« 前へ次へ »
trious Drake, and Sir Walter Raleigh, as the consumption, that the three cities just pirates. In this comfortable degree of ig- mentioned are said by Baron Huinboldt to norance, it is not strange that they viewed have paid duties upon it to the amount of with surprise my walking-stick gun, my 312,739 dollars in the year 1793. Plantaportable chair and table, my camera lucida, tions of the agava are very extensive beand other little specimens of English inge- tween Chollula and San Martin, the great nuity. Nothing gave them more pleasure road running for miles through them. They than a volume of the plates of Ackerman's are set about five or six feet asunder, and Fashions, which I had carried out ; it was in favourable situations come into bloom io prodigious request, and they looked with in about ten years, at which period the valastonishment at some prints of the public uable liquor is to be procured. As soon as buildings of London. But their wonder the owner perceives the plant preparing to was greatly augmented when they were in- throw up its long flower-stem, he cuts out formed of the purposes for which they were the leaves which forins its centre, and holbuilt: we heard them exclaim in amaze. lows it out into the shape of a bowl, at the ment to each other, and yet these people same time removing most of the other are not Christians,' what a pity they are leaves, so that the whole sap destined for not Christians!' But the day, I hope, has their supply flows to the great stein, and is 'arrived, when Spanish policy can no lon- received by the bowl-shaped cavity, into ger keep its American subjects in such dark- which it runs with such rapidity as to reness, and when the obscuration of the quire to be emptied several times a day, for Mexicans will vanish. On the other hand, a space of two months. The liquor, when Europe has much to learn respecting Ame: collected, is placed in jars or skins ; it unrica. Even the very names of some of the dergoes a slight fermentation, which takes finest cities of the Mexicans are almost un- place in a few days, and is immediately fit known to her ; and therefore we ought to for drinking. Strangers prefer it fresh, but pause before we laugh at the ignorance of the natives seldom take it until it has acqui. the American Spaniard. How very few of red a strong taste, and a disagreeable fetid the inhabitants of Great Britain have heard smell, denominated fuerte, when, it is esof Puebla or Guatamala, yet they are su- teemed in high perfection. perb, populous, and wealthy cities; and it “ A strong spirit, called pulque brandy, is is from New Spain that Europeans princi- distilled from the liquor. The leaves form pally draw the coin which hourly passes the roofs of some Indian houses, and fenthrough their hands, and so much contrib. ces, ropes, thread, cloth, and paper, are alutes to the ease and elegance of life.” so inade from it ; some part of the plant is
also used medicinally, and the root, prepaSpeaking of the Pulque, the com- red with sugar, is converted into dulces or mon and favourite beverage of the sweetmeats.” Mexicans, Mr. B. says,
Having reached the city of Puebla, “ A few miles before we reached Perote Mr. B. states,we had come to large plantations of the great American aloe (Agava Americana).
" In the afternoon we ascended the high it is grown in considerable quantities, and tower of the cathedral, and enjoyed the this was the first plantation of it which we splendid view of Puebla and the neighbourhad met with. From it is made the favourhood. Several of the most distinguished ite liquor of the Mexicans called Pulque.- volcanic and other mountains are in the vi. Intending to examine it more at leisure, we
cinity, but from this view, Popocatepeti lorose before the sun the next morning, and
ses much of its grandeur. '1 he pyramid of found it growing in the streets and round Chollola is only six miles off, and distinctly the town. It attains a size which surprises seen,-its base exceeds that of the great those who have only seen it in European pyramid of Egypt; but the work of man, hot-houses. We measured some of the when standing in comparison with the surleaves, and fonnd them ten feet long,fifteen rounding pyramids of nature, whose tops inches wide, and eight thick : many of them
are covered with eternal snows, dwindles were just open ; their flower-stalk twenty
into insignificance. The labour of ascendfeet high, and expanding, like rich candel. ing the tower is amply repaid by the view abras, their arms clustered with yellow of this regular and beautiful city, the founfowers.
