Eternal people of the lower world,

then in possession of the thief, would, upon Ye citizens of Hades' capital,

introducing the light, be found, at least, four That by the river of remorseful tears

inches longer than any of the rest ! Sit and despair for ever ;

After another solemn interval, the lights Ye negro brothers of the deadly winds,

were introduced, and the straw of each perYe elder souls of night, ye mighty sins,

son measured according to agreement ;-Sceptred damnations, how may man invoke

when, strange to tell, one person's piece was Your darling glories ! Teach my eager soul

found to be nearly four inches shorter than Fit language for your ears. Ye that have power

tbe rest! This nan the Rabbi fixed upon O'er births and swoons and deaths, the soul's at

as the thief, and threatening unless he con

fessed, to deliver him over without delay to tendants,

the civil power ; but this was unnecessary, (Wont to convey ber from her human bome

the robber owned the theft, and restored the Beyond existence, to the past and future,

property, and the wisdom of the Rabbi was To lead her throagh the starry-blossomed meads

exalted above all precedent among those Where the young hours of morning by the lark

who heard of this new instance of his With earthly airs are nourished, through the groves knowledge of the human character, and its of silent gloom, beneath whose breathless shades

depraved propensities. The thousand children of Calamity Play murtherously with men's hearts :) Ob pause!

ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AS Your universal occupations leave ! Lay down awhile the infant miseries,

ARTISANS, &c. That to the empty and untenanted clay

The scarcity of female employments has Ye carry from the country of the unborn ;

always been in England a subject of lamenAnd grant the summoned soul one moment more

tation. On the Continent it is otherwise : To linger on the threshold of its flesh;

there the women perform all the duties of For I would task you.

shopkeepers and bonkkeepers ; and, in all Bride's Tragedy, Act 2 Sc. 6.

thriving mercantile establishments, the daagliters are as useful and as fully enga

ged as the sons. Hence, though there are DETECTION OF GUILT.

enough of idle men in France and the Low Upon the continent of Germany, where Countries, there are few idle women. the houses are very large, and the Israelites, In England female employments are from various restrictions, obliged to herd more circumscribed ; and we find men in together, it once so happened that a rob- the shops of lineodrapers, haberdashers, bery was committed in a dwelling of this hosiers, grocers, booksellers, &c. all the ocdescription, the discovery of which, as not cupations in which, on the Continent, are uncommon with the Jewish people, was not filled by women. In truth, the English cusreferred to a Magistrate, but to a Rabbi, tom, in this respect, is a constant theme of whose wisdom and supposed knowledge of their remark and astonishment.

It is enthe cabalistical art had excited a very high quired what becomes of our women ; and opinion of his judgment among all his fel. it excites no surprise that the degraded low-citizens. As there were twelve persons, part of the sex are ten times more nume. at least, who resided in the house from rous in England than in any other country. whence the valuables referred to bad been

Surely this subject merits special notice; stolen, it was required by the Rabbi, time and, annid all our institutions and reformaand place being appointed, that they should tions, it seems to be one, in regard to attend at his house, undergo the ordeal he which, much good might be done, and much proposed, and abide by his decision, what happiness substituted for extensive and inever that decision inight be.

describable miseries. The persons among whom it was rightly It must be unnecessary to enlarge on the judged the offender must be found, attended (ores created in families by the dependaccordingly ; when, after prayers being ence of girls, and the want of suitable emsaid, and various portions of scripture se- ployments ; while to describe the complica. lected and read by the Rabbi, and after he ted sufferings of the abandoned and deserthad proposed that the lights should be puted part of that sex, so interesting in a state out, and the whole company be left in com- of 'virtue, would fill hundreds of pathetic plete darkness, this being agreed to, each volumes, and afford everlasting themes for of the persons implicated were previously the tragic muse. Even the situation of the furnished with a piece of straw, and partic. virtuous old maid is one of merited sympa. ularly desired to see that they were all of thy,outliving at once the attractions of one length. This part of the ceremony be- her sex, and all the connexions of her ing adjusted, and the lights extinguished, youth ; she exists unprotected, and dies solemo admonitions, and scriptural repeti- contemning and often contemned. tions of passages on the enormity of theft In truth, though woman is said in Engand an accusing conscience, were again de- land to be a Queen, yet it is only in lovelilivered by the Rabbi, who, in the course of ness and in powers of fascination, not in bis admonition, took occasion to inform his condition. Subordinate in power and auaudience, that notwithstanding the straws thority to her husband, dependent on his delivered to them were exactly of a length, resources of mind and industry, and bound when they were received, the piece of straw down to his fortunes and misfortunes,

