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2 Exod. xxiii.

xxv.9. 14.

Felix n trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time;
when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.
26 He hoped also that y money should have been given him Exod. xxii.
of Paul[, o that he might loose him] : wherefore he sent for
him the oftener, and communed with him. 27 But after
two years Porcius Festus came into Felix' room: and
Felix, ? willing to P shew the Jews a pleasure, left Paul Boch. Fill's:

XXV. 1 Now when Festus was come into the province,
after three days he ascended from Cæsarea to Jerusalem.
2 a 9 Then the high priest and the chief of the Jews in- a cher.nr. 1.
formed him against Paul, and besought him, 3 and desired
favour against him, that he would send for him to Jeru-
salem, ” laying wait in the way to kill him. 4 But Festus bebe sxiii.
answered, that Paul should be kept at Cæsarea, and that
he himself would depart shortly thither. 5 Let them

bch. xxiii, 12,


n literally, becoming alarmed, answered. There is nothing in the original to answer to trembled.”

o omit, with all our oldest authorities.
P render, win favour with the Jews.

q read, And.

married, and each time to persons of royal and harassed by bands of robbers and birth; Suetonius calls him “the husband sicarii (assassins), and the people the prey of three queens.25.] It is remark- of false prophets. He died, after being able that Tacitus uses of Felix the ex- procurator a very short time,- from one to pression, “ he thought himself licensed to two years. Josephus contrasts him, as a commit all crimes with impunity.” The putter down of robbers, favourably with fear of Felix appears to have operated his successor Albinus. It was a natural merely in his sending away Paul: no im wish of Felix at this time to confer obliga. pression for good was made on him.

tions on the Jews, who were sending to 26.] The Julian law enacted that no one complain of him at Rome. left Paul should receive any consideration for throw bound7 There was no change in the method ing a man into prison, for putting him of custody, see note on ver. 23. He left into bonds, or releasing him, or for a him in the military custody' in which condemnation or an acquittal. Mr. Hum- he was. XXV. 1. the province] The phry observes, that Albinus, who succeeded term is properly used of a province, whether Festus, so much encouraged this kind of imperial or senatorial (see note on ch. xiii. bribery, that no malefactors remained in 7), --but is here loosely applied to Judæa, prison, except those who did not offer which was only a procuratorship, attached money for their liberation. St. Paul did to the province of Syria. 2. the high not resort to this mode of shortening his priest] The High Priest now was Ishmael tedious and unjust imprisonment, and the son of Phabi. See chronological table Tertullian quotes his conduct in this in the Introduction. The term chief of respect against those who were disposed the Jews is more general than elders,to purchase escape from persecution : a though most of the chief men must have practice which prevailed and became a been members of the Sanhedrim. Festus, great evil in the time of Cyprian. relating this application, ver. 15, calls them 27. two years] viz. of Paul's imprison. elders.3.] favour is explained to inent. Porcius Festus] Festus ap- mean condemnation, ver. 15. laying pears to have succeeded Felix in the sum wait] They were making, contriving, the mer or autumn of the year 60 A.D.: but ambush already. The country was at this the question is one of much chronological time, as may be seen abundantly in Josephus, difficulty. He found the province wasted full of sicarii (assassins): who were hired

Ver. 18.

Luke xxiii. 2

5, 13.

e ch. vi. 13:

xxiv. 12: Xxviii. 17.

g ver. 20.

therefore, said he, which r among you are able, go down c cho xviii. 14. with me, and accuse this man, if there be any wickedness

in him. 6 And when he had tarried among them szore than ten days, he went down unto Cæsarea ; and the next day sitting on the judgment seat commanded Paul to be

brought. 7 And when he was come, the Jews which came a Mark xv.$, down from Jerusalem stood round about, d and laid many

xxiv. and grievous complaints against t Paul, which they could ech. vi. 18: not prove. 8 While a he answered for himself, e Neither

against the law of the Jews, neither against the temple,

nor yet against Cæsar, have I offended any thing at all. fch. xxiv. 27. 9 But Festus, 'willing to do the Jews a pleasure, answered 8 ver. 20. Paul, and said, : Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem, and there

be judged of these things before me? 10 Then said Paul, I stand at Cæsar's judgment seat, where I ought to be

judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very b ver. 25. ch. well knowest. 11 h z For if I be an offender, & or have xxvi. 24 committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die:

but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse chev 122: me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto

r render, are powerful among you.
8 read, not more than eight or ten.
t read, him.

