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“ will not admit of their proceeding farther." He is lord | to an acquaintance with the course of parliamentary proceedlieutenant of his county. Let then the chairman of the ings, can form any correct idea of the number and bulk of Committee which has detected these scandalous transactions the volumes in which the Sessional Papers of the House of move, as was done in the case of the Bishop of Worcester, Commons are comprised. None but those who have been in the reign of Queen Anne, that his Majesty be addressed compelled to consult their contents can conceive how unsato dismiss Lord Warwick from the place which he holds tisfactory, in regard both to their substance and arrangeunder the crown. We do not think that his Lordship's ment, are the documents thus brought together. It is dismissal should be the unprompted act of the government, hardly possible to extract from them a series of statements or even that the motion for the House to address the crown upon any one point which affords means for making compashould come from the ministers. The House ought to take risons between similar matters occurring in different years, upon itself the duty of asserting its own privileges, and of although it must be evident that by means of such compaseeking redress for the violation of its repeatedly-aflirmed risons alone can a true judgment be formed, in many cases, resolution. If it so act, there cannot be a doubt as to the as to the effect of particular measures. Even where the result. Unless his Majesty's ministers mean distinctly to inexperienced inquirer might imagine that he had discovered say, that in this old controversy between the two Houses, the materials for making such comparisons, a nearer inspecthe Lords have all along been in the right and the Com- tion of the accounts given in the Sessional volumes may mons in the wrong, they will dismiss the Earl of Warwick show him to be mistaken. If, for example, information be from his lord lieutenancy as a matter of course. And in sought upon some branch of trade, respecting which returns the present day, we believe there is but little chance that have been constantly required by Parliament, it will often the peers will, either by a remonstrance or in any other way, be found, that these returns have been called for in order to attempt to dispute or avert such an exercise of the royal suit particular and partial objects, and that they are made to prerogative.*
comprise only parts of the subject, while some of the details necessary to its proper elucidation are either accidentally or
purposely omitted. It will frequently be found, too, that OFFICIAL TABLES OF REVENUE, &c. these omissions vary both in their nature and amount in
different years, so that the statements are robbed of all their Since the date of our last publication, a volume calcu- usefulness, if indeed they be not rendered positively mislated to throw much light upon the condition of the coun-chievous, by misleading the inquirer. The volume of tables try, and to assist materially in the business of legislation, now before us appears to be free from this fault, the whole has been laid by command of his Majesty upon the of the statements being prepared upon one uniform system, tables of both Houses of Parliament. This volume—the and so arranged as to convey to the eye at one glance all contents of which are derived from official sources- is en
the information required for the understanding of each titled, Tables of the Revenue, Population, Commerce, &c. particular subject, so that the comparison between one year of the United Kingdom and its Dependencies, and the com- and another presents itself immediately, and without the pilation is made to embrace the period of twelve years, from inconvenience of referring from one part of the work to 1820 to 1831 inclusive.
another. We learn from the notice prefixed to these tables that it The contents of this volume are necessarily of a miscellais intended to follow up this presentation by the immediate neous nature, comprehending abstracts of the Public Repreparation of another volume, to contain those occurrences venue and Expenditure-of the National Debt and the in detail for the year 1832 which are here given in a more Annual Charge which it occasions-of the Amount of Bank condensed form for the twelve preceding years ; and that a Notes in circulation at different periods—of the Number of similar volume will in future be printed annually, with the Savings Banks and the Depositors, stated in classes accord view of simplifying the labours of Parliament, by supplying, ing to the amount of their deposits—and of the Net Produce at the earliest possible moment after its meeting, connected of the Public Revenue in each of its different branches of statements with regard to all those points of a statistical Customs, Excise, Stamps, &c. Under this head we have nature which have usually claimed its attention.
some very curious details of the progress of the Assessed The collecting of statistical information can never be so Taxes, specifying the number of persons and articles charged satisfactorily undertaken by individuals or private societies under each head of duty in every year; thus contributing as by governments, which alone can impart that assurance towards the means of ascertaining the progress of the of authenticity in which the principal value of such state country in wealth, by marking the continually increasing use ments must consist. However much this fact may have of conveniences and luxuries. Further means to this end been disregarded up to the present time by our own govern- are afforded by statements of the quantities of exciseable ment, it is one which has been generally recognized and commodities, and of foreign and colonial productions, which acted upon elsewhere, so that there scarcely can be men- have in each year been retained for consumption in the tioned even a second-rate power on the continent of Europe United Kingdom. The progressive condition of our foreign which has not a statistical office attached to some branch of commerce may also be ascertained by the quantities here its executive government.