hose who prosper and obtain happiness now living in degradation might be reduced ae comparatively few in number! But, in to 10,000. seeking a companion for life, on whom their It is usual to treat this subject jestingly prosperity depends, all the usages of socie- and sneeringly, and hence nothing is done. ty operate against the sex. They are re But, in making these observations, I am sestrained from making overtures, and must rious and in earnest. At present great wait to be sought. If they have a prefe- evils exist, and much unhappiness prevails. rence, they must practice self-deniál ; anıl, Is it not our duty to endeavour to remove if they refuse offers made, they are charged them ? Can it be done, if it is not attempt. with pride. In short, not one woman in ed? And can it be attempted, if not confifty (bound even as the sex are to the for. sidered with a solemnity and sobriety befittunes of their husbands,) marries the man ting its great importance ? of her choice ; while the man chosen is for. I have always considered women, in rebidden, by our laws of decorum, from know. gard to virtue and social qualities, as the ing that he is a favoured object. It would best portion of the human race ; yet the be impossible to legislate on such subjects; laws of custom have rendered all their fine but it would be useful to consider them,- endowments unavailing, and made them to examine them as we would topics in phi- slaves, dependants, and subordinates. There losophy-and reason upon them as very seems no good or just reason why they important to half, and the best half, of our should not be allowed to play the entire species. The object, however, of this paper part in society for which nature has fitted is to point out sume means of rendering them; at least, let us inquire on the subthe ses more independent; and, by giving ject, and be governed in our policy by the them employment, to render them, in that ascertained result. Monthly Mag. June. important respect, more happy.

The first plan that offers grows out of the peculiar constitution of women, and

THE HUMAN LUNGS. suggests that, to a considerable extent, they The structure and function of the lungs might be their own physicians. Delicacy in human subjects, has long been a chief forbids women from freely communicating study of Dr. Majendie, of Paris, and by with male doctors; and it is well known very numerous dissections of this organ, in that thousands of valuable lives are con. its ordinary and also in its phthisically disstantly lost from reserves in this respect.- eased state, he has ascertained, that the tisIf a college, for educating females in the sues or cellular coats of the lungs are alknowledge of physiology, anatomy, and most entirely composed of the minute branmateria medica, were instituted, 10,000 of chings of blood vessels, of the pulmonary the strongest-minded of the sex might de. arteries and veins, anastomising or connect. rive independence from advising and pre- ing with each other. That the cells of the scribing in female disorders, and par. langs diminish in number, but increase in ticularly in regard to diseases of children. size with considerable regularity, from Another 5000 might subsist as accou

childhood to old age, the increased size becheurs.

ing greatest, where a cough has attended 50,000 shops, now served by men, ought the individual. That on the whole, aged to afford employment for 100,000 women. people consume much less oxygen, and con

The employments of 50,000 mep,now em sequently have less animal heat, and are ployed as tailors,staymakers,shoemakers,&c less able to resist cold, than the young.-might be advantageously filled by women. Dr. Majendie has found, that the beginning

There is no employment better fitted for of phthisis, or consumption, is owing to the the sedentary habits of women than that of sipall parieties of the pulmonary blood. compositors in printing-offices and these vessels secreting a greyish yellow matter, would employ another 5000,

in one or more of the cells of the lungs ; Bookbinding in all its branches might ai- this, in some cases, is moveable, and the so be performed by women.

