fch, xxiii.,

29: xxv. 25.

were gone aside, they talked between themselves, saying, * This man doeth nothing worthy of death or of bonds.' choi 32 Then said Agrippa unto Festus, This man might have been set at liberty, 8 if he had not appealed unto 8 ch. sxv. 11. Cæsar.

XXVII. 1 And when a it was determined that we should a ch. xxv. 12, sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners unto one named Julius, a centurion of Augustus' band. 2 And entering into a ship of Adramyttium, i we launched, meaning to sail by the coast of Asia ; [j one] b Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being with us. b ch. xix. 20. 3 And the next day we touched at Sidon. And Julius c courteously entreated Paul, and gave him liberty to go e chvill. Yo23:

c ch. xxiv. 23:

xxviii. 16.

i read and render, which was about to sail by the coasts of Asia, we launched (i.e. put to sea).

j omit.

had charge of him. This exception may be the subject being 'they,' as 'on’in French, regarded as a proof of the perfect courtesy or man’ in German. of Augustus' of the great Apostle. 31. doeth no- band] There is some difficulty in determinthing] said generally, of his life and habits. ing what this cohort was. More than one No definite act was alleged against him: of the legions at different times bore the and his apologetic speech was in fact a honorary title 'Augusta :' but of a 'cohort sample of the acts of which he was ac- Augusta,' or 'Augustana,' we never hear. cused. 32.] Agrippa in these words It appears likely (see my Greek Test.) that delivers his judgment as a Jew : ‘For there was a band of picked men called by aught I see, as regards our belief and prac. this name and stationed at Rome for the tices, he might have been set at liberty.'- special body-guard of the emperor. To But now he could not: for “by an appeal this Julius seems to have belonged to the power of the judge, from whom the have been sent on some service into Asia, appeal lies, is taken away, for acquittal as and now to have been returning to Rome. for condemnation. The whole cause in its

2. of Adramyttium] Adramyttium integrity must be reserved for the superior was a sea port with a harbour in Mysia, an court." Grotius.

Athenian colony. It is now a village called CHAP. XXVII. 1- XXVIII. 31.] Endramit. Grotius, Drusius, and others Paul's VOYAGE TO ROME AND SOJOURN erroneously suppose Adrumetum to be THERE. I cannot but express the benefit meant, on the north coast of Africa. I have derived in my commentary on this Aristarchus] See ch. xix. 29; xx. 4; Col. section, from Mr. Smith's now well-known iv. 10; Philem. 24. In Col. iv. 10, Paul treatise on the voyage and shipwreck of calls him his fellow-prisoner, but perhaps St. Paul: as also from various letters which only figuratively : the same term is applied he has from time to time put into my to Epaphras, Philem. 23, where follows bands, tending further to elucidate the “Aristarchus, Demas, Lucas, my fellowsubject. The substance of these will be labourers.” 3. Sidon] This celebrated found embodied in an Appendix following city is generally joined in the New Test. the chronological table in the Introduction with Tyre, from which it was distant twentyto the Acts. 1. that we should sail] five miles, and of which it was probably the Here we have again the first person, the mother city. It was within the lot of the narrator having, in all probability, remained tribe of Asher (Josh. xix. 28), but never conin Palestine, and in the neighbourhood of quered by the Israelites (Judg. i. 31 ; iii. 3). Paul, during the interval since ch. xxi. 18. From the earliest times the Sidonians were

they delivered Paul] Who? per renowned for their manufactures of glass, haps the assessors with whom Festus took linen, silversmith's work, and for the counsel on the appeal, ch. xxv. 12: but hewing of timber (1 Kings v. 6; Ezra iii. more likely the plural is used indefinitely, 7). In ancient times, Sidon seems to have

unto his friends to refresh himself. 4 And when we had launched from thence, we sailed under Cyprus, because the winds were contrary. 5 And when we had sailed over the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia, we came to i Mrra, [k a city] of Lycia. 6 And there the centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing into Italy; and he put us

therein. 7 And when we had sailed slowly many days, j the Vatican MS. has Myrrha : the Alexandrine MS. has Lystra.

