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SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY, NO. III.
ACETOUS OR ACID FERMENTATION. IN my two last papers, I described usually found in our own climate, that
the vinous or spirituous fermenta- is, frorn about 750 to 800. When a tion, and considered its application to liquor already fermented is employed, wine, beer, ale, alcohol and ardent spi- it is also of importance, that yeast or rits. The acetous or acid fermenta. some other serment should be added, tion of which I am now about to treat, in order to hasten the sermentation; or is simply a continuation of the former; else the change will be too gradual to for when fermentation has once com- obtain vinegar to perfection, and the menced, it has a constant tendency to first acetified portion will turn mouldy proceed, and unless some check be in- before the last can become sour. But terposed, it will go regularly forward if the material employed has not underfrom spirit to acid, or, in other words, gone fermentation, as in the case of from wine to vinegar; and this change making vinegar from malt or from suis so gradual, that it is very difficult to gar, the whole process of vinous and point out with precision when the vic acetous sermentation will go on without nous fermentation ceases, and when that interruption. It is important, also, of the acid begins. In those cases al- that the process should be stopped in so in which the liquor has completely that stage in which the acid bas attainundergone the spirituous fermentation, ed to its highest degree of strength and if it be only exposed to the action of perfection, after which the liquor beatmospheric air, and have a certain de comes deteriorated, the acetous acid gree of temperature, it will spontane- gradually disappears, and an offensive, ously and necessarily be disposed to mouldy, watery liquor remains, with turn sour, that is, to become vinegar, as carcely any acidity. Much depends is well known in the case of wine ; upon the skill and experience of the and it is to this circumstance that vine- manufacturer, to determine when his gar owes its name, it being derived vinegar is in a fit state to be drawn off from two French words--vin and and closely barrelled. aigre, signifying sour wine.
Vinegar may be prepared from either Vinegar was known many ages be- cider, beer, or wine; but the most usufore the discovery of any other acid, if al method is to obtain it at once from those only be excepted which existed malt or sugar. When malt is employready formed in vegetables. It is men- ed, it is macerated in water, and the tioned by Moses, and seems to have fluid is made to ferment, so as to probeen in common use among the Israel- duce a strong ale without hops. This ites and other eastern nations at a very is barrelled and placed in a hot chamearly period.
ber for six or eight weeks, that the ferIts manufacture, as an article of mentation may proceed equally and commerce, among ourselves, has long uniformly. The soured liquor is next been kept a secret among the persons emptied into smaller barrels, which are of the profession, who are said to bind set in rows with their bung-holes open, themselves to each other by oath not to and placed in the open air till the liquor reveal it. The process, however, is becomes perfect vinegar. This propretty accurately known; and many cess, it will be perceived, is on the private families are in the habit of make large scale ; and though it will succeed ing, and that with tolerable success, on a smaller, yet it is well known, that what they may want for their own use. the larger the mass the more perfect
For the production of vinegar, two will be the fermentation. To this cirthings, as I have before hinted, are in- cumstance it is perhaps owing that the dispensably necessary-an admission vinegar made by private families is so of atmospheric air, and a temperature frequently spoiled; for the quantity somewhat higher than that which is being generally small, the fermentation
is not complete, and consequently, the behind in the residuum which remains vinegar in greater danger of being in- ' at the bottom of the still, and it will at jured by some adventitious and unfore- the same time appear in a concenseen occurrence. When sugar is trated state. It is now fou nd colouremployed, the process is exceedingly less as water, and is called by chemists similar to that which I have just de- acetous acid. When concentrated as scribed.
much as possible, by peculiar procesVinegar is very subject to decompo- ses, it is termed radical vinegar, or sition, becoming ropy and muddy. It acetic acid. Under this latter form, it has been discovered, however, that if it is extremely pungent and acrid, and be made to boil for a few moments, it when applied to the skin, reddens and may afterwards be kept for a long time corrodes it in a very short time. It is without alteration.
exceedingly volatile, and, when heatFor pickling, and other similar uses, ed, very readily takes fire. the common vinegar is not sufficiently Aromatic vinegar may be readily strong. Its strength, however, may prepared as follows. Rosemary tops be greatly increased by exposing it to dried, and sage leaves dried, 4 oz. of the frost, and removing from it the lay- each ; lavender fowers dried, 2 oz.; ers of ice as they are successively form- cloves bruised, 2 drams; and distilled ed; for the frozen part consists almost vinegar, or acetous acid, 8 lbs. These entirely of water. And, in the same ingredients must be macerated, or steepmanner, the strength of wines may be ed, for seven days, and the expressed increased; but in each case, care must liquor subsequently filtered through be taken that the frozen part be not paper. The odour of this liquid is suffered to remain on till it thaws; for pleasant, pungent, and aromatic, and is by this means a very sensible deteriora- a grateful perfume in sick rooms. tion takes place.
