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MONTHLY

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VOL. XXXIII.

PART I. FOR 1812.

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MONTHLY MAGAZINE .

No. 223.]

FEBRUARY 1, 1812.

[1 of Vol. 33.

As long as those who write are ambitious of making converts, and of giving their opinions a Maximum o Influence and Celebrity, the most extensively circulated Miscellany will repay with the greatest Effect the

JOHNSON. Curiosity of thuse who read either for Amusement or Instruction,

ANALYTICAL

VERNMENT.

THE NATURAL HISTORY.

Tabassuredlyn is the most expensive; by. Radonte, Geoffery," se. Hilaite,

THE PREFACE.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS,
For the Monthly Magazine. self an architect of eminence; Cecile,

ACCOUNT of the MAGNI. another brought up in the same school; FICENT WORK just PUBLISHED by the with these are included the names of FRENCH SAVANS, relative to scypt, Conte, Deviliers, Du Bois Aimé, and at the EXPENCE of the French GO. five or six more professional men.

NIIS is , This is work that has appeared in Europe, since Boziere, &c. &c. the invention of printing. The first lirraison, or delivery, consists of two The composition is intended to be thin volumes, in grand folio, consisting divided in the same manner among those of plates; there is also a third and cor most conversant in their respective porrespondent one of letter-press, together tions of science. The Historical Preface with certain detached accounts, which is the production of M. Fourier, and tender this portion entirely useless, with the following is a summary of its conout the succeeding deliveries,

The tents: price of 150l. for the fine, and 841. for Egypt, a singular and extensive region, the coarse paper, wilt render the amount at once watered and fertilised by the very considerable, provided the work Nile, and bounded on the east by Arabia, shall extend, as is intended, to two more and on the west by the Libya' of the licraisons; but it may be considered as a ancients, has always been alike singular monument erected in honour of typo. and famous. The great rivers of India graphy and the fine arts, and no doubt are held sacred; but there is something is intended as a lasting niemorial of the peculiarly interesting in the stream which glory of a modern conqueror, who, with. runs through this territory, for it has not out possessing the magnanimity or dis- only been held in high veneration by the interestedness of Alexander, affects to inhabitants in all ages, but it is absolutely follow his career, and retrace his foot necessary to their comforts, and even to steps.

their existence.

M. Fourier begins his historical annals The copper-plates, as may be easily by mentioning the names of the great supposed, are

and grand. men of antiquity, who had travelled into Every-where we behold scenes and Egypt. Among these are to be enu. buildings that recall the memory of merated Solon, who, after having devoted splendid actions, both ancient and mo a large portion of his time to philosodern; palaces, temples, pyramids, here phical and political studies, first visited attract the eye; there a river famous Greece, and thence repaired-to Memfor ages; next we contemplate a pharos, phis, and the various cities that then the view of which is connected with flourished on the banks of the Nile, memorable events; and finally, the shores Pythagoras too made the tour of of the Mediterranean sea, through which Egypt, after having obtained a prize at the French ploughed their way to the the Olympic games, and rendered him. conquest of this remote part of the self famous in his native country. While world, and where England triumplied there, he obtained the confidence of the twice; first, by means of her fleet; and, priesthood, and not only collected hints secondly, by her army. The designs respecting the nature of the Gods, and were all made by men eminent in their the immortality of the soul; but also respective professions.

learned the secrets of that artful policy, THE ARCHITECTURAL PORTION. as well as of those symbolical writings, This part is executed by Balyne, him, by which they governed both the princes MONTHLY M.o., No. 293.

and

TIE ENGRAVINOS.

nuinerous

vince.

and ihe people: Plato, also, the friend rius, Egypt fell under the dominion of and disciple of Socrates, on the death of that prince, who constructed the celethat great man, retired from Athens, brated city of Alexandria, which at this with a view of visiting foreign nationg. very day bears his name. On his death, Accordingly, after spending some time this country, now become a province, in conversing with the most celebrated once more assumed thre appearance of an men in Greece, he repaired to Egypt, independent Xingdom, under Profemy. where the mathematician, Theodorus, His successors continued the same name, then flourished; and where the tenets of and the country was ruled by that family's the Pythagorean philosophy, and 'Me. until the time of Ptolemy Dionysius, who tempsychosis, had been cherished. was the last king. He was succeeded

In respect to its history, the name is by Cleopatra, at once the sister and the supposed to be originally derived from wife of this prince; and also the mistress Ægyptus, brother to Danaus. The inha. of Julius Cæsar and Mark Anthony, on bitants reckoned themselves the most whose demise, during the reign of Aue ancient nation in the universe, although gustus, Egypt became a Roman pro. they were supposed by some, to have migrated from Æthiopia. The greater At length, a new race of conquerors part of Lower Egypt is supposed to have arose, under the denomination of Ma. been formed from the mud and said of hometans; and Omar, the second caliph the Nile. The people were exceedingly of the successors of the prophet, ex. addicted to superstition. Isis, supposed tended his victorious arms to the country, to be the daughter of Saturn and Rhea, which is the subject of this splendid was worshiped by them! According to memoir. At the time of the crusades, some traditions, she married her brother, Egypt was governed by Noreddin; his Osiris; and the ox and cow, being the son, Saladin, resolutely opposed the symbols of these two divinities, were Christian adventurers; and, after fighting highly respected. The priests of Isis, against them, with various success, he who appears to have been more honoured retook Jerusalem, and dispersed their than ber consort, were obliged to observe forces. It was he too, who, by an act Perpetual chastity; their heads were that then seemed pregnant with sound shared; they always walked bare-footed; policy, instituted the military corps of and they clothed themselves in linen Mainalukes, who afterwards assumed garments. They never ate onions; they the government of the country, having abstained from salt during their meals; advanced one of their own officers to the and the sheep and the hog were forbidden throne, about the middle of the thirteenth animals. In addition to this, they were century. At last, however, this singular ordered to watch and worship during the species of government yielded to the night, at the foot of the statue of the prevailing fortunes of the Turks; who, goddess.

after many bloody battles, rendered this In tracing the annals of Egypt, those province subject to their despotic sway, who presided over the worship of Isis, The Ottoman Porte remained in possesboldly asserted, that the immorial Gods sion of this interesting, but unhappy, were their first sovereigns, and that their country, until the time of Ali Bey, who, monarchy had continued for 11,340 although said to be bred in the rites of years. According to others, the king- the Greek church, was persuaded by his dom of Egypt lasted 1663 years from its policy and his ambition to turn Mabocommencement, under Misraim, the son metan. That singular man, taking ad. of Ham, 2188 years before Christ; to vantage of bis own popularity, and the the conquest of Cambyses, 525, years distressed state of the Turkish empire, B. C. The inhabitants; however, at then engaged in a disastrous war with Jengih revolted from the Persians, and Russia, ascended the throne of the anAmyrtæus became king. Psammetichus cient Sultans of Egypt. Not content Nephereus, Acoris, Psammuthis, &c. with this, he conquered several of the succeeded. Artaxerxes III. surnamed adjacent states, both in Arabia and Syria, Ochus,once more conquered Egypt, where and contemplated many other great and he committed great cruelties; and was splendid undertakings. He particularly jim politic enough to kill the god, Apis: courted the protection of England, and this occasioned his death, for he was an alliance with Russia; conceived the poisoned by Bagoas, an Egyptian eunuch, idea of fitting out a fleet for the express who gave bis tiesh to cats, and converted purpose of rendering bimself nräster of his bones into the handles of swords. ihe Red Sea; he then intended to have Atter Alexander had conquered Da. Converted Sucz into a free port, open to

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