k not expressed in the original. been under Tyre, and to have furnished to Tyre. On this it may be well to quote her with mariners (see Ezek. xxvii. 8). It (from Smith) the testimony of M. de Paris went over to Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, a French navigator, who, on his vorige but seems under him, and afterwards under from Syria to Marseilles, informs us that after the Chaldæans and Persians, to have had tri. making Cyprus, “the winds from the vet, butary kings of its own (Jer. xxv. 22; xxvii. and consequently contrary, which prerail 3). The Sidonians furnished the best ships in these places during the summer, forced in Xerxes' navy. Under Artaxerxes Ochus us to run to the north. We made for the Sidon freed itself, but was by him, after a coast of Caramania (Cilicia), in order to severe siege, taken and destroyed. It was meet the northerly winds, which re found rebuilt, and soon after went over to accordingly." 5. Myra It was, or Alexander, keeping its own vassal kings. Strabo, on a high hill, about three miles After his death it was alternately under from the sea. The neighbourhood is full Syrian and Egyptian rule, till it fell of magnificent ruins; see Sir C. Fellows's under the Romans. The present Saida is Lycia, ch. ix. The name still remains. west of ancient Sidon, and is a port of the various readings merely shew that the some commerce, but insecure, from the copyists were unacquainted with the place. sanding up of the harbour. The friends 6.] The Alexandrian ship may have here mentioned were probably Christian been laden with corn for Rome; but this brethren (see ch. xi. 12, where the Gospel cannot be inferred from ver. 38, for the is said to have been preached in Phænicia; ship had been lightened before, ver. 18.and ch. xxi. 3, where we find brethren at On her size, see below, ver. 37.-Vost Tyre); but it is usual in that case for probably this ship had been prevented brethren or disciples to be specified: com- taking the direct course to Italy, which pare ch. xxi. 4, 7. The refreshing him. was by the south of Crete, by the prevailing self (literally, getting attention paid him) westerly winds. Under such circumstances, was perhaps to obtain from them that says Mr. Smith (p. 32), “ ships, particularly outfit for the voyage which, on account of those of the ancients, unprovided with a the official precision of his custody at compass, and ill calcnlated to work to windCæsarea, he could not there be provided ward, would naturally stand to the X. till with. 4. we sailed under] i. e. in the they made the land of Asia Minor, which lee of;' Cyprus. “When a ship is forced is peculiarly favourable for such a mode of out of her course by a contrary wind, so navigation, because the coast is bold and that an island is interposed between the safe, and the elevation of the mountains wind and the ship, she is said to sail under makes it visible at a great distance; it the island.” Wetstein; who also says, “If abounds in barbours, while the sinuosities the wind had been favourable, they would of its shores and the westerly current would have put out to sea, and left Cyprus on enable them, if the wind was at all off the the right, as in Acts xxi. 3, but now land, to work to windward, at least as far they are forced to coast along Cilicia, be- as Cnidus, where these advantages ceased. tween Cyprus and Asia.” They kept under Myra lies due N. from Alexandria, and its shelter of Cyprus, i. e. between Cyprus bay is well calculated to shelter a windand Cilicia, so having sailed the whole bound ship. The Alexandrian ship was length of the sea off Cilicia and Pamphylia, not, therefore, out of her course at Myra, they came to Myra. See the account of even if she had no call to touch there for the reverse voyage, ch. xxi. 3, where, the the purposes of commerce. 7. when we wind being nearly in the same quarter, the had sailed slowly] It is evident that the direct course was taken, and they left ship was encountering an adverse wind. Cyprus at a distance on their left, in going The distance from Myra to Cnidus is only

and 1 scarce were come over against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed under Crete, over against Salmone; 8 and, hardly passing it, came unto a place which is called The fair havens; nigh whereunto was the city of Laséa. 9 Now when much time was spent, and when m sailing

1 render, with difficulty.

m render, the voyage.

130 geogr. miles, which, with a fair wind, farthest point to which an ancient ship would not take more than one day. Mr. could have attained with N.W-ly winds.", Smith shews that the wind was N.W., Smith, as above. fair havens] The or within a few points of it. “We learn situation of this anchorage was ascertained from the sailing directions for the Mediter- by Pococke, from the fact of the name still ranean, that, throughout the whole of that remaining. “In searching after Lebena sea, but mostly in the eastern half, includ- farther to the west, I found out a place ing the Adriatic and Archipelago, N.W. which I thought to be of greater consewinds prevail in the summer months;... quence, because mentioned in Holy Scripthe summer trade winds come from the ture, and also honoured by the presence of N.W. (p. 197); which agrees with Aris. St. Paul, that is, the Fair Havens, near totle's account of these winds. According unto the city of Lasea ;' for there is another to Pliny (ii. 47), they begin in August, small bay about two leagues to the E. of and blow for forty days." with diffi. Matala, which is now called by the Greeks culty] not as E. V., 'scarce,' which being good or fair havens.” Cited by Mr. Smith, also an adverb of time, gives the erroneous who adds: “ The most conclusive evidence idea to the English reader that the ship that this is the Fair Havens of Scripture, had scarcely reached Cnidus when the is, that its position is precisely that where wind became unfavourable. Cnidus a ship circumstanced as St. Paul's was Cnidus is a peninsula at the entrance of must have put in. I have already shewn the Ægean Sea, between the islands of that the wind unust have been about Cos and Rhodes, having a lofty promontory N.W.;—but with such a wind she could and two harbours. « With N.W'. winds not pass Cape Matala : we must there. the ship could work up from Myra to fore look near, but to the E. of this Cnidus; because, until she reached that promontory, for an anchorage well calpoint, she had the advantage of a weather culated to shelter a vessel in N.W. winds, shore, under the lee of which she would but not from all winds, otherwise it would have smooth water, and as formerly mennot have been, in the opinion of seamen tioned, a westerly current; but it would (ver. 12), an unsafe winter harbour. Now be slowly and with difficulty. At Cnidus here we have a harbour which not only that advantage ceased.” Smith, p. 37. fulfils every one of the conditions, but still