patient coughs it up, and recovers ; but Watch and clockmaking is also admirably much too frequently it increases, adheres adapted to the ses, and might employ 5000. to the small vessels, gradually obliterates

We have many female engravers and them, and the whole lobe at length becomes workers in various arts, and these might be tuberculous, or formed of this greyish yel. increased another 5000.

low matter. Considering thus the comAs accountants and bookkeepers, they are mencement of consumption as only an alop the Continent vorivalled, and in Britain teration in the habitual secretion of the vasthese employments inight occupy 10,000.

cular tissue of the lungs, Dr. M. employs Thus I have pointed out with little ener: sedatives, and particularly the hydro-cyapy of invention, means of employing near: nic acid, in the two first stages of the dis. ly 200,000 of the sex ; but, if attention were

ease, with tbe happiest effect. drawn to the subject by a society for the purpose, and the object were specially promoted, I haye no doubt it might be extend.

TO AN OLD COQUETTE." ed to 300,000 ; the sex, in consequence, be 'Tis not thy years that frighten me away, raised in social utility, importance, inde. But that thy youngest brother's hair is gray! pendence, and happiness ; and the 100,000


(Blackwood's Mag.) PONPEIT.

south, could not be foller than the work PANORAMAS are among the happiest of Messrs Parker's and Burford's contrivances for saving time and ex. brushes. The scene is absolutely alive, pense in this age of contrivances. vivid, and true ; we feel all but the What cost a couple of hundred pounds breeze, and hear all but the dashing of and half a year half a century ago, now

the wave.

Travellers recognize the costs a shilling and a quarter of an hour. spot where they plucked grapes, picked Throwing out of the old account the up fragments of tiles, and fell sick of innumerable miseries of travel, the in- the miasmata; the draughtsman would solence of public functionaries, the swear to the very stone on which he roguery of innkeepers, the visitations of stretched himself into an ague; the man banditii, charged to the muzzle with of half-pay, the identical casa in which sabre, pistol, and scapulary, and the he was fleeced into a perfect knowledge rascality of the custom-house officers, that roguery abroad was as expensive who plunder, passport io hand; the in- as taxation at home. describable desagremens of Italian

All the world knows the story of cookery, and the insufferable annoy. Pompeii ; that it was a little Greek ances of that epitome of abomination, town of tolerable commerce in its early an Italian bed.

day ; that the sea, which once washed Now the affair is settled in a summa. its walls, subsequently left it in the ry manner. The mou:tain or the


midst of one of those delicious plains the classic vale or the ancient city, is made by nature for the dissolution of transported to us on the wings of the all industry in the Italian dweller, and wind. And their location here is cu- for the commonplaces of poetry in all rious. We have seen Vesuvius in full the northern abusers of the pen ; that roar and torrent, within a hundred it was ravaged by every barbarian,who yards of a hackney-coach stand, with in turn was called a conqueror on the all its cattle, human and bestial, únmo- Italian soil, and was successively the ved by the phenomenon. Constanti- pillage of Carthaginian and of Roman; nople, with its bearded and torbaned until at last the Augustan age saw its multitudes, quietly pitched beside a little circuit quieted into the centre of a Christian thoroughfare, and offering colony, and man, finding nothing more neither persecution nor proselytism. – to rob, attempted to rob no more. Switzerland, with its lakes covered When man had ceased his molestawith sunset, and mountains capped and tion, nature commenced bers; and this robed in storms; the adored os senti- unfortunate little city was, by a curious mentalists, and the refuge of miry met- fate, to be at once extinguished and a physics; the Demisolde of all na- preserved, to perish from the face of tions, and German geology-stuck in the Roman empire, and to live when a corner of a corner in London, and Rome was a nest of monks and mumforgotten in the tempting vicinage of a mers, and her empire torn into fragcook-shop;-and now Pompeii, repo- ments for Turk, Russian, Austrian, sing in its slumbers of two thousand Prussian, and the whole host of barbayears, in the very buzz of the Strand. rian names that were once as the dust There is no exaggeration in talking of of their feet. In the year of the Christthose things as really existing. Berk- jan era 63, an earthquake showed the ley was a metaphysician ; and there- city on what tenure her lease was held. fore his word goes for nothing but waste Whole streets were thrown down, and of brains, time, and printing-ink; but the evidences of hasty repair are still if we have not the waters of the lake of to be detected. Geneva, and the bricks and mortar of From this period, occasional warnthe little Greek town, tangibly by our ings were given in slight shocks ; until, bands, we have thein tangible by the in the year 79, Vesuvius poured out all eye-the fullest impression that could his old accumulation of terrors at be purchased, by our being parched, once, and on the clearing away of the pommelled, plundered, starved, and cloud of fire and ashes which covered stenched, for 1200 miles, east and by Campania for four days, Pompeii, with