The aromatic spirit of vinegar, origiFor chemical purposes, it is necessa- nally invented, and from time to time ry that vinegar should be obtained in a improved, by the late Mr. Heory of yet more concentrated state, and that it Manchester, is composed of highly conshould be dirested of its several impu- centrated vinegar, united with the most rities; for it is found, that, besides pleasant aromatics, and most powerful acetic acid and water, it contains va- antiseptics; and may be kept unimrious other ingredients, such as mu- paired for any length of time. Its cilage, tartar, a colouring matter, and grateful odour renders it peculiarly reoften two or more vegetable acids. But freshing in crowded rooms, and in the if it be subjected to distillation, and apartments of the sick. It is said also continued till about two-thirds of it are to counteract the infection of contagious passed over, its impurities will be left disease.
TO AS ISTANT SLEEPING ON HIS MOTHER'S BOSOM, DURING A STORM AT SEA.
Softly pillor'd on the breast,
O how gently lies thy head !
All thy little wants are fled !
Like a dew-drop on the rose ;
Breaks the charms of thy repose.
While the frenzied ocean scowls :
While the tempest round thee bowls.
'Mid the storm, ah what a calm
O'er thy face serenely beams!
Interrupt thine infant dreams!
And what storms await thee there!
Nor to flee avails our care !--
On that high paternal love,
Peace-the pledge of rest above !
LIFE IN LONDON !
ALMACK'S ON FRIDAY. THE peculiar beauty of the British ing upon vacancy from out a bow-win
constitution, sir, consists in this," dow which let in the winds from three said an Opposition 'member to M. points of the compass, until they inflatCottu : «
every man, however humble ed his carpet into the shape of a demihis origin, may aspire to the highest balloon. '« Well,” said the visitor to honours of the state. Thus it is that his host, 6 I never thought you, of all industry and talents are excited : all people, would have chosen to put in to men feel an interest in the fabric, and Brighton at this time of the year.”—“I therefore no men league to overthrow did not choose to put in," answered it.” The Senator might have extended Dixon, “I was driven in by stress of his eulogium. This aptitude for high wife."' I really do not know what places is not confined in England to people of distinction are to do next; the Senate, the Pulpit, and the Bar. for if turkey, chine, plum-pudding, The posts of fashion are as open to at- galante-show, and twelfth-cake will not tack as the office of Lord High Chan- keep citizens in town, nothing will. To cellor; and it is not a little amusing to what Libyan desert, what rocky island observe the straits to which people of in the watery waste, is high life now to ton are driven to avoid a contact with retreat ? Saint Helena may do, the disles Bourgeois. Bath, in the days of tance is too great to allow of men of Beau Nash, was a resort for the great ; business frequenting it; they cannot so was Tonbridge Wells :—the North well run down from Saturday to TuesParade and the Pantiles are now de- day: but I decidedly think that nothserted. “ The Moor is at the gate,” ing short of it will be effectual. The and no Christian can be seen there. Island of Ascension is too full of turtle : Ranelagh, the ci-devant “third heaven” the whole court of aldermen would be of beauties of high life, is levelled with there, to a dead certainty. the dust. In vain did the Court make There is a dancing-establishment in it unfashionable to be seen there before King-street, St. James's-square, called eleven. The East outbid the West, Almack's. The proprietor of the manand would not enter till hall-after that sion is named Willis. Six lady pathour. Fashion withdrew in disgust, ronesses, of the first distinction, govern and Ranelagh perished. A very few the assembly. Their fiat is decisive as years ago, an Autumn at Brighton was to adınission or rejection: consequently by no means an unfashionable affair. “their nods men and gods keep in But, alas! in rushed all Cheapside, awe.” The nights of meeting fall upon with the addition of Duke's-place. Coy every Wednesday during the season. Fashion took flight, and, when the This is selection with a vengeance: coast was clear, resettled upon the the very quintessence of aristocracy. Steine at Christmas. This had all the Three-fourths even of the nobility appearance of a decisive victory. But knock in vain for admission. Into this not so: hardly were ber tents pitched, sanctum sanctorum, of course, the sons when the populous East“ poured from of commerce never think of intruding her frozen loins” an army of brokers, on the sacred Wednesday evenings : brewers, and broad-cloth venders, tó and yet into this very “ blue chamber," shiver for a month upon the East Cliff. in the absence of the six necromancers, Old Dixon, of Savage-gardens, was have the votaries of trade contrived to destined to be added to the frost-bitten intrude themselves. I proceed to narfraternity. His neighbour Culpepper, rate the particulars. who must likewise follow the fashion, Ata numerous and respectable meetcalled upon the worthy citizen, and ing of tradesmen's ladies, held at the found him in a sorry napkeen kind of King's-head Tavern in the Poultry, tenement, on the Marine Parade, gaz. Lady Simms in the chair, it was resolv