registered of every kind of goods imported and exported, It has constantly afforded matter for surprise, how the while the continually augmenting quantities of the raw mabusiness of legislation can have been carried on in this king; terials of manufacture imported and of finished goods dom with a due regard to its various and complicated exported, show the astonishing degree in which that most interests, seeing what a total absence there has been of important branch of national industry is increasing. In all system and arrangement for preserving a record of 1820, the total quantity of cotton entered for consumption was facts and circumstances which should form the groundwork 152,829,633 lbs.; in 1831, through the extension of the maof that business. It may be said, that until a recent pe- nufacture, this quantity was augmented to 273,249,653 lbs. riod, a great part of the important work of legislation was being an increase of 78 per cent. The quantity of foreign intrusted to men whose lengthened experience stood them sheep's wool imported, which in 1820 was short of ten milin some degree in the place of such a system of arrangement. lions of pounds, amounted in 1831 to more than three times Now, however, that election has taken the place of nomina- that quantity. The number of yards of plain and printed tion to seats in the popular branch of our legislature, some- cotton goods exported in 1820 was 127,141,603, which quanthing beyond mere technical experience is looked for as a tity was augmented to 421,385,303 yards in 1831, being an qualification in our representatives, and the necessity is ren: increase of 231 per cent. The export of woollen goods in dered undeniable of possessing a compilation which will 1820, amounted to 1,293,372 pieces, besides 4,791,354 yards, present in a lucid and compendious form, the leading facts the quantities exported in 1831 were 1,997,348 pieces, and which bear upon the commerce and the fiscal system of the 5,797,546 yards. government.
Our limits will not allow us to enter into further details Few, except those persons whose, avocations have led them on this head, and we should content ourselves with stating,
* Since the above article was in type, and as we are about to put in general terms, that the volume before us abounds with to press, we observe that Lord Althorp has intimated in the House proofs the most gratifying of the successful exertion of of Commons that a letier has been, or will immediately be, ad- British skill and industry, did we not here perceive the dres-ed to the Earl of Warwick, who is abroad, stating what had means of correcting some important errors which appear to been reported ayainst him, and calling on him for an explanation, have taken hold upon the public mind. In regard to the in order that the Government might ascertain whether it was ne. shipping interest of the country, which year after year has cessary or desirable to take any further steps in the matter. been represented as in a declining state, we see in the table
ገ Ild. per
The latest period frora which the account can be furnished.
of Poor Rates.
1825 (pp. 50 and 51), that the number of ships built and registered
Cows and oxen No. 31,543 63,519 in 1820 was 885, of the aggregate burthen of 84,582 tons,
65,919 while the number built and registered in 1830 (the returns
3130 for 1831 were not completed when this statement was pre
72,161 pared) was 1117 ships, of the aggregate burthen of 110,130
Cwt, 250,620 425,670 tons. The number of vessels which entered inwards from
63,507 foreign parts, in all the ports of the kingdom, was 14,757, of Pork
73,495 83,783 2,115,671 tons burthen, in 1820; while the number of ar
Bacon and Ham
361,139 rivals in 1831 was 20,573 ships, of the burthen of 3,241,927
That these exports must have materially increased since tons, showing an increase of more than 50 per cent. in the foreign trade of the country. This increase must not be 1825, is proved by the fact, that in 1831, Liverpool alone wholly attributed to the peculiar advantages possessed in this imported from Ireland 91,911 head of cattle ; 160,487 sheep
and lambs; and 156,001 pigs. respect by England in the extent of her colonial possessions and dependencies, for we see (page 52) that of the ships of Britain, stated in quarters, which in 1815, amounted to
The importations of grain and meal from Ireland into Great all nations which passed the Sound in 1831, if the estimate 821,192 qrs.; have since been augmented three-fold, and in is made according to the aggregate burthen of the vessels,
1831 amounted to 2,419,643 qrs. It has been absurdly those under the British flag amounted to 450-1000ths, or
imagined by some writers that these continued exportations within a very minute fraction of one half.
