; that in no other refpect has it remains for ine only to point out (which degenerated; that the cross with the Ro- I do with a bluft) tixut Great Britain is, man, Neapolitan and Paduan breeds, not from any apparent national antipathy has been most satisfactory in its results; onliis part, but deforæedly placed the lait and that the flesh of the Merinos is in- in his aceount. Great Britain, wliole finitely more delicate than that of the fuperfine manufactures are far more exa pativc dhecy.
tentise than those of any other nation, “ GREAT BRITAIN.
whole vital interefis are therefore wate"England, which has of late years shone rially connected with the internal produce fo pre-eminent in her various improve- of the article, which forins the dubject of ments, mult, nevertheless, be charged this paper-Great Britain is still innétice, with neglecting almoli to the prefent mo- when the childculties of procuring the are ment the improvement of fine wools. icle must, to all appearance, annually Those for combing, not less useful in cer- mcrease, and the power to grow it at tain kinds of manufacture, have had the lime, in full perfection, as well as with preference in that country, and the per- immense advantage, is become incontrofeverance of breeders has been rewardes vertible.*
Your's, &c. by producing adinirable wool of its kind.
BENJAMIN THOMPSON. The prejudices of other countries have Hill Lodge, near Nottinghum, found their way bither; and it has been January 4th, 1307. constantly affeiterl that the fineness of the Recco depended upon climate, foil, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
SIK, and pasturage; confequently, that iu Eugpand, the quality of Spanith wool muft Tord, civen by the Rev. Mr. Lufons,
VE of degenerate. The merchants and manufacturers, mined by the fome prejudices in the 11t vol. recently published, of his as the breeders, have embraced the fatne Magan Britannia, a work of immense opinion; but the first were guided, in fome degree, by different motives: they feared Every British patriot will readily acknowthat interior success inight diminish the ledge the obligations of the Country to Mr. advantages which importation produced Thompson, for his well-timcd publication on to them. Little inore than a dozen years a subject to important to our Commercial and ago the Englii nation did not know the Agricultural interefts, but which at this moMerino breed, in its living tiate; since ment is rendered of such fingular consequence which, some few of that valuable race
by the rettrictions recently adopted in Spain.
The last pro
was, till about the year 1790, the pro- persons of unexceptionable conduct and perty of a family of the name not of Gar- inorals. diner, but of Garnow.
Mr. Lysons' has noticed the recent prietor of that name, was a merchant re- erection of the County Goal, the County ident in the City of London.
Infirınary, and the house of Industry; all P. 51. “A considerable tradc;" Mr. of them buildings remarkably well adapted L. remarks, “is carried on in coals to their respective purposes, and planned. brought by the Quse to Bedford from by the fame excellent architect, Mr. Lyon and Yarmouth.” Bedford being John Wing, of Bedford, a man equally the head of the navigation, a considerable esteemed for his talents and integrity. In trade is not only carried on with Lynn consequence of the laudable exertions of for coals, but for corn, timber, iron, salt, the inhabitants, very great improvements and various other commodities. There in the course of the last ten or fifteen is no communication, whatever between years have been made, chiefly under the Bedford and the port of Yarmouth. superintendance of Mr. Wing, in this an
Ibid. The population of Bedford has cient, but by no means unpleasant or une not increased, as Mr. L. aflerts from er- social town; and many others of confidere roneous information, of late years. Per- able magnitude are in uo diftant conhaps no town in the kingdom has re- templation. niained more stationary than Bedford, for P. 82. Elitng is not a vicarage, but a several centuries past. From Speed's perpetual curacy or donative, tenable with Map, of which the date is 1603, it appears any preferment, and in the gift of Mr. to have been at that period of almost ex, Whitbread; by whom it was a short time actly the saine dimentions as at present. fince presented, in a most generous manThe nuinber of houses is fornewliat dimi- ner, to the worthy and respectable clergynished of late years, in consequence of man who now enjoys it, without the lealt the fire mentioned by Mr. L. which hap- folicitation or expectation on his part. pened on the 25th of May, 1802, by P. 85. Jemima Marchioness Grey, which about seventy habitatious were grand-daughter and heiress of the last burnt down, most of thein very mean and Duke of Kent, was not the wife of the miserable cottages, wattled and thatched. Lord Chaucellor Hardwicke, as stated by The far greater proportion of thenı has Mr. L. but of the late Earl of Hardwické, since been re-built in a inanner that re- fou of the Chancellor, and uncle of the flečts credit upon the town. Many other present Nobleman of that name, tenements, old and ruinous, have allo P. 86. The only son of the Duke of been taken down within thele few years, Kent was not known by the title of Earb and new habitations erected, to the great of Harole), but simply Lord Harold: his improvement, but by no means the father bciug Duke, Marquis, and Earl of general enlargement of the town. Kent, and Baron of llarold. He died
P. 53. There is no boufe now occupied when just of age, (and said to have been by the single brethren in the fociety of a young man of great accomplishments) the Moravians. It was some years tince in the year 1723, by a very fiugular acciconverted into a school. The number of dent; being choaked with an ear of barn, these recluse and inoffenlive fecaries bas ley, inadvertently taken into his mouth, of late conaderably declined, and that and which working its way into the throat, enthusiastic spirit by which they were once it was found impoflible to extract. so inuch diftinguilhed, has very much P. 89. No manor in Goldington or abated. It might have been mentioned elsewhere, could have been purchased by that there has been at Bedford, for torty the grandfather of the present Duke of years past, a Methodist Chapel of the Bedford, of the Duke of Marlborough, or Wesleyan perfuafion. Mr. Weley is re- of any other person in the year 1774, as ported to have faid, that the Niethodists Johın Duke of Bedford died in the month would not flourish at Bedford, because of January, 1771. The same mistake oce they experienced no persecution. Within curs in the account of the parith of Rathese few years, however, their numbers veusden, p. 120. have, as in almost all other places, greatly I make no apology for troubling you increased, and a handfetto chupel luis with these observations, which, if noo becn newly raised on the site of the old wholly undeserving of notice, you will
A finall Jewish fynagogue alto bas have the goodness to infert in your excelbeen ettablished within the last three lent mifcellany. Your's, &c, years, cncouraged by the fpirit of tolo Bedford,
Wu. BELSHAM, ration which remarkably prevails in this Jun. izch, 1807. place. The Jews fettled at Bedford ure