ed, in order to mortify the proud flesh the Old Jewry, and Saint Martin's-leof the six occidental countesses above Grand on the north; but not a step bealluded 10, that a rival Almack's beyond. The corisequence is, that in the forthwith established, to meet on every regions of Fore-street, Cripplegate and Friday evening : that Mr. Willis be Moorfields, northward, and in those of treated with as to the hiring of his Watling-street, Old Fish-street and rooms: that the worthy chairwoman, Tower-royal, southward, a great mass with the addition of Lady Brown, Lady of disaffection has been engendered. Roberts, Mrs. Chambers, Mrs. Wells, Wardmotes have been called, select and Miss Jones, be appointed six lady vestries have been summoned, and spepatronesses to govern the establish- cial meetings have been convened ; but ment : that those ladies be empowered Alnack's on Friday flourishes notwithto draw a line of demarcation round the standing. In the delivering out of submost fashionable part of the city, and scriptions, I have heard it whispered that no residents beyond that circle be, that some tokens of partiality are dison any account, entitled to subscrip- cernible. Undue preferences are al-, tions. The six lady patronesses, who leged to be given, which, if done in the originated these resolutions, dwell in way of trade, would force the obliged the most fashionable part of the city, party to refund his debt for the equal viz. Lady Simms, in Cornhill, Lady benefit of himself and the rest of the Brown, in Mansionhouse-street, Lady creditors. Roberts, in Birchin-lane, Mrs. Cham Lady Simms's husband is a lotterybers, in Throgmorton-street, Mrs. office keeper in Corohill, and “they Wells, in Copthall-court, and Miss do say" that young men have but Jones, in Bucklersbury. It is astonish- slender prospects of admission if they ing with what rapidity the subscriptions omit to buy their sixteenths at his filled; and the governesses of the es- shop. Lady Brown's lord and master tablishment have acted with great cir- is a wax-chandler in Mansion-house camspection in confining the amuse- street; let nu man who hopes to visit ment to none but their upper circles. Almack's on Friday seek his spermaThe chief members are warehousemen ceti in any other shop. Sir Ralph Roand wholesale linen-drapers, with, of berts is a wholesale ironmonger in Bircourse, their wives and daughters. The chin-lane; I have never heard that he original plan was to exclude all retail is open to corruption in the way of traders; but, as this would have made trade; but he and Lady Roberts have the ball rather too select, the scheme six grown-up daughters, and the subwas abandoned. Grocers dealing both scriber who fails to dance with them all wholesale and retail, silversmiths, glov- in one night, may look in vain for a reers, packers, dyers, and paper-stainers, newal of his subscription. Mrs. Chamare admissible, provided their moral bers's helpmate is a tailor. A rule has characters be unimpeachable and their recently crept into the establishment residences be not too Eastward. Some that no gentleman shall be attired othdiscord has arisen in consequence of erwise than in the old school of inexblack-balling a very reputable pawn- pressibles terminating at the knee. This broker in East Smithfield. West Smith- regulation (which I believe originated field is within the line of demarcation, with Mrs. Chambers) has been probut not East; and the exhibitor of ductive of much confusion. The comthree blue balls, wbo has been thus re mon attire of most of the young men jected, complains loudly that he is of the present day is trowsers. These thrust aside to make room for a set of are uniformly stopped at the door, and vulgar innholders and cattle-keepers the unhappy wearer is forced either to from Smithfield in the West. But to return home to re-dress, or to suffer himsqualls like this the best-regulated es. self to be sewed up by a member of the tablishments are liable. The line of Merchant Tailor's Company, who atdemarcation includes Bow-lane, Queen- tends in a private room for that purstreet, and Bucklersbury, on the South pose. This ceremony consists in douside of Cheapside; and King-street, bling up the trowsers under the knee,
and stitching them in that position whole course of her life. This inwith black silk : the culprit is then al- stance of self-denial ought to be recordlowed to enter the ball-room, with his ed, for Miss Simms' left leg is shorter lower man strongly resembling one of than her right.