all its multitude, was gone. The Ro- was stained with that cloud which still mans seem to have been as fond of vil- sits like a crown of wrath upon his las as if every soul of them had made brow-the plain at his foot, wbere Herfortunes in Cheapside, and the whole culaneum and Pompeii spread their cirsouthern coast was covered with the cuses and temples, like children's toys, summer palaces of those lords of the was covered over with sand, charcoal, world. Vesuvius is now a formidable and smoke ; and the whole was left foundation for a house whose inhabi- for a mighty moral against the danger tants may not wish to be sucked into a of trusting to the sleep of a volcano. surnace ten thousand fathoms deep; or All was then at an end with the ciroasted sub aere aperto; but it was ties below; the population were burnt, then asleep, and had never flung up and had no more need of houses. The spark or stone from time immemorial. Roman nobles had no passion for comTo those who look upon it now in its bustion, and kept aloof; the winds and terrors, grim, blasted, and lifting up its rain, robbers, and the malaria, were sooty forehead

among the piles of per- the sole tenants of the land ; and in petual smoke that are to be enlightened this way rolled fifteen hundred years only by its bursts of fire, the very over the bones of the vintners, sailors, throne of Pluto and Vulcan together, and snug citizens of the Vesuvian cino force of fancy nay picture what it ties. But their time was to come ; was when the Roman built his palaces and their beds were to be perforated and pavilions on its side. A pyramid by French and Neapolitan pick-axes, three thousand feet high, painted over and to be visited by English feet, and with garden, forest, vineyard, and or- sketched and written about, and lithochard, ripening under the southern sun, graphed, till all the world wished that zoned with colonades, and turrets, and they had never been disturbed. The golden roofs, and marble porticos, with first discoveries were accidental, for no the eternal azure of the Campanian sky Neapolitan ever struck a spade into the for its canopy, and the Mediterranean ground that he could help, nor harbourat its feet, glittering in the colours of ed a voluntary idea but of macaroni, sunrise, noon, and evening, like an infi- intrigue, monkery, or the gaming-table. nite Turkey carpet let down from the The spade struck upon a key, which, steps of a throne,--all this was turned of course, belonged to a door, the door into cinders, lava, and hot-water, on, had an inscription, and the names of (if we can trust to chronology,) the the buried cities were brought to light, first day of November, anno Domini to the boundless perplexity of the learn79, in the first year of the emperor Ti- ed, the merciless curiosity of the bluetus. The whole story is told in the stockings of the seventeenth century, younger Pliny's letters; or, if the illus- and all others to come, and the thanks trations of one who thought himself less, reckless, and ridiculous profit of born for a describer, Dio Cassius, be that whole race of rascality, the guides, sought, it will be found that this erup- cicerones, abbes, and antiquarians. tion was worthy of the work it had to do, But Italian vigour is of all things the and was a handsome recompense for most easily exhausted, where it has not the long slumber of the volcano. The the lash or the bribe to feed its waste, Continent, throughout its whole south- and the cities slumbered for twenty ern range, probably felt this vigorous years more, till, in 1711, a duke, who awakening. Rome was covered with was digging for marbles to urn into the ashes, of which Northern Africa, mortar, found a Hercules, and a whole Egypt, and Asia Minor, had their heap of fractured beauties, a row of share ; the sun was turned into blood Greek columns, and a little temple. and darkness, and the people thought Again, the cities slumbered, till, in that the destruction of the world was 1738, a King of Naples, on whom ligbt come. At the close of the eruption, Ve- may the earth rest, commenced digsuvius stood forth the naked giant that ging, and streets, temples, theatres openhe is at this hour—the palaces and the ed out to the sun,to be at rest no more. gardens were all dust and air—the sky So few details of the original catas