dations of which were laid by the Span
iards in 1533. It now contains about The author adds at a later period 90,000 inhabitants, many of whom are respecting this plant that it is
wealthy, and live in good style. It is in
the splendour of its churches, and other .." called here the Maguey, and is religious edifices, and in the richness of of the greatest consequence to the Mexi- their endowments, that Pueblu must take cans, and very largely cultivated from Pe- the first rank in the Christian world. In rote to Tolucca, and I believe much further. the profuse ornaments of the altars, the saFrom it is made the refreshing and favour- cred vessels and vestments, the expensive jte beverage called pulque. It is in univer- carving and gilding of the interior of the sal request among the inhabitants of the churches-in the pompous religious procescapital, Puebla, Tolucca, &c. and such is sions and other ceremonies, it yields to no
city in America or Europe. The antiqua. evening I accompanied Mr. Furlong and rian'will here feel a peculiar gratification ; his lady to the service of tenæbræ, and ne--he will find himself removed to the pe ver witnessed such a splendid scene ;-cerriod of our Henrys and Edwards, not only tainly it surpassed in magnificence all in the style of building of those times, but knew of the pomp of Courts. The whole even in the similarity of customs and man- cathedral, and all its costly appendages, ners, the same religion and ceremonies, the and fretted golden roof, were displayed and same observance of holydays, with the illuminated by thousands of wax lights, reJigious processions that at once were the flected from gold and silver chandeliers of solace and amusement of our ancestors.-- the finest workmanship ; an altar covered In the churches he will see (as if the work with massive plate, as fresh as from the of yesterday) the same profusion of sculp bands of the artisan; a host of officiating ture, painting, gilding, now only to be found clergy, arrayed in the richest vestments ; in the fragments of our most ancient tem- the waving of banners ; tbc solemn music, ples. The statues, balustrades, candle. and a powerful and well conducted band ! sticks, candelabras, &c. of massive gold and that heart must have been cold indeed silver,which have long disappeared in Eng which could have remaincd inanimate amid Jand, are here in daily use, and the very such a scene : he who would wish to see dresses and accoutrements of the country the pomp of religious ceremony should visit gentlemen strongly remind us of the peri Puebla." od of the discovery of America, the costumes having undergone very little altera
There is also another remarkable tion from their first introduction by the establishment, Spaniards : the same high fronted military saddle, with its defeosive cantlets and co.
" A place of religious retreat, called a vering for the horse, that was worn by Cor
house of spiritual retirement, in which pertez, and the enormous spor of our Henry
sons of either sex, desirous of leaving the the Seventh, are
bustle and confusion of the world, the better now in constant use by the paysanas, or country gentlemen.
to prepare themselves by prayer, in silence
and solitude, for the sacraments and other “ The Cathedral, which forms one side duties required by the Catholic religion, of the great square, is a large pile of build. may retire, free of expense, for the space ing, with little architectural ornament in of right days. The building appropriated its exterior, but its interior furniture, if I for this laudable purpose is admirably calmay so call it is rich beyond description. culated to withdraw the miod from human So uch is it covered with ornainents, that affairs, and to fit it to receive divine inspi. the whole of its fine effect is considerably ration, by abstraction from all sublunadimninished. The centre of the body, for ry and temporal concerns ; and it has been example, is so overloaded as to obstruct amply endowed with revenues greater than the view of its length.