Nature evidently those broad immoveable Dutch cap- meant her for a waltzer of the first was tains who ply in the long room at the ter and magnitude, but philosophy has Custom-house. It sometimes happens operated upon her as it did upon Socrathat the party, thus acted upon by the tes. There is a young broker named needle, little anticipating such a pro- Carter, who has no very extensive concess, has worn white under-stockings, nexion, in Mark Lane, but he has notand a pair of half black-silk upper- withstanding contrived to waltz himself hose reaching but to the commence- into a subscription. He regularly ment of his calf. The metamorphosis, takes out Harriet Roberts, and, after in these cases, is rather ludicrous, inas- swinging with her round the room till much as the subscriber reappears with the young woman is sick and faint, he a pair of black and white magpie legs, performs a like feat with Jane Roberts, and looks as if he had by accident and successively with Betsey. The stepped ancle-deep into a couple of exhibitor of samples, when this is well ink-bottles. These poor fellows are over, is as giddy as a goose.
He therenecessarily forced, the following Fri- fore retires to take a little breath; but day, to furnish themselves with a new in about ten minutes returns to the pair of shorts. I am afraid Mrs. large apartment like a giant refreshed, Chambers is at the bottom of all this. claps his hands, calls out “ Zitti zitti” I have never heard of any corrupt mo- to the leader of the band, and starts tive having been assigned to Mrs. afresh with Lucy, Charlotte, and JemiWells ; and Miss Jones is a maiden ma Roberts, in three consecutive qualady of forty-four, living upon a gen- drilles. The pertinacity of this young teel independence.
man is indeed prodigious. When the About eight o'clock on every Friday most experienced quadrillers are bowlevening, during the season, (for I as- ed out of the ring, he may be seen spinsure you the City has its seasons" a ning by himself, like an Arabian DerNegro bas a soul, your honour”) a vise. He is no great beauty, his head large mass of hackney coaches may be being several degrees too big for his seen plying about the purlieus of Cheap- body ; but this disproportion does not side, the same having been hired to extend lower down, for Lady Roberts convey our City fashionables to the says there is not a better-bearted young scene of festivity. Dancing commen- man in all Portsoken Ward. Accordces precisely at nine, and the displaying to the rules of the establishment, of jewels would not discredit the parish nobody is admitted after ten o'clock, of Marylebone. The large room with except gentlemen of the common coonthe mirror at the lower end is devoted cil : their senatorial duties are parato quadrilles. Waltzes were at first mount. About three Fridays ago an odd proscribed, as foreign, and consequent- incident occurred. One Mrs. Ferguson jy indecent : but three of the six Miss and her daughter alighted at the outer Robertses discovered accidentally one door from a very clean hackney coach, morning, while two of the other three delivered her card to Mr. Willis, and were tormenting poor Mozart into an swept majestically past the grating upundulating see-saw on the piano, that stairs into the ball-room. On a more they waltzed remarkably well. The minute inspection of the document, it rule thenceforward was less rigidly en was discovered to be a forgery. What forced. Yet still the practice is rather was to be done? The mother was scouted by the more sober part of the sitting under the mirror, and the daughcommunity. Lady Brown bridles, and ter was dancing for dear life. Lady heartily regrets that such filthy doings Simms, Mr. Wells, and Miss Jones are not confined to Paris : while Lady (three make a quorum) laid their heads Simms thanks Gods that her daughter together, and the result was a civil never danced a single waltz in the message to Mrs. Ferguson, requesting