FRIENDS, Romans, countrymen ! lend me your

ears ;
I come to bury Cæsar,* not to praise him. Caesar was the leader
The evil that men do lives after them;

of the p 'pular party

among the Romans. The good is oft interred with their bones : He became the fore. So let it be with Cæsar !-Noble Brutus * most man in all the Hath told you Cæsar was ambitious

world, and the great

est general of his If it was so, it was a grievous fault;

time. And grievously hath Cæsar answered it!

Brutus, the nephew

of Cato, was a young Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest *

man, whom Cæsar ΙΟ For Brutus is an honourable man!

had ' treated almost

like a son. So are they all! all honourable men

The rest, the other Come I to speak * in Cæsar's funeral.

Roman senators, He was my friend-faithful and just to me

some of whom had

helped to murder But Brutus says he was ambitious ;

And Brutus is an honourable man !

To speak, &c. It was
He hatb brought many captives home to Rome,

the custom in Rome

for the nearest friend Whose ransoms did the general coffers * fill; of any great man to Did this in Cæsar seem ambitious ?

attend his funeraland

deliver a speech in his When that the poor have cried, Cæsar hath

praise. wept:

Coffer, a chest to hold 20 Ambition should be made of sterner stuff!

Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man !
You all did see that on the Lupercal *

Lupercal, the place
I thrice presented him a kingly crown,*

in Rome where

Romulus and Remus, 25 Which he did thrice refuse : was this am- the founders of the bition?

city, were said to have

been suckled by a sheYet Brutus says he was ambitious ;

wolf. And sure he is an honourable man !

Kingly crown. The

Romans had a great I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke;

dislike of kings, and But here I am to speak what I do know. one of the principal 30 You all did love him once; not without cause:

charges brought

against Cæsar was What cause withholds you, then, to mourn that he wished to befor him?

come king in name O judgment! thou hast fled to brutish beasts,

as well as in power. And inen have lost their reason !-Bear with

me; My heart is in the coffin there with Cæsar; 35 And I must pause till it come back to me !

* Mark Antony was connected with the family of Cæsar through his mother. After being defeated by Augustus at Actium, B.C. 31, he stabbed himself. This famous speech is taken from Shakspeare's “Julius Cæsar," Act III., Scene II.





But yesterday, the word of Cæsar might Against the world, Have stood against the world *-now lies he the Roman Empire, over which Cæsar ruled, included nearly And none so poor as to do him reverence ! the whole of the then O masters ! if I were disposed to stir known world.

Your hearts and mind to mutiny and rage, Cassius was a Roman I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius * wrong, noble, upon whom Cæsar bestowed great Who, you all know, are honourable men ! honours. He was the I will not do them wrong; I rather choose author of the conspi

• To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, racy to murder his benefactor,

Than I will wrong such honourable men ! - 45 Parchment, the skin But here's a parchment * with the seal of Cæsarof a sheep or goat I found it in his closet *—'tis his will ! prepared for writing

Let but the commons hear his testament-
Closet, a private (Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read),–

And they will go and kiss dead Cæsar's wounds, 50
And dip their napkins in his sacred blood;
Yea, beg a hair of him for memory;

And, dying, mention it within their wills,
Legacy, anything left Bequeathing it, as a rich legacy,*
by will

Unto their issue ! *
Issue, children.

If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
You all do know this mantle. I remember
The first time that ever Cæsar put it on :

'Twas on a summer's evening, in his tent-
The Nervii were the That day he overcame the Nervii !*
most warlike of the
Belgic tribes. Their Look! in this place ran Cassius' dagger
country was in the through !
north-eastern portion

n See what a rent the envious Casca * made !of France. In 57 B.C. Cæsar so totally de. Through this, the well-beloved Brutus stabbed ! feated them, that they And as he pluck'd his cursed steel away, had only 500 fighting men left out of 60,000.

18 Mark how the blood of Cæsar followed it! 65 Casca was the con- As rushing out of doors, to be resolved spirator who aimed If Brutus so unkindly knocked, or no ;the first thrust at Cæsar.

For Brutus, as you know, was Cæsar's angel !
Judge, O ye gods, how dearly Cæsar loved him !
This, this was the unkindest cut of all!

70 For when the noble Cæsar saw him stab, Traitor, one who Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' * arms, plots against his sove

: Quite vanquished him. Then burst his mighty reign or the Govern


And, in his mantle muffling up his face,
Pompey's statue, a Even at the base of Pompey's statue *-
statue set up in the
Forum to the honour

Which all the while ran blood !-great Cæsar
of Pompey the Great,
the predecessor of Oh! what a fall was there, my countrymen !

Then I, and you, and all of us fell down ;




Whilst bloody treason * flourished over us! Bloody treason, &c., 80 Oh! now you weep, and I perceive you feel t

the treason which

caused Cæsar's blood The dint of pity :* these are gracious drops!

to be shed, triumphed Kind souls! wbat! weep you when you but for the time being. behold

Dint of pity, the ef

fect of pity which Our Cæsar's vesture wounded ? look you here! causes you to shed Here is himself—marred,* as you see, by


Mar, ed, disfigured. traitors !85 Good friends ! sweet friends ! let me not stir

you up
To such a sudden flood of mutiny !
They that have done this deed are honourable !
What private griefs they have, alas, I know

That made them do it: they are wise and

90 And will, no doubt, with reason answer you.

I come not, friends, to steal away your hearts.
I am no orator,* as Brutus is ;

Orator, one who is
But, as you know me all, a plain blunt * man, able to make a good

speech, a public
That loves his friend-and that they know speaker.
full well

Blunt, honest and
That gave me public leave to speak of him straightforward.
For I have neither wit, nor words, nor worth,

words nor worth * Worth, influence.