These tables contain further very complete abstracts of have acted as so many drains to the life-blood of Ireland, the number of criminal offenders, and the nature of their and are to be taken as proofs of the wretchedness, rather crimes, for a series of years in each part of the United this fallacy are also furnished in these tables. In page
than the prosperity of the people. The means of refuting Kingdom, opening an interesting field for examination, into which it is not possible for us to enter at present, but which 177, we find a statement of the annual average quantities of
certain articles retained for home consumption in Ireland, we may hereafter use to illustrate the opinions we have expressed in our previous Numbers on the subject of the 1790 with that of 1831, in some of the more important
and are enabled to contrast the average consumption of moral condition of the people.
articles of convenience and luxury. Among the particulars given under the head of population, is a statement, showing, in conjunction with the nu- Home made merical and per centage increase found at each enumeration Spirits. 2,599,576 duty ls. Ifd. p. Im. gal. 8,557,605 duty 38. 4d. p. Im. gal.
4,153,302 3s, per lb. in 1801, 1811, 1821, and 1831, the amount raised by taxa
898,363 tion, and the sums expended for the relief of the poor at Raw Sugar, cts.199,255 12s.4d. p. cwt. each of those periods. Upon these data calculations have coals tons 338,934
851,424 been made showing the average proportional sums paid on
1828, those accounts by each individual in the kingdom, taking Tea lbs. 1,732,374 41d. per lh. 3,887,955 96 per cwt. and 100 into the estimate the price of gold at the time of each enumeration; the result may be seen in the following abstract: Our space will not allow us to enter further into detail on Average Proportion Average Proportion
this occasion. The object we have had in abstracting the Year.
Total. few particulars we have given, is to point out the various 1801 1 18 0
ways, in which publications of this nature may be made to 1811 2 17 1 10 8 3 7 9
exercise a beneficial influence upon public opinion, by ex1821 2 12 8 10 7
3 3 3
hibiting the truth in a form which approves itself at once to
the mind of every one. Showing that, although the burthen upon each individual on
Valuable as these tables are in themselves, and we think these accounts is now 3} per cent. greater than in 1801, it is 31 enough has been said to prove in how high a degree they per cent. less than in 1821, and 41 per cent. less than in 1811. Writers upon statistical subjects have often found them made by government towards the establishment of a system
are so, they are chiefly to be prized as being the first step selves at a loss for some extensive and authentic record of for presenting statistical facts in an authentic form to the prices, which, taken in conjunction with the rate of wages, public. Many branches of the subject are left untouched would be of great assistance in showing the extent to which by them, which we hope will find a place in the volumes of the bulk of the community are enabled to command the necessaries and conveniences of life. This branch of statistics mation upon almost every point connected with the internal
future years. We are greatly at a loss for accurate inforis not forgotten in the compilation before us, which presents or domestic employment and condition of the people, and a few authentic tables of price extending over a considerable period of time. We trust that this subject will be conductiveness of our harvests. We are aware of the great
are at all times completely ignorant concerning the protinually kept in view, and that the future volumes com- difficulties which stand in the way of collecting any precise piled by Government, will contribute more largely to the information upon these points ; the intentions of government stock of our knowledge upon this important point.
in obtaining it, are very liable to misconstruction, and we It is probably owing to the great interest at present ex
can imagine that the ill-understood interests of individuals cited in the public mind, concerning our relations with Ire- may sometimes lead them to wish rather to deceive than to land and with India, that so many pages of the volume are inform upon matters connected with their personal concerns. devoted to the registration of facts bearing upon the inter- This will render great caution necessary in regard to the course with those countries. The tables constructed for this quarters whence information is accepted, but should by no purpose may be examined with advantage, and will serve to establish a conviction that the commercial enterprize which towards the truth. Partial knowledge will at least be pre
means deter from the endeavour to attain an approximation has been directed to those quarters has been productive, at ferable to our present state of ignorance, and may exercise least in the usual degree, of its accustomed advantages. It
a beneficial influence upon government, leading to a juster is is to be regretted that since the year 1825, when the in- appreciation than is at present entertained of the complitercourse between Great Britain and Ireland was put upon cated interests of the Empire. the footing of a coasting trade, no means have been afforded for registering the nature and amount of the intercourse between the two islands, except as relates to the importation PORTUGAL-DON PEDRO AND DON MIGUEL.' of grain and meal from Ireland. This was a great oversight The rival claims, and the unnatural contest of these princes which we shall be glad to see remedied.