those of most of the charitable institutions “ Towards the south is placed the high in Europe. The structure itsclf is magnifialtar, a most superb teniple, of exquisite cent, and of greater dimensions than the workmanship, and in elegant taste, lately palaces of Great Britain. It encloses two finished by an Italian artist, from Roman
squarez, one having a fine garden, into designs, but executed in Mexico, and of na- which the windows of the apartments oceutive materials. It is of such size as to oc- pied by the penitents open. Each persoa cupy a considerable part of the cathedral, has a comfortable room, containing a small and to reach into the dome. Its fault is well executed crucifix, and other emblems that it is too large, being disproportionate of religion, a wooden bedstead, chair, and to the building in which it is placed, and table. I counted seventy-one apartments, also tov modern to larmonise with the sur all numbered, and here the penitents pass rounding objects. The materials are the their time, except when they meet at their most beautiful marble and precious stones short and frugal meals, or at the appointed that can be found in New Spain : its nu hours of public devotion in the chapel. merous and loîty columns, with plinths and The long galleries in which they may encapitals of burnished gold, the magnificent joy exercise are of the greatest splendour, altar of silver crowded with statues, &c. &c. and furnished with solid silver and gold have an unequalled effect. I have travelled crucifixes, and other religious ornaments, over most of Europe, but I know nothing forming a striking contrast to the sombre like it ; and only regret it does not belong cells in which the solitary spends the greatto a building more worthy of it.
est part of his time. They are also decora. “ The side-altars are all crowded to ex ted with excellent paintings, mostly of the cess with statues, carving, gilding, silver old school, the subjects taken from the Holy candelabras, balustrades, gold chandeliers, Scriptures, or illustrative of the lives of the &c. Amongst the many paintings that are most remarkable Patriarchs, Saints, and deposited in panels, set in superb frames, Martyrs. Appropriate quotations in Spanare several which appear to be of the first: ish, from the Psalms of David, and other rate quality of art, but all approach to portions of the sacred writings best adapt. them is so guarded by railings, and so lit. ed to excite the soul to gratitude for the tle light is admitted, that they are lost in mercy of the omnipotent Creator, and after obscurity. It was Holy-week, and in the seclusion to return the penitent to the
world improved and amended, are inter- the size and lightness. The whole of their spersed. The apartments are generally oc cooking utensils are formed of earthenware, cupied about twelve times in the year, and metal vessels being unknowo in their kitch: some oftener, so that upwards of one thous ens ; to which, indeed, the former is preand persons annually receive the benefit of ferable, and so cheap that a few shillings this pious foundation.
will furnish all the requisites for a gentle" It is iobabited alternately by male and man's cuisine. female occupants, the abode of the clergy. “ The manufactory of glass has been men being in a separate court of the build- lately much improved, and it is probable ing.
that shortly, with the adoption of some of « Puebla was formerly celebrated for its our machinery in the preparation of the manufactory of coarse woollen cloths, but materials, the importation from Europe it has now fallen off in this branch of map will be discontinued. They copy the forms ufacture. We visited the manufactory of well, and in the texture and colour of their earthed ware and glass ; at the former we glass they already rival us. saw large ornamental pieces in colour and “ Soap is a considerable article of traffic pattern much resembling the china brought in Puebla, being sent from thence to most from the east. The painting is executed by cities of New Spain It is made in the men seated on the ground. The machinery shape of birds, fishes, beasts, fruits ; for grinding the lint used in the glaze, and indeed they give it a thousand fantastical for turning the ware is very simple and rude, forms. They were much pleased with our visit,and 66 The Mexican confectioners excel in without hesitation explained the whole pro- their sweetmeats and cakes, which are ar.
They were aware how greatly they ticles very much in request on Spanish ta. were behind the manufactories of Enrope, bles. I was told that, at the coronation of and told as, that no clay fit for the fabrica- the Emperor,upwards of five hundred kinds tion of porcelain or fine earthenware had as of dulces were served up in the desert. yet been found in Mexico ; but in the coarse “ That many of the inhabitants of Puebla red ware they excel, both as to the elegance are wealthy is attested by their equipages of the forms and patterns, and as it regards and retinues.”
GOLDEN RULES FOR HONEST MEN.