U read, Paul.
X render, win favour with the Jews.
Y render, But Paul said.

z read, If then.
a render, and.

xviii. 14 :

xxvi. 31.

ich. xxvi. 32:

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by the various parties to take off their ad. Grotius interprets it “ wilt thou be judged versaries. 5. are powerful] not, as in by the Sanhedrim in my presence?” OberA. V., those among you that are able" wise, a journey to Jerusalem would he sto go down ?7: but, are powerful among superfluous. Festus may very probably you: those who from their position and have anticipated the rejection of this proinfluence are best calculated to represent posal by Paul, and have wished to make it the public interests. 6.] The number appear that the obstacle in the way of of days is variously read. It is possible Paul being tried by the Sanhedrim arose that a perverted notion of the necessity of not from him, but from the prisoner him. an absolute precision in details in the in- self. 10.] Paul's refusal bas a positive spired text, may have occasioned the erasure and a negative ground--1. Cresar's tri. of one of the numbers. 8.] These bunal is my proper place of judgment : were the three principal charges to which 2. To the Jews I have done no harn, and the many and grievous complaintsof they have therefore no claim to judge me.' the Jews referred. 9.] The question

I stand at Cæsar's judgment seat is asked of Paul as a Roman citizen, having Meyer quotes from Ulpian, "What is done a right to be tried by Roman law : and hy a procurator of Cæsar, is approved as more is contained in it, than at first meets if it were done by Cæsar himself." the eye. It seems to propose only a change as thou very well knowest] literally, of place; but doubtless in it was contained knowest better than thou choosest to by implication a sentence pronounced by confess. We have an ellipsis of the same the Sanhedrim. The words before mo may kind in our phrase 'to know better. Or mean no more than that the procurator it may be in this case as in 2 Tim. i. 18, would be present and sanction the trial : better, than that I need say more on

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Cæsar. 12 Then Festus, when he had conferred with the council, answered, b Hast thou appealed unto Cæsar ? unto Cæsar shalt thou go. 13 And after certain days king Agrippa and Bernice came unto Cæsarea to salute Festus. 14 And when they had been there many days, Festus

b better, Thou hast appealed unto Cæsar (without the question : see note). it :' but I prefer the other interpretation. fulfilment, by a combination of providential

11. no man may (literally, can) circumstances. We can hardly say that deliver me Said of legal possibility: “it these must have influenced Paul in making is not lawful for any man"...." The his appeal : that step is naturally accounted dilemina here put by St. Paul is, If I am for, and was rendered necessary by the guilty, it is not by them, but by Cæsar, difficulties which now beset him : but we that I must be (and am willing to be may be sure that the prospect at length, tried, sentenced, and punished. If I am after his long and tedious imprisonment, of innocent, and Cæsar acquits me, then seeing Rome, must at this time have cheered clearly none will be empowered to give me him, and caused him to hear the decision up to them: therefore, at all events, guilty of Festus, “ To Cæsar shalt thou go," with or innocent, I am not to be made their no small emotion. 13.] HEROD victim." I appeal unto Cesar] lite. AGRIPPA II., son of the Herod of ch. xii. rally, I call upon, i. e. appeal to Cæsar. (see note on ver. 1 there), was at Rome, This power (of appeal to the people) having and seventeen only, when his father died. existed in very early times was ensured to Claudius was about to send him to succeed Roman citizens by the Lex Valeria in the to the kingdom, but was dissuaded by his year of Rome 215, suspended by the De. freedmen and favourites, and sent Cuspius cemviri, but solemnly re-established after Fadus as procurator instead. Soon after, their deposition A.U.C. 305, when it was Claudius gave him the principality of decreed that it should be unlawful to make Chalcis, which had been held by his uncle any magistrate from whom there did not Herod, the presidency of the temple at lie an appeal. When the emperors ab- Jerusalem and of its treasures,-and the sorbed the power of the people and the appointment of the High Priest. Some tribunitial veto in themselves, the appeals years after the same emperor added to his to the people and to the tribunes were jurisdiction the former tetrarchy of Philip, both made to the emperor. In Pliny's and Batanea, Trachonítis, and Abiléné, celebrated Epistle to the Emperor Trajan with the title of King. Nero afterwards respecting the Bithynian Christians, we annexed Tiberias, Tarichéa, Julins, and read, “ Others shared in the like madness, fourteen neighbouring villages to his kingwhom, as they were Roinan citizens, I dom. He built a large palace at Jerunoted to be sent to the metropolis.”