of the House of Braganza, which have plunged, and still In the year 1801, the first year of the legislative union retain Portugal in infinite wretchedness, have been now for between Great Britain and Ireland, the number of ships many months a theme of declamation all over Europe. We that entered the ports of Ireland from Great Britain was say declamation, because, generally speaking, that par6816, and their aggregate burthen was 582,033 tons. In ticular part of oratory, " discourse addressed to the pas1831 the trade had so increased that the number of ships sions," has characterised the discussion of this subject much amounted to 13,584, and their burthen to 1,262,221 tons, more than cool argument or impartial exposition. To say being an increase since the union of 116 per cent.
nothing of other parts of the world, in this country the PortuThe number and quantities of agricultural stock and pro- guese question, involving the well being of an ancient and visions exported from Ireland to Great Britain, have in- | interesting people, has been made a downright party matter, creased within the same period, as under :
and converted into a champs clos, where men of opposite
politics might tilt about the gold and silver sides of the Meanwhile, beset by insolent subjects, who totally misshield, like the knights in the apologue.
understood the spirit of constitutional government, which, On the one side Don Pedro has been held up as a model like every other science, is not to be learned in a day, the to princes, and the right of his Daughter Donna Maria to repose of John VI. was further disturbed by a letter from the throne of Portugal has been insisted upon with vehe- his elder son, Don Pedro, whom he had left in Brazil as mence, though this particular party is not generally disposed regent of those countries. to give much weight to legitimacy, or regular succession, or This letter, dated 4th October, 1821, informed the king the divine right of princes. On the other side, where such that the Brazilians were anxious to detach themselves sort of arguments are more in their place, it is main entirely from Portugal, and to proclaim him (Don Pedro) tained with equal warmth, that the right to the throne is their emperor. But it contained besides protestations, legitimately vested in Don Miguel-that he is king de jure whose very extravagance induces a doubt of their sincerity, as well as de facto, and—in spite of the representations of the that he, as a faithful subject and son, would never consent opposite party (which of course are exaggerated), the strong to their mad scheme, but oppose it, till he and all the Portususpicions of more than one secret assassination, and the guese with him, were “ cut to pieces." Another paragraph evidence of his public executions and proscriptions-a prince of this curious letter-supposing the writer of it to be of kind and gentle manners, and of great magnanimity and sincere-would render his judgment and taste contemptible; singleness of heart! Before proceeding to unravel the for he says that he writes with his own blood the following matter, we will merely express a wish here, that the advo- words :-" I swear to be ever faithful to your Majesty, to cates for absolutism may always be equally unfortunate in the Portuguese nation and Constitution." the choice of the idol they would incense--for whatever be Seven months after this declaration, however, Don Pedro, Miguel's rights as a prince, as a man the stamp of moral when Brazil was de facto dissevered from Portugal, and to deformity is strongly impressed upon him.