(Mon Mag.) O no act which you feel any as far as possible, to be rendered ac
repugnance to have seen or cordant with our own. known by others, for the necessity of 4. Hesitate, doubt, inquire, and, if being secret implies some vice in the possible, forbear, whenever your
intenact, or sonje error in the reasoning tion is dangerous or fatal to the welfare which leads to its self-justification. of another ; for it is too late to correct
2. Do nothing to any sentient or suf an error of judgment aster any mischief fering being, which you would feel to be to another bas been perpetrated. cruel or unjust towards yourself, if your 5. Give countenance to no slander beings or situations were changed; and relative to another in his absence; and, mark, that though this rule is errone- if obliged to hear slanders, discharge onsly limited to the relations of man to your own responsibility by the early man, and is therefore practised too of. communication of them to the slanderten with a view to reciprocal advan- ed : for he who hears any slander, who tage ; yet it is genuine virtue only, takes no measures to procure its conwhen practised towards those from tradiction, and who, from any sinister whom no reciprocal advantage can be motive, declines to bring the slanderer derived, as when applied to the mean- and slandered face to face, is an accesest animals, and every helpless sentient sory, and as culpable as the propagaobject.
tor ; while the baseness and mischief 3. To live and let live, applies to all of slander would be rooted from sociesocial and physical relations ; for the ty, if hearers forbore to be quiescent world is the common property of all the accessories. beings who have been evolved by the 6. Beware of envy, and of a pracprogress of creative power, and all are tice of detracting from the merit of necessary parts of a great and harmo- those whom you have not the industry, nious scheme, to which it is our duty to the inclination, or the talent, to imisubmit, while the happiness of all ought, tate ; for it is your duty either to ad
mire or emulate others, or to be con- deeply, that you may avoid conceit, by tent with the station in which your knowing how little is known even by birth, talents, or industry have placed the wisest. you.
12. Be not inconsistent in your ex7. Be as useful as possible in the so- pectations; and, having chosen your cial sphere which you fill; for a man walk through life,pursue it with pain society does not live for himself tience, industry, and contentment : thus alone ; and, as he derives benefits from if superiority in knowledge is your obothers, so he ought to conter them as ject, do not envy the accumulations of often as he has the opportunity and your thrifty neighbour : if wealth is the power.
your object do not wonder that your 8. Remember that all wealth and character for knowledge, justice, and grandeur is sustained by the industry liberality stands not so bigh as that of and privations of others : for money is others; and, if the reputation of virtue but the representative of products, and is your ambition, you must govern your products are the results of labour; thus passions, practise forbearance without income from interest of money is drawn repining, and consult the interest of from the industry or privations of the others as much as your own. borrower; that from rent, from the in 13. Let scintillations of pride be dustry or privations of the tenant; and corrected, by considering that you are that from manufacturing products, from mortal ; that, only a few years ago you the industry or privations of the work were not, and, in a few years hence, man.
will not be ; and that an eternity pre9. Reward and encourage virtue in ceded and will follow you, reducing every station, and discountenance vice your span of life to a point ; that your and bad passions, however adventitious possessions, however vast, are but a ly exalted : for, unless the good draw speck on a little globe, which is itself a strong line between the worthy and but a point in the universe ; and that the unworthy, and, by association and your bodily structure, your secretions, subscription, combine to sustain the ad- your mechanism, and your assimilaversity and the old age of virtue, un tions, are exactly the same as those of principled vice will eagerly trample it all other men, and, if not the same, you in the dust.