salem ; but offended the Jews by con12. the council] The convention, or as- structing it so as to overlook the temple, sembly of citizens in the provinces, as- and by his capricious changes in the high sembled to try causes on the court-days, see priesthood, -- and was not much esteemed ch. xix. 38. A certain number of these were by them. When the last war broke out, chosen as jurymen, for the particular causes, he attached himself throughout to the by the proconsul, and these were called his Romans. He died in the third year of 'councillors,'or'assessors.' So in Josephus, Trajan, and fifty-first of his reign, aged Cestius, on receiving an application from about seventy. Bernicé) The MaceJerusalem respecting the conduct of Florus, donian form (Berenicé or Beronicé) for took counsel with his assessors, or council. Pherenicé. She was the eldest daughter of He consulted them, to decide whether the Herod Agrippa I., and first married to her appeal was to be conceded, or if conceded, mcle Herod, prince of Chulcis. After his to be at once acted on. The law provided death she lived with Agrippa her brother, that if the matter did not admit of delay, but not without suspicion ; in consequence the appeal was not allowed. The sense of which she married Polemo, king of is stronger and better without a question Cilicia. The marriage was, however, soon after the first clause of Festus's answer. dissolved, and she returned to her brother. Thus were the two- the design of Paul She was afterwards the mistress of Vespa(ch. xix. 21), and the promise of our Lord sian, and of Titus. to salute Festus] to him (ch. xxiii. 11)-brought to their on his accession to the procuratorship, to

n ver. 6.

kch. xxiv. 97. declared Paul's cause unto the king, saying, * There is a Iver. 2, 3.

certain man left in bonds by Felix : 15 l about whom, when I was at Jerusalem, the chief priests and the elders of the

Jews informed me, desiring to have judgment against m ver. 4, 5. him. 16 m To whom I answered, It is not the manner of

the Romans to deliver any man [d to die], before that he which is accused have the accusers face to face, and have licence to answer for himself concerning the crime laid against him. 17 Therefore, when they were come hither, n without any delay on the morrow I sat on the judgment seat, and commanded the man to be brought forth. 18 e Against whom when the accusers stood up, they

brought f none accusation of such things as I supposed: och. xviii. 15: 19 ° but had certain questions against him of their own

& superstition, and of one Jesus, which was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive. 20 And because I doubted of such manner of questions, I asked him whether he would go to Jerusalem, and there be judged of these matters. 21 But when Paul had appealed to be reserved unto the

hearing of Augustus, I commanded him to be kept till I p see ch. ix. might send him to Cæsar. 22 Then P Agrippa said unto

Festus, I would also hear the man myself. To morrow,

said he, thou shalt hear him. 23 And on the morrow, C render, give up. domit, with almost all our oldest authorities. e render, Round about.

f Most of our oldest authorities read, none evil accusation : but there are variations among them.

& render, religion.

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gain his favour. 14. declared Paul's pleasing to his guest Agrippa. cause] He did this, not only because Augustus (in the Greek, Sebastos)] This Agrippa was a Jew, but because he was title was first conferred by the senate on (see above) governor of the temple. Octavianus, and borne by all succeeding 16. to give up] i. e. to his enemies, and emperors. Dio Cassius says: “Angastus for destruction. On the practice of the implies that he was something more than Romans, here nobly and truly alleged, man: for all most revered and sacred several citations occur in Grotius and things are called august. Whence also Wetstein. 18. Round about whom] they called bim Sebastos, after the Greek See ver. 7: the A. V., ' against whom,' is manner, as one to be adored, from sebazowrong.