all intents and purposes an independent state, accepted in The popular mind has been wildly agitated by the views behalf of himself and children, the office of “ Constitutional presented by the one or the other of these two parties, and Emperor of Brazil.” This was in May, 1822. The followhis Majesty's government has been alternately attacked by ing year, when France chose to interfere with the internal those who would even plunge them into a war for the government of Spain, and overthrow the Spanish constituchastisement of the usurper Miguel, and by those who tion by force of arms, the constitution of Portugal, its accuse them of wanton breaches of neutrality and undue sickly progeny fell to the ground, with no more efforts on partiality for Pedro. In the heat and anger of prolonged the part of the nation for its support, than had been made discussion, the public has lost sight of the original points of against its establishment; and the only praise that can the matter in dispute, and our present object is to state these possibly be given to it is, that it rose and fell without in a clear, concise manner, without leaning to Miguelite or bloodshed. It appears, however, from two royal decrees, Pedroite, and abstaining from declamatory exaggeration. published at the time, that John VI. contemplated giving
King John VI., when driven from Portugal by the arms some sort of representative government to Portugal, and it of Napoleon, retired with the whole of his family to his would have been a work of no great difficulty to have deextensive colonies in the Brazils. This family then con- vised a better system than the one that had been adopted sisted of his queen, a violent and bigoted woman, sister to by the despised Cortes. To ojuose this, the queen and Don his present Majesty of Spain, of two sons, Pedro and Miguel, Miguel
, with the Marquisses Chaves and Abrantes, and and two or three daughters. John VI. was a true king the whole of the apostolic or Spanish faction, who had of the old continental school-of that school, whose radical hastened the crisis of the late Cortes, employed all their defects alone can account for the facility with which Buona- energies. The queen, whom the members of that Cortes parte disposed of the sovereigns that had been nurtured in had declared mad by a majority of votes, and had placed in it; he was indolent, short-sighted, and though timid, had a confinement, entertained abhorence for every thing that aphigh notion of the royal prerogative. In other times, he, proached a representative government, and this feeling was like several of his contemporaries, might have peaceably common to Don Miguel, and a numerous and powerful slumbered through a long reign, and have left his country portion of the Portuguese nation. A crime of the blackest neither much better nor much worse for his government; die rests on this party, and is supposed to have been their but he was not fitted to steer through the unprecedented first step towards defeating the king's project of another difficulties of the nineteenth century, or to adopt and guide constitution. That unlucky sovereign went to hunt at Salthose new doctrines in politics which have penetrated into all va-terra, and among other courtiers took with him the Marparts of the world.
quis of Loulé, who was well known to be a powerful advoWhen the Portuguese, aided by the British, had boldly cate of reform. Don Miguel, the Marquis of Abrantes, and expelled the French invaders, and when Napoleon, the two men of bad reputation, Cordeiro and Verissimo, since dethroner of many kings, was himself dethroned, and peace employed by Miguel in his police, were also of the party. restored to Europe, John VI. remained in America, and Two days after their arrival at Salva-terra, the lifeless body there, probably, he would have ended his days, had not the of the Marquis of Loulé was found upon a heap of rubbish spirit of revolution crossed the Atlantic, and the phantom of The young prince--and Miguel was then only in his twenty a constitution frightened him away. Yet, in his European second year-shewed a strange alacrity in asserting that the states, he had to face the same object of his terror and dis- Marquis had fallen from a window, but on examining the like, and habited, be it said, in its least attractive garb. body it was found that a dagger or some other instrument
Under an imbecile regency, which allowed the army to had been thrust through the mouth into the brain of the lose all its organization and discipline, imitating the conduct noble victim! The old king fled in dismay to Lisbon, of the Spaniards, on the 23rd of August, 1820, Portuguese and Don Miguel put himself at the hçad of the democolonel, and a few other military men at Oporto, revolted, ralized army-that army that had made and unmade a condeclaring that the nation must have a constitution, and with stitution—and that now declared itself for the prince, the in three weeks, a lieutenant, with a handful of men, queen, and absolutism! The undutiful son had a war-ery marched into Lisbon, and without any show of opposition, which found an echo in the superstitious priest-ridden peoproclaimed a constitution in that Capital.
ple. The revolutionary proceedings in Spain, Portugal, We must not let our reverence for a word blind us to the Naples, and Piedmont, had all been prepared by secret sonature of a thing. This constitution, thus suddenly im- cieties bearing different names and constitutions, but preposed, was anything rather than suitable to the Portuguese tending for the most part to some sort of connection with nation, and the conduct of the Cortes was characterized by free-masonry. Now these, all and severally, had just been folly, illiberality, and, weakness, which soon alienated all anathematized by the pope, and the members composing parties. These men, to whom all the miseries that have them subjected to one general sentence of excommunicaensued are mainly attributable, bullied the priesthood while tion. At the same time, throughout the south of Europe, they dreaded its power, and treated with indecent, and most monks and priests, acting as missionaries, were going from impolitic, disrespect the old king, who, whatever might have place to place preaching against this free-masonry, as a sin been his degree of sincerity, testified respect, and even zeal more damnable than atheism, which was represented as for the constitution they had established. In short, they being only one of its component vices, and all revolutionists rendered the words Cortes and Constitution odious to the or constitutionalists were declared to be free-masons, carboPortuguese people; and time, and the measures of wiser nari, &c. &c. Only an eye-witness can form a correct opimen, will be still required to remove this deeply-rooted nion of the effect produced by these missions on the minds popular antipathy.
