« 前へ次へ »
enrnest of a satisfactory termination of the whole negotiation. • Measures are in operation for effecting treaties with the regencies of Tunis and Tripoli.
To an active external commerce the protection of a naval force is indispensable. This is manifest with regard to wars in which a state is itself a party; but besides this, it is our own experience, that the most lincere neutrality is not a sufficient guard against the depredations of nations at war. To secure respect to a neutral flag requires a naval force, organized, and ready to vindicate it from insult or aggreslion. This may even prevent the. necessity of going to war, by discouraging belligerent powers from committing such violations of the rights of the neutral party as may, fitst or last, receive no other option. From the belt information I have been able to obtain, it would seem as if our trade to the Mediterranean, without a protecting force, will always be insecure; and our citizens exposed to the calamities from which numbers of them have but just been relieved. These considerations invite the ynited States to look to the means, and to set about the gradual creation of a navy. The increasing progress of their navigation promises them, at no distant period, the requisite supply of seamen; and their means, in other respects, savour the undertaking. It is an encouragement, likewise, that their particular situation will give weight and influence to a moderate naval force in thejr hands. Will it not then be advisable lo begin, without delay, to provide, aud lay up the malefialsspr the building aud equipping
of ships of war; and to proceed in the work by degrees, in proportion as our resources shall render it practicable, without inconvenience; so that a suture war ol Europe may not find our commerce in the same unprotected state in which it was found by the prelent?
Congress have repeatedly, and» not without success, directed liieir attention to the encouragement of manufactures. The object is of too much consequence not to ensure a continuation of their efforts, in every way which will appear eligible. As a general rule, manut'aclurers on a public account are inexpedient; but where the state, of things in a country leave little hope that certain branches of manufacture will, lor a great length of time, obtain; when these are of a nature essential to the fbrnilhing and equipping of the public force in the tune <>;' war, are not establishments for procuring them on public account, to :ke event cf the ordinary demand for tb: public fa vice, recommended by strong considerations of national policy, as an ex.ception to the general rule? Ought our country to remain in such cases dependant on foreign supply, precarious, because liable to be interrupted? Is the necessary articles should in this mode colt more in time of peace, will not the security and independence thence arising soldi an ample compensation Establishments of this sort, commensurate only .with the calls of the public service in the time os peace, will, in time of war, easily be extended in proportion to the exigencies of govern, l.c.it, and even perhaps lo be made to yield a surplus, for the supply os our citizens at large; so as lo mitigate the private'_rs vateers from the interruption of their trade. If adopted the plan ought to exclude all those branches, which are already, or likely soon to-be established in the country, in order that there may be no danger of interference with pursuits of individual industry.
It will not be doubted that, with reference either to individual or national welfare, agriculture is of primary importance. In proportion as nations advance in population, and other circumstances of maturity, this truth becomes more apparent, and renders the cultivation of the foil more and more on object of public patronage. Institutions for promoting it grow up, supported by the public purse; and to what object can it be dedicated with greater propriety? The means which have been employed to this end, none have been attended with greater 'success than the establishment of boards, composed of proper characters, charged with collecting and diffusing information, and enabled by premiums, and small pecuniar}- aids, to encourage and astist a spirit of discovery and improvement.
I have heretofore proposed to the consideration of Congress the expediency of establisoing a national university, and also a military academy. The desirableness of both these institutions has so constantly increased with every new view I have taken of the subject, that I cannot omit the opportunity of once for all recalling your attention to them.'
The assembly to which I address myself is too enlightened not to be fully sensible how much a flourishing state of the arts and sciences contributes to national prosperity
and reputation. True it is that our country, much to its honour, contains seraiparies of learning, highly respectable and useful; bat the funds upon which they rest, are too narrow to command the ablest professors in the different departments of liberal knowledge, for the institution contemplated, though they would be excellent auxiliaries.
Amongst the motives to such an institution, the assimilation of the principles, opinions, and manners of our countrymen, by the common education of a portion of our youth from every quarter, well deserves attention. The more homogeneous our citizens can be made, in these particulars, the greater will be our prospect of permanent union; and a primary 'object of such a national institution should be the education of our youth in the science of government. In a republic, what species of knowledge can be equally important; and what duty more pressing on its legislature than to patronize a plan for communicating it to those who are to be the future guardians of the liberties of the country?