Dumb mouths, here Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech, the wounds of 'Cæsar To stir men's blood : I only speak right on! are compared to I tell you that which you yourselves do know ; power of speech.

mouths having no 100 Show you sweet Cæsar's wounds, poor, poor And Brutus Antony, dumb mouths ! *

&c. If Antony were

as clever a speaker And bid them speak for me. But, were I as Brutus, he would Brutus,

so work upon their

feelings as to make And Brutus Antony,* there were an Antony

them instantly rise Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue up against the traitors In every wound of Cæsar, that should move

who had so foully

murdered their great105 The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny!

est benefactor,



But pleasures are like poppies spread,
You seize the flower, its bloom is shed :
Or like the snow-fall in the river,
A moment white—then gone for ever :
Or like the borealis race,
That flit ere you can point their place :
Or like the rainbow's lovely form,
Evanishing amid the storm.




Magnificoes were Enter the DUKE; the MAGNIFICOES ;* ANTONIO, BASSANIO, the higher or

chief nobles of
Antonio, a young

ne Duke. What, is Antonio * here? merchant, who Ant. Ready, so please your grace. used to lend

Duke. I am sorry for thee; thou art come to money to distressed people

answer without receiving A stony adversary,* an inhuman wretch any interest for it. Uncapable* of pity, void and empty

5 Adversary, an From any dram * of mercy. enemy. Ant.

I have heard, Uncapable (now written incap Your grace hath ta'en great pains to qualify * able), not being His rigorous* course; but, since he stands obdurate,* able to pity. Dram, the small

mall. And that no lawful means can carry me est quantity. Out of his envy's reach, I do oppose To qualify, &c, My patience to his fury; and an arm’d to turn him from his cruel inten- To suffer, with a quietness of spirit, tion.

The very tyranny and rage of his. Rigorous, severe, stern, cruel.

Duke. Go one, and call the Jew* into the court. 15 Obdurate, harsh, Salan. He's ready at the door : he comes, my very cruel, stub

• lord. born. The Jew, Shylock, who hated An.

Enter SaylocK. tonio because the latter had often Duke. Make room, and let him stand before our insulted him in the streets and public places, and Shylock, the world * thinks, and I think so too, found fault with

vith That thou but lead'st this fashion of thy malice him for lending money at a high To the last hour of act; and then, 'tis thought, 20 rate of interest. Thou’lt show thy mercy and remorse more strange The world, those interested in the Than isuny strange apparent matter.

And, where* thou now exact’st the penalty,
Where, whereas.

Which is a pound of this poor merchant's flesh,
Thou wilt not only lose the forfeiture,

- 25 But, touch'd with human gentleness and love, Moiety, portion. Forgive a moiety* of the principal,

Glancing an eye of pity on his losses,
That have of late brought down such ruin on him,


* Venice was once an important commercial city. It is situated on the islands at the mouth of the river Po, in northern Italy. It has canals for streets, and above 300 bridges over them, the chief of which is the Rialto, built of white marble.




Enough to press a royal merchant* down.

Royal merchant, We all expect a gentle answer, Jew.

the great Italian

merchants who Shy. I have possess'd* your grace of what I

had claims on purpose ;

kingdoms, and And by our holy Sabbath have I sworn


acquired princiTo have the due and forfeit of my bond.*

palities for themIf you deny it, let the danger light


Possessed, in-
Upon your charter * and your city's freedom.

You'll ask me why I rather choose to have

Bond, a binding A weight of carrion flesh than to receive


Charter, that on Three thousand ducats.* I'll not answer that,

which the laws But say it is my humour. Is it answer'd ?

were written.

Ducat, a silver What if my house be troubled with a rat,

coin, varying in And I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats

value in different To have it baned ?* What, are you answer'd yet ?

countries, so

called because Bass. This is no answer, thou unfeeling man, coined in the To excuse the current* of thy cruelty.

dominions of a

Shy. I am not bound to please thee with my

Baned, destroyed, answer.

poisoned. Ant. I pray you, think you question with the

Current, course.

Think you ques. Jew :*

tion with the Jew, You may as well go stand upon the beach,

remember you

are dealing with And bid the main flood* bate* his usual height;

a Jew. You may as well use question with the wolf

Main flood, the Why he hath made the ewe * bleat for the lamb, ocean.

Bate, or abate, As try to melt his Jewish heart to kindness.

to stop, lower, or Bass. For thy three thousand ducats here are six. diminish.

Ewe, a female
Shy. If every ducat in six thousand ducats

Were in six parts, and every part a ducat,
I would not draw them ; I would have my bond.

Duke. How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering




none ?

Shy. What judgment* shall I dread, doing no Judgment,

punishment, wrong?

sentence. The pound of flesh, which I demand of him, 60 Is dearly bought; 'tis mine, and I will have it :

Decrees, laws. If you deny me, fie upon your law !

Judgment here There is no force in the decrees * of Venice :

means a verdict.

Upon my power, I stand for judgment : * answer; shall I have it?

on my authority. Duke. Upon my power * I may dismiss this court, Bellario, a cele65 Unless Bellario,* a learned doctor,

brated doctor of

laws. Whom I have sent for to determine * this,

Determine, deCome here to-day.


Padua, a cele-
My lord, here stays without

brated and anA messenger with letters from the doctor,

cient city in Lom70 New come from Padua.*

bardy, about

twenty miles Duke. Bring us the letters ; call the messenger. from Venice.

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