. we sailed under (see above on ver. retains the name given to it by St. Luke.” 4) Crete ...] “Unless she had put into Smith, p. 45. Laséa] This place was, that barbour (Cnidus), and waited for a until recently, altogether unknown; and fair wind, her only course was to run under from the variety of readings, the very name the lee of Crete, in the direction of Sal. was uncertain. Pliny mentions Lasos mone, which is the eastern extremity of among the cities of Crete, but does not that island.”—Salmone (Capo Salomon) is indicate its situation. There is a Lisia described by Strabo as a sharp headland named in Crete in the Peutinger Table, looking toward Egypt and the Rhodian which may be the same. [On the very Archipelago. Pliny calls it Sammonium. interesting discovery of Lasea by the Rev.

8. hardly passing it] “ After passing G. Brown in the beginning of the year this point (Salmone), the difficulty they 1856, see the Appendix at the end of the experienced in navigating to the westward Introduction to Acts. The ruins are on along the coasts of Asia, would recur; the beach, about two hours eastward of but as the south side of Crete is also a Fair Havens.] 9. much time] Not weather shore with N.W. winds, they since the beginning of our voyage,' as would be able to work up as far as Cape Meyer :--the time was spent at the anchor. Matala. Here the land trends suddenly to age. the voyage] viz. to Rome,the N., and the advantages of a weather which henceforth was given up as hopeless shore cease, and their only resource was to for this autumn and winter. And by make for a harbour. Now Fair Havens is observing this, we avoid a difficulty which the harbour nearest to Cape Matala, the has been supposed to attend the words.

was now dangerous, because the fast was now already
past, Paul admonished them, 10 and said unto them, Sirs,
I perceive that this voyage will be with hurt and much
damage, not only of the lading and ship, but also of our
lives. 11 Nevertheless the centurion believed the 1 master
and the owner of the ship, more than those things which
were spoken by Paul. 12 And because the haven was not
commodious to winter in, the more part advised to depart
thence also, if by any means they might attain to Phenice,
and there to winter; which is an haven of Crete, and I
o lieth toward the south west and north west. 13 And when
the south wind blew softly, supposing that they had

obtained their purpose, loosing thence, they sailed close by ni.e. the captain or steersman.

o render, looketh toward the north east and the south east : see note. Sailing was not unsafe so early as this seventeen centuries before." Mr. Smith (see below); but to undertake so long a gives an inscription, making it highly provoyage, was the fast, especially so bable that Alexandrian ships did winter at called, is the solemn fast of the day of Lutro. looking to the north east expiation, the 10th of Tisri, the seventh and the south east) looking (literally) month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, down the S.W. and N.W. winds; i. e. is and the first of the civil year. See Levit. the direction of these winds, viz. N.E. and xvi. 29 ff.; xxiii. 26 ff. This would be S.E. For the S.W. and N.W. here menabout the time of the autumnal equinox. tioned in the original are not quarters of The sailing season did not close so early ; the compass, but winds; and down, used not indeed till nearly the middle of Novem. with a wind, denotes the direction of its ber. 10.7 From the use of I perceive blowing,-down the wind. This interprehere, and from the saying itself, it seems tation, which I was long ago persuaded clear to me that Paal was not uttering was the right one, I find now contirmed at present any prophetic intimation, but by the opinion of Mr. Smith. The harbour simply his own sound judgment on the of Lutro satisfies these conditions: and is difficult question at issue. It is otherwise otherwise even more decisively pointed out at vv. 22—24. As Smith remarks, “The as being the spot, by the mention in the event justified St. Paul's advice. At the Geographers of the island Clauda as consame time it may be observed, that a bay, nected with it. From these data and open to nearly one-half the compass, could others mentioned in my Greek Test., it is not have been a good winter harbour" almost demonstrated that the port of (p. 47). 12.] See above on ver. 8. Phænice is the present port of Lutro. The anchorage was sheltered from the Mr. Smith has kindly sent me the follor. N.W., but not from nearly half the com- ing extract from a letter containing ad. pass. Phenice] or more properly ditional confirmation of the view : ‘Loutro Phoenix. Ptolemy calls the haven Phoes is an excellent harbour; you open it unnicus, and the city (lying some way inland) expectedly, the rocks stand apart and the Phænix. Strabo describes an isthmus town appears within. During the Greek about twelve miles wide, having on the war, when cruising with Lord Cochnorth side a port called Amphimallia, and rane, ...... chased a pirate schooner, as on the south, Phænice. This description, they thought, right upon the rocks; and the other data belonging to Phænice, suddenly he disappeared, and when roundSmith (p. 48) has shewn to fit the modern ing in after him,- like a change of scenery, Lutro, which, though not known now as the little basin, its shipping, and the town an anchorage, probably from the silting up of Loutro, revealed themselves. 13. of the harbour, is so marked in the French blew softly] The S. wind was favour. admiralty chart of 1738, and “if then able able for them in sailing from Fair Havens to shelter the smallest craft, must have to Phænice. supposing that they been capable of receiving the largest ships had (as good as) obtained their purpose;