would be diseased, or a monster ; and 10. Avoid all those insanities of the remember that wisdom, manners, and human mind engendered by unwise au- virtue, constitute the only difference thors, and early errors-such as the among human creatures. passion after posthumous fame, which 14. Respect the means adopted by can seldom be realized, and can never public social policy, to subjogate the be felt, -as the love of wealth beyond practices of the ignorant and unthiokthe means of comfortable enjoyment, ing to their hopes, fears, and supersti-as the love of renown among beings tions; for man, though a reasoning, is who forget you in sleep, and in death, not a rational animal, and for once that -as the love of military glory, excited he is right, he is wrong a hundred to gratify the bad passions of weak prin- times ; consequently his moral practices and wicked ministers, -as the am- ces in society, which are governed by bition after titles, which mean no more his imperfect reason, bis selfish craft, than the syllables of which they con- and his unruly passions, generally resist,--and as the zeal of self-devotion quire an influence beyond his ordinain any cause of the hour, the object and ry nature, to render his association use of which will be forgotten in a bearable. year, and laughed at by the next gene 15. Promote education, free inquiry, ration.
and truth; for untaught man is the pa11. Seek wisdom in all things, that tient of the circumstances by which he you may not be the dupe and slave of is surrounded, and the mere creature of the craft and subtlety of others, that imitation,--a' mahomedan Turk, if you may be enabled to play an inde- born in Turkey ; a Siberian polythependent part in society; and search ist, if born in Siberia ; or a protestant
or popish Christian, if born in Holland, opinions and habits of your fellowor Spain ; the faith, manners, and hab- creatures, each of whom is the passive its of each country, constituting indi- instrunient of his education and assocividual character. To arrive at unic ations. Pity and teach, if your pracversal truth, to avoid the established tices are unquestionably better ; buit do errors of localities, and to become free not persecute or inflict punishment, eifrom the continuous errors of previous ther for ignorance, or for errors in the ages, are therefore the primary duties formation of character, arising from the of all men who aspire to the attributes vices of society, the prejudices imbibed of wisdom.
in youth, or the inattention ol govern16. Practise toleration towards the ments.
VAIN REPETITIONS. MATTHEW vi. 7.
6. But when ture of devotion ; and who like Jacob ye pray, use not vain repetitions, pleading with the Lord, will not let as the heathen do : for they think him go unless he bless him. that they shall be heard for their Having settled his account with the much speaking.--" Next morning word Rabboni, which the telling of his ve started again at an early hour, as beads enabled him to know when he soon as the reisser had got through their had done, he proceeded to dispose of prayers. With one of them this was his other vows in a similar manner. a very long and serious concern. He Allah houakbar, God most great, generally spent an hour in this exercise perhaps came next, and this he would every morning, and as much in the go on with as with the other, repeating evening, besides being very punctual in the words as fast as he could frame his the performance of this duty at the in- organs to pronounce them, and so on tervening periods of stated prayer. with respect to others. The usual numCertainly he did not pray in secret, ber for repeating certain words is thirtycommuning with his heart, but vociferatá three times each; and the Mussulman's ed with all his might, and repeated the beads are strung accordingly, three times words as fast as his tongue could give thirty-three, with a large dividing bead them utterance. The form and words between each division. of his prayer were the same with those To hear this man repeat his prayers, of the others; but this good man had his variety of pnconnected tones running made a vow to repeat certain words of through all the notes of the gamut, prothe prayer a given number of times both duced quite a ludicrous effect : you night and morning. The word Rab- would say this man was caricaturing or boni for example, answering to our word making a farce of devotion; but to look Lord, he would bind himself to repeat at him while engaged in the perfora hundred or two hundred times, twice a mance nothing could be more serious or day: and accordingly went on, in the devout, or more abstracted from the hearing of all the party, and on his world, than his appearance. All his knees, sometimes with his face directed countrymen thought well of his devostcadily to heaven, at other times bow- tions, and never manifested the slighting down to the ground, and calling out est disposition to smile at him for bis Rabboni, Rabboni, Rabboni, &c. as oddities; on the contrary, they said that last as he could articulate the words, like he was a rich man and would be a i school-boy going through his task, great sheikh. So great is their respect not like a man who, praying with the for prayer, that raillery on that topic beart and the understanding also, con- would not be tolerable among Mussulnues longer on his knees in the rap- mans.” RICHARDSON'S TRAVELS.
78 ATENEUN VOL. 1. new series,