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trophe are to be found in historians, their remnants of ornamental painting,
that we can scarcely estimate the actu- their corridors, and their tesselated
al human suffering, which is, after all, floors, are seen, as they might have
almost the only thing to be considered been seen the day before the eruption.
as a misfortune. It is probable that The surrounding landscape has the
the population of, at least, Pompeii had grandeur that the eye looks for in a
time to make their escape. A pedlar's volcanic country. Wild hills, frag-
pack would contain all the valuables ments of old lavas, richly broken
left in Pompeii ; and the people who shores, and in the centre the most pic-
had time thus to clear their premises, turesque and sublime of all volcanoes,
must have been singularly fond of haz- Vesuvius, throwing up its eternal vol. .
ard if they staid lingering within the umes of smoke to the heavens.
reach of the eruption. But some mel-
ancholy evidences remain that all were MS. LETTER FROM SCIPIO AFRICANUS.
not so successful. In one of the last

Translation of a Letter of great excavations made by the French, four poetical beauty, from the celebrated female skeletons were found lying to

Scipio : gether, with their ornaments, bracelets,

“Do I implore the God's protection and rings, and with their little hoard of to thee, my Celonica ?-Does the Sun coins in gold and silver. They had warın all on this earth? All but Sciprobably been suffocated by the sul- pio, for thou art the sun to his mind. I phureous vapour. In a wine cellar,


thou art well. known by its jars ranged round the « The day is past, and I am weary: wall, a male skeleton, supposed to be a mournful day for the Carthaginians. that of the master, by bis seal-ring, was The valleys of Numidia are sown, found as if he bad perished in the at- thick as the grains of Egypt, with the tempt at forcing the door. In another mortal remnants of brave men : The a male skeleton was found with an axe warriors' features are fixed in death's in his hand, beside a door which he eternal quiet. Carthage has fallen unwas breaking open. In a prison, the der the world's masters. Our legions skeletons of men cliained to the wall are the rocks of Rome: They have were found. If it were not like affec. battled as they always did and always tation to regret agony that has passed will—to conquer ! Carthage is their away so long, it might be conceived as own, and the wild frenzy of human fola palliation of that agony, that it was ly now rushes through her palaces, her probably the work of a minute, that the mansions, her dwellings ! Carthage, vapour of the eruption extinguished life thy day of splendour recedes into the at once, and that these unfortunates West! I resi under the folds of my perished, not because they were left be- tent, whilst the dim night waves slowly. hind in the general flight, but were left My body is quiescent, but my mind is behind because they had perished. with thee. The vigour of the day,

A large portion of Pompeii is now glorious to our Rome, subsides with the uncovered.

This was an easy opera- present hour. Languor, sinks upon tion, for its covering was ashes, them- me, and the visions of the mind pass selves covered by vegetable soil, and on. Thy eyes watch over me, blessed that again covered by verdure and vine- treasures, which first brought tenderyards. Herculaneum reserves its de- ness on earth, concentrated as they are velopement for another generation ; its with the power of all Persia's pearls. cover is lava, solid as rock; and that The curls of thy wandering hair stray again covered with two villages and a upon my broad breast, and the wings royal palace ; and the whole under the of the dove rest upon the rock. protection of a still surer guard, Ne “ The Gods are with me, so shall I apolitan stupidity, poverty, and indo- ere long be with thee. Thou, my lence. The Panorama gives a striking heart's own, must abide the course of coup-d’æil of the two great excavations 'war. Flutter not thyself with fear : of Pompeii. The Forum, the narrow Live for thy Roman, who knows it streets, the little Greek houses, with not.


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