of a fanatic, passionate people. At one of these preachings
in the streets of Naples, an unfortunate man whom the Pedro's abdication of Portugal' carried two conditions malice or mad zeal of a monk denounced as having been a along with it; Ist. That a constitutional charter should be capo-carbonaro, was nearly torn to pieces by the infuriated granted to the Portuguese nation; 2nd. That the young populace. Now the Portuguese mob is every whit as fa- Queen of Portugal, Donna Maria, should espouse her uncle natic, and as easily excited as the Neapolitan, and conse- Don Miguel. Well known as all the conduct of that prince quently when Miguel and his partizans shouted in their ears, must have been to Don Pedro, it was a bold step in him, ** Death to the thunderbolts of masonic impiety," he found as a father, to entrust the happiness of a daughter to such a ready echo, and spell-bound them to his party.
keeping ; but he was a brother as well as a father, and While asserting that all he did was to secure the abso- Miguel by this time figured as a sobered and repentant lute power of his virtuous and revered father, he took young man. Besides, it seemed the best mode of uniting possession of the palace with the soldiery and the mob, and parties and reconciling enmities which had so distracted the made that father a prisoner. He issued orders that all his unhappy Portuguese kingdom. Don Miguel was at once to father's servants, ministers, and personal friends should be return from his exile at Vienna to Lisbon, and to have the arrested, and drew up a list of proscriptions of fearful length. title of Lord-Lieutenant in Portugal. From this affectionate son, the old king contrived to escape. Pedro's constitution was promulgated in Portugal, and Among his subjects he knew not whom to trust; he was by was joyfully accepted by a majority of the more enlightened constitution and habit a timid man, and he fled to a British portion of that nation, but (we still state his case on his man-of-war, the “ Windsor Castle," then at anchor in the own, or his friends' showing) the temperate provisions of the Tagus. Here he not only enjoyed safety, but he contrived charter disappointed the ultra-masonic-liberal party, comto entrap the author of all bis recent misfortunes. How so posed of the fanatics of a theoretical and impracticable freeastucious a person as Miguel allowed himself to be so dom; and the very name of constitution was as hateful as ever duped, is not clearly explained; but he was entrapped on to the other extreme party, or the fanatics of catholicism board the “ Windsor Castle," and thence sent into exile. and absolutism. Thus two violent extremes were hostile The place appointed for his residence was Vienna, whose to the new system. It would not have been difficult to deal atmosphere should not seem to be the best for inspiring a with the enthusiasts of one of these parties, who had no love of constitutional government. The facts which we hold on the popular mind or the sympathies of the Portuguese have simply stated without comment-a murder, a revolt, people; but it was far different with the other party, which a son in arms against his father, and his father's gaoler-- included the queen-mother, the church, and consequently a proscription,—are styled by the Quarterly Review*, with the mob, and could count on the support of Spain and the an obtuseness to moral feeling, which astonishes us even in complacence of most of the great continental powers. The an ultra-party writer, “ a series of family squabbles and priests and monks proceeded again in their anti-constitupolitical intrigues," of which it is implied Miguel was the tional functions, and the absolutists confounded, with great victim and not the author.