Crete. 14 But not long after there Parose against it a tempestuous wind, called 9 Euroclydon. 15 And when the ship was caught, and could not bear up r into the wind, we let her drive. 16 And running under a certain island which is called Clauda, we had much work to come by the P render, blew down from it.

9 read, Euracylon. r render, against.

s or, Cauda : see note. j.e. that it would now be a very easy safe to anchor under the lee of an island matter to reach Phænice. loosing with a northerly wind, as it dies gradually thence The word may be understood either away; but it would be extremely dangerous of weighing anchor, or of setting sail. with southerly winds, as they almost inThey crept close along the land till they variably shift to a violent northerly wind.) passed Cape Matala. “A ship which could The term typhonic' indicates that it was not lie nearer to the wind than seven points, accompanied by some of the phænomena would just weather that point which bears which might be expected in such a case, W. by S. from the entrance of Fair Havens. viz. the agitation and whirling motion of We see therefore the propriety of the ex- the clouds caused by the meeting of the pression ‘they sailed close by Crete,' which opposite currents of air when the change the author uses to describe the first part took place, and probably also of the sea, of their passage.” Smith, p. 56.

raising it in columns of spray. Pliny, 14. there blew down from it] The words speaking of sudden gusts, says, they make in the Greek, of which this appears to be an eddy which is called Typlion.” Smith, the right rendering, are not easy. I have p. 60. Euracylon] pronounced Eucliscussed them in my Greek Test. : and rakylon. This is the reading of the Alex. there first proposed the sense thus given, andrian, Vatican, and Sinaitic MSS. It viz. that the wind blew down (from) is a compound word, signifying NorthCrete, down the high lands forming the Easterly. The direction of the wind is coast. It is a common expression in lake established by Mr. S., from what follows, and coasting navigation, that'a gust came to have been about half a point N. of down the valleys.' And this would be E.N.E.; and the subsequent narrative exactly the direction of the wind in ques. shews that the wind continued to blow tion. When they had doubled, or perhaps from this point till they reached Malta. were now doubling, Cape Matala, the wind

15. caught] hurried away, 'borne suddenly changed, and the typhoon came

along,' by it. bear up against] litedown upon them from the high lands ;- rally, look in the face of. we let her at first, as long as they were sheltered, drive] literally, we gave up, and were only by fits down the gullies, but as soon


16. running under i.e. as they were in the open bay past the cape, running under the lee of. “St. Luke with its full violence. This, the hurricane exhibits here, as on every other occasion, rushing down the bighlands when first the most perfect command of nautical observed, and afterwards catching the ship, terms, and gives the utmost precision to seems to me exactly to describe their his language by selecting the most approchanged circumstances in passing the cape. priate :--they ran before the wind to leeA confirmation of this interpretation may ward of Clauda, hence it is running be found by St. Luke himself using the word under: they sailed with a side wind to came downto express the descending leeward of Cyprus and Crete : hence it is of a squall from the hills on the lake of sailed under"(Smith, p. 61, note). Gennesareth, Luke viii. 23. The above Clauda] Here again, there can be is also Mr. Howson's view, and has been little doubt that the name of the island adopted by Mr. Sunith. See, in the Appen- was Cauda or Gauda, as we have in some dix appended to the Introduction to Acts, MSS., or, as in Pliny and Mela, Gaudos : the confirmation of this view in what but Ptolemy has Claudos, and the coractually happened to the Rev. G. Brown's ruption was very obvious.—The island is party. a tempestuous (literally, typho- the modern Gozzo. we had much nic) wind] “ The sudden change from a work to come by the boat] “Upon reachsouth wind to a violent northerly wind, is ing Clauda, they availed themselves of the a common occurrence in these seas. (Cap. smooth water under its lee, to prepare the tain J. Stewart, R.N., in his remarks on ship to resist the fury of the storm. Their the Archipelago, observes, “It is always first care was to secure the boat by hoisting

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