conformity. He headed the Enquiry into the danger of the Church. In 1706; he proposed and negotiated the Union with Scotland ; and when the elector of Hanover received the garter, after the act had passed for securing the Protestant Succession, he was appointed to carry the enligns of the order to the electoral court. He fat as one of the judges of Sacheverell; but voted for a mild sentence. Being now no longer in favour, he contrived to obtain a writ for summoning the electoral prince to parliament as duke of Cambridge.

At the queen's death he was appointed one of the regents; and at the accession of George the First was made earl of Halifax, knight of the garter, and first commissioner of the treasury, with a grant to his nephew of the reversion of the auditorship of the Exchequer. More was not to be had, and this he kept but a little while ; for on the 19th of May, 1715, he died of an inflammation of his lungs.

Of him, who from a poet became a patron of poets, it will be readily believed that the works would not miss of celebration. Addison began to praise himn early, and was followed or accompanied by other poets; perhaps by almost all, except Swift and Pope; who forbore to flatter him in his life, and after his death spoke of him, Swift with fight censure, and Pope in the character of Bufo with acrimonious contempt.

He was, as Pope says, fed with dedications; for Tickell affirms that no dedicator was unrewarded. To charge all unmerited praise with the guilt of flattery, and to suppose that the encomiast always knows and feels the falsehoods of his affertions, is surely to discover great ignorance of human nature and human life. In determinations depending not on rules, but on ex


perience and comparison, judgement is always in some degree subject to affection. Very near to adiniration is the wish to adınire.

Every man willingly gives value to the praise which he receives, and considers the sentence passed in his favour as the sentence of discernment. We adınire in a friend that understanding that selected us for confidence; we admire more, in a patron, that judgement which, instead of scattering bounty indiscriminately, directed it to us; and, if the parron be an author, those performances which gratitude forbids us to blame, affection will easily dispose us to exalt.

To these prejudices, hardly culpable, interest adds a power always operating, though not always, because not willingly, perceived. The modesty of praise wears gradually away ; and perhaps the pride of patronage may be in time so increased, that modeft praise will no longer please.

Many a blandishinent was practised upon Halifax, which he would never have known, had he had no other attractions than those of his poetry, of which a Ahort time has withered the beauties. It would now be esteemed no honour, by a contributor to the monthly bundles of verses, to be told, that, in strains either familiar or folemn, he fings like Montague.


P A R N E L L.


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HE Life of Dr. PARNELL is a talk

which I should very willingly decline, since it has been lately written by Goldsmith, a man of such variety of powers, and such felicity of performance, that he always seemed to do best that which he was doing ; a man who had the art of being minute without tediousness, and general without confusion ; whose language was copious without exuberance, exact without constraint, and easy without weakness.

What such an author has told, who would tell again? I have made an abstract from his larger narfative; and have this gratification from my attempt, that it gives me an opportunity of paying due tribute to the memory of Goldsmith.

Το γαρ γέρας έςι θανόντων. THOMAS PARNELL was the son of a commonwealthsman of the same name, who at the Restoration left Congleton in Cheshire, where the family had Vol. III. с


been established for several centuries, and, settling in Ireland, purchased an estate, which, with his lands in Cheshire, descended to the poet, who was born at Dublin in 1679; and, after the usual education at a grammar school, was at the age of thirteen admitted into the College, where, in 1700, he became master of arts; and was the same year ordained a deacon, though under the canonical age, by a dispensation from the bishop of Derry.

About three years afterwards he was made a priek; and in 1705 Dr. Ade, the bishop of Clogher, conferred upon him the archdeaconry of Clogher. About the same time he married Mrs. Anne Minchin, an amiable lady, by whom he had two sons who died young, and a daughter who long survived him.

At the ejection of the Whigs, in the end of queert Anne's reign, Parnell was persuaded to change his party, not without much censure from those whom he forsook, and was received by the new ministry as a valuable reinforcement. When the earl of Oxford was told that Dr. Parnell waited among the croud in the outer room, he went by the persuasion of Swift, with his treasurer's staff in his hand, to enquire for him, and to bid him welcome ; and, as may be inferred from Pope's dedication, admitted him as a favourite companion to his convivial hours, but, as it seems often to have liappened in those times to the faYourites of the great, without attention to his fortune, which, however, was in no great need of improve


Parnell, who did not want ambition or vanity, was desirous to make himself conspicuous, and to thew how worthy he was of high preferment. As he thought himself qualified to become a popular preacher, he



PAÑ È Ï i.

ig displayed his elocution with great success in the pula pits of London; but the queen's death putting an end to his expectations, abated his diligence: and Pope res presents him as falling from that time into intempes tance of wine. That in his latter life he was too much a lover of the bottle, is not denied; but I have heard it imputed to a cause more likely to obtain forgiveness from mankind, the untiniely death of a darling fon; or, as others tell, the loss of his wife, who died (1712) in the midst of his cxpectations.

He was now to dérive every future addition to his preferments froni his personal interest with his private friends, and he was not long unregarded. He was warmly reconimended by Swift to archbishop King, ivho gave him a prebend in 1913; and in May 1716 presented him to the vicarage of Finglas in the diocese of Dublin, worth four hundred pounds à year. Such notice fron such a man, inclines me to believe that the vice of which he has been accused was not gross, or not notorious.

But his prosperity did not last löng. His end, whatever was its cause, was now apprcaching. He enjoyed his preferment little more than a year; for in July 1717, in his thirty-eiglith year, he died at Ches. ter, on his way to Ireland.

He seems tơ håve bech one of those poets who take delight in writing. He contributed to the papers of that time, and probably published nioré tlian he owned. He left many compositions behind him, of which Pope selected those which he thought beít, and dedicated them to the earl of Oxford. Of these Golde fmith has given an opinion, and his criticisin it is feldein safe to contradict. He bestows just praise upor


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