While in our external relations, some serious inconveniences and embarrassments have been overcome, and others lessened, it is with much pain and deep regret I mention,, that circumstances of a very unwelcome nature have lately occurred. Our trade has suffered, and is suffering, extensive injuries in the West Indies, from the cruisers and agents of the French republic; and communications have been received from its minister here which indicate the danger of a further di sturbance in our commerce by its authority, and which are, in other respects, far from agreeable.
It has been my constant, sincere, and earnest wisli, in conformity with that of our nation, to maintain cordial harmony and a perfectly friendly understanding with that republic. This wish remains unabated; and I sliall persevere in the endeavour to fulfil it, to the utmost extent of what stiall be consistent with a just and indispensable regard to the rights and honour of our country; nor will I easily cease to cherish the expectation, that a spirit of justice, candour, and friendship, on the part of the republic, will eventually ensure success.
In pursuing this course, however, 1 cannot forget what is due to ihe character of our government and nation; or to a full and entire confidence in the good fense, patriotism, felt-respect, and fortitude of my countrymen.
Answer, ta the above addresi presented by the Vice prejident.
WE thank you, sir, for your faithful and detailed exposure of the existing situation of our country; and we sincerely join in sentiments of gratitude to an over-ruling providence for the-distinguished (hare of public prosperity and private happiness, which the propie of the United Slates so peculiarly enjoy.
We observe with pleasure, that the delivery of the military posts lately occupied by the Britilh forces within the territory of the United States, was made.with ^cordiality and promptitude, as soon as circumstances would admit; aud
that the other provisions of our objects of eventual arrangement are now about being carried into effect with entire harmony and good faith.
We perfectly coincide with you in opinion, that the importance of our commerce demands a naval force.for its protection sgainst foreign insult and depredation, and our solicitude to attain that- object will be always proportionate to its magnitude.
The necessity of accelerating the establishment of certain useful manufactures by the intervention of legislative aid and protection, andthe encouragement due to agriculture by the creation of boards (composed of intelligent individuals) to patronize this primary pursuit of society, are subjects which will readily engage our most serious attention.
A national university may be converted to the most useful purposes.- The science of legislation being so essentially dependent on the endowments of the mind, thr, public interest must receive effectual aid from the general diffusion of knowledge, and the ..United States will assume a more dignified station among the nations of the earth, by the successful cultivation of the highest branches of literal ture.
We sincerely lament, that while the conduct of the United States has been uniformly impressed with the character of equity, moderation, ami love of peace, in the maintenance of all 'their foreign relationships, our trade should be so harassed by the cruisers and agents ot* the republic of France, throughout ithe extensive departments • of the 1 West Indies.
We verted by her frequent pregnancies, by an exclusive paflion for her husband, and by the dissipation of the world, in which his taste and authority obliged her to mingle. But the maternal office was supplied by my mint, Mrs. Catharine Porten; at whose name I feel a tear of gratitude trickling down my cheek. A life of celibacy transferred her vacant affection to her sister's first child: my weakness excited her pity; her attachment was fortified by labour and success : and if there be any, as I trust there are some, Who rejoice that I live, to that dear and excellent woman they must bold themselves indebted. Many anxious and solitary days did the consume in the patient trial of every mode of relief and amusement. Many wakeful nights did slie fit by my bed-side in trembling expectation that each hour would
their origin in myself, that, were not the error corrected by analogy, I sliould be tempted to conceive them as innate. In my childhood I was praised for the readiueb, with which I could multiply and divide, by memory alone, two sums of several figures: such praise encouraged my growing talent; and had I persevered in this line ct application, I might have acquired some fame in mathematical studies. After this previous institution at home, or at a day-school at Putney, I was delivered at the age ot seven into the hands of Mr. John Kirkby, who exercised about eighteen months the office of my domestic tutor. , His own words, which I lhall here transcribe, inspire in his favour a sentiment of pity and esteem.—" During myabode in my native county of Cumberland, in quality, of an in
be my last. Of the various and digent curate,- I used now-and
frequent disorders of my childhood my own recollection is dark; nor do I wisli to expatiate on so disgusting a topic. Suffice it to say, that while every practitioner, from Sloanc and Ward to the chevali er Taylor, was successively summoned to torttire or relieve me, the care of my mind was too frequently neglected for that of my health; compassion always suggested an excuse for the indulgence of the master, or the idleness of the pupil; and the chain of my education was broken, as often as I was recalled from the school of learning to the bed of sickness.