19.7 The word rendered mai, to adore.” 22. I would hear the religion is used by Festus in a middle man myself] literally, I was wishing to... sense, certainly not as equivalent to 'super. It is a modest way of expressing a wish, stition,' A. V., speaking as he was to formed in this case while the procurator Agrippa, a Jew. 20.] See the real was speaking, but spoken of by Agrippa as reason why be proposed this, ver. 9. This if now passed by, and therefore not pressed. he now conceals, and alleges his modesty See Rom. ix. 3, and note there. Agrippa, in referring such matters to the judgment as a Jew, is anxious to hear Paul's defence. of the Jews themselves. This would be as a matter of national interest. The pro

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when Agrippa was come, and Bernice, with great pomp, and was entered into the place of hearing, with the chief captains, and principal men of the city, at Festus' commandment Paul was brought forth. 24 And Festus said, King Agrippa, and all men which are here present with us, ye see this man, about whom 4 all the multitude of the q ver. 2, 3, 7. Jews have dealt with me, both at Jerusalem, and also here, crying that he ought not to live any longer. 25 But rch. xxii. 29. Th when I found s that he had committed nothing worthy s ch. xviii. 9; of death, and i that he himself [h hath] appealed to t ver. 11, 12. Augustus, I [h have] determined to send him. 26 Of whom I have no certain thing to write unto my lord. Wherefore I have brought him forth before you,' and specially before thee, O king Agrippa, that, after examination had, I might have somewhat to write. 27 For it seemeth to me unreasonable k to send a prisoner, land] not withal to signify the crimes laid against him.

XXVI. 1 Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Thou art permitted to speak for thyself. Then Paul stretched forth the hand, and answered for himself: 2I think myself h omit.

i render, seeing that. k render, when sending.

1 omit.

curator's ready consent is explained, ver. (ver. 1) literally, by the popular voice 26. 23. with great pomp) Wetstein (probably) of some tumultuous outcry :--finely remarks on the words, “This here, by their deputation. 25. that he was in the same city where the father of had committed nothing worthy of death, Agrippa and Bernice had been eaten of and seeing that he himself ....] These worms for his blasphemous pride.”

reasons did really coexist as influencing the place of hearing] The original is a Festus's determination. 26. no cer. Greek word, forined after the Latin audi- tain thing] i. e. nothing fixed, definite. torium :' perhaps no fixed hall of audience, The whole matter had been hitherto ob. but the chamber or saloon set apart for scured by the exaggerations and fictions of this occasion. the chief captains the Jews. unto my lord) viz. Nero. These were the tribunes of the cohorts Augustus and Tiberius refused this title ; stationed at Cæsarea. Stier remarks, Caligula and (apparently) all following “ Yet more and more complete must the bore it: but it was not a recognized title giving of the testimony in these parts be, of any emperor before Domitian. Olshaubefore the witness departs for Rome. In sen remarks, that now first was our Lord's Jerusalem, the long-suffering of the Lord prophecy, Matt. x. 18, Mark xiii. 9, fultowards the rejecters of the Gospel was filled. But Meyer answers well, that we now exhausted. In Antioch, the residence do not know enough of the history of the of the Præses (or governor)of Syria, the new other Apostles to be able to say this with mother church of Jewish and Gentile Chris. any certainty. James the greater, and tians was flourishing; here, in Cæsarea, the Peter, had in all probability stood before residence of the procurator, the testimony Agrippa I. See ch. xii. 2, 3. XXVI. which had begun in the house of Cornelius 1.] The stretching out of the hand by a the centurion, had now risen upward, till speaker was not, as Hammond supposes, it comes before this brilliant assembly of the same as the beckoning with the handall the local authorities, in the presence of of ch. xii. 17; xiii. 16. The latter was to the last king of the Jews.” 24. all ensure silence; but this, a formal attitude the multitude of the Jews] At Jerusalem usual with orators. Apuleius describes it

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