As soon as the use of speech had prepared my infant reason for the admission of knowledge, I was taught the arts of reading, writing, and arithmetic. So remote is the date, so vague is the memory of
then in a summer, when the pleasantness of the season invited, to take a solitary walk to the sealhore, which lies about two mile; from the town where I lived. Here I would amuse myself, one while in viewing at large the agreeable prospect which surrounded me, and another while (confining my sight to nearer objects) in admiring the vast variety of beautiful shell's, thrown upon the beach; some of the choices! «f which I always picked up, to divert my little ones upon ray return. One time among the rest, taking such a journey in ray head, I sat down upon the declivity of the beach with my face to the sea, which was now come up within a few yards of my feet; when immediately the fad thoughts of the wretched condition of roy family*
family, and the unsuccessfulness of all endeavours to amend it, came crowding into my mind, ■which drove rne into a deep melancholy, and ever and anon forced tears frrm my eyes." Distress r>t last forced him to leave the country. His learning and virtue introduced him to my lather; and at Putney he might have found at least a temporary shelter, had not an act of indiscretion again driven him into the world. One day reading prayers in the pari fli church, he moll unluckily forgot the name of king George: his patron, a loyal subject, dismissed him with some reluctance, and a decent re.vard; and hiiu the poor man ended his days I have never been able to learn.
In roy ninth year (January 174.6), in a lucid interval of comparative health, my father adopted the convenient and customary mode ut" English education; and I was sent to Kingston upon Thames, to a school os about seventy boys, which was kept by Dr. Wooddefon and his assistants. Every time I have since passed over Putney common, I have always noticed the spot where my mother, as we drove along in the coach, admqniflied me that I was wrw goinginto the world, and must learn to think and act for myself. The exprefljon niajr appear ludicrous; yet there is ttot, in the course of life, a more remarkable change than the removal of a child from the luxury aiul freedom of a wealthy house, to the frugal diet and strict subordination of a school; from the tenderness of parents, and the obsequiousness of servants, to the rude familiarity of his equals, the insolent tyranny 'if his seniors, and the rod, perhaps, Vol. XXXVIII.
of a cruel and capricious pedagogue. Such hardsliips may steel the mind and body against the injuries of fortune: but my timid reserve was astonished by the crowd and tumult os the school ; the want os strength and activity disqualified me for the sports of the play-field; nor have I forgotten b,°w often in the year forty-fir 1 was reviled and buffetted for the fins of my tory ancestors. By the common methods of discipline; at the expence of many tears and some blood, I purchased the knowledge of the Latin' syntax: and not long since I wa* possessed of the dirty volumes of Phaedrus and Cornelius Nepos, which I painfully construed and darkly understood.
My studies were too frequently interrupted by sickness; and after a real or nominal residence at Kingston-frJiool of near two years, I was finally recalled (December 1747) by my mother's death, which was occasioned in her thirty-eighth year, by the consequences of her last labour. I was too young to feel the importance of my loss; and the image of her person and conversation is faintly imprinted in my memory. The asse6tionate heart of my aunt, Catherine Porten, bewailed a sister and a friend; but my poor father was inconsolable and the transport of grief seemed to threaten his life or his reason. 1 can never forget the scene of our first interview, some weeks aster the fatal event; the awful silence, the room hung with black, the midday tapers, his sighs and tears; his praises of my mother, a faint in heaven; his solemn adjuration that I would cherish her memory and imitate her virtues; and the fervor with which he kissed and blessed me