art and treachery, the present charter of Don Pedro with After the dismissal of his troublesome son, John VI. that of the late Cortes, the object of popular detestation. publicly removed his wife from court; granted a general | They falsified many of the clauses of the new constitution, amnesty, excluding, however, from its benefits the Marquis and industriously circulated their forgery as the provisions of Abrantes, Verissimo, and Cordeiro, the associates of and words of Pedro. Miguel, and the murderers of Loulé. He established All this time Don Miguel remained at Vienna, affectmoreover two liberal ministries, the first under Palmella ing a reluctance to embark on the troubled sea of politics, and Pamplona, the second under Barrados and Lacerda ; or to return as Lord-Lieutenant to his native country; and but these were odious to Spain, and not much to the taste he persevered in a semblance of truly exemplary submission of the Holy Alliance. They therefore soon fell to the and affection. In April, 18-26, about a month after his ground, and the absolutists again flattered themselves with father's death, he wrote a letter to his sister, Donna Maria a prospect of ascendency. That distinguished diplomatist, Isabella, then Regent of Portugal, in which he expressed Sir W. A'Court (now Lord Heytesbury) can, of course, his desires that Portugal would be tranquil, and his dear give satisfactory explanations of the line of conduct he brother, the Emperor of Brazil, as lawful heir and succespursued while aml-assador, at this time, at Lisbon, and pro- sor to the thrones, see all his wishes accomplished. He bably it was only his curious destiny, that he should be " in was also fearful that some evil-disposed persons might at the death" of three constitutions in succession, viz., make use of his name to excite troubles, to counteract which, those of Naples, Spain, and Portugal. However this may he entreated his sister, the regent, to give publicity to this be, no more talk was heard of charters and of cortes.
his letter. In May of the same year he wrote a similar In March 1826, John VI. died, and now we are come to dutiful and most affectionate epistle to his brother Don Pedro'; the points at issue between Don Miguel and his elder and again, in the month of June, another letter to his sister in brother.
the same tone as his last to her; on the 4th of October, In the treaty of separation between Brazil and Portugal, he solemnly and publicly swore to observe and maintain which was finally completed by Sir Charles Stuart, the ex- the constitution of Portugal as granted by Don Pedro; istence of Brazil as an independent empire was fully recog- and finally, on the 29th of October, he contracted, in the nized and established. The empty title of Emperor of presence of the whole Austrian court, a solemn affiance with Brazil" was to be borne by John VI. as long as he lived, Donna Maria II., Queen of Portugal ! but the office and full power of emperor were to rest with Contemporary with these proceedings at Vienna, in Portu Don Pedro, his eldest son, to whom also was preserved gal Miguel s friends, the Marquesses of Chaves and Abrantes, the right of succession to the throne of Portugal.
raised the standard of revolt, and established a regency at We shall treat the brothers in the order of seniority, and Tariva, to act in behalf of King Miguel. This movement first make out Don Pedro's case as lie and his advocates was encouraged by Spain, who permitted the Portuguese represent it. According to this shewing, on the death of refugees of the Apostolic party to gather on her own fronhis father, Don Pedro, as elder son, did lawfully and tiers, and thence attack their country. It is said, moreactually succeed to the European dominions of the House over, that Spain furnished arms and money, and that the of Braganza, and was recognized as King of Portugal and troops that poured into Portugal for this horrid warfare the Algarves, as well as Emperor of Brazil
, by the members were not all Portuguese. It was at this crisis that our of his family, and the different states of Europe and ministry, then directed by the lamented Mr. Canning, sent America. Soon finding, however, that the disseverment over an English army which soon restored tranquillity to of Brazil and Portugal was of such a nature as not to ad- the unhappy kingdom, though it could not, and did not, mit of the rule of one and the same sovereign, he resolved eradicate the hatred of Don Pedro's charter in the two to make a choice of one of the two states for himself, and to extreme violent parties already mentioned. transfer his hereditary right in the other to a child of his The death of Mr. Canning, in August 1827, scems
He chose Brazil, and made a formal renunciation of to have had the immediate effect of reviving the confidence Portugal in favour of his eldest daughter Donna Maria, of the anti-constitutionalists. Don Miguel, convinced, it whose heirs were to succeed her in her independent rights is said, by the representations of the Austrian minister, to that throne. At this time the Emperor of Brazil had one Prince Metternich, saw, all at once, the propriety of reson, younger than his daughter Donna Maria ; and this turning to Portugal, passing through England in his way: prince, Don Sebastiano, was to inherit the rights of his Accordingly, he set out from Vienna with the
title of father Don Pedro in the American empire,
“ Regeňt," which had been substituted by Metternich, sorte * No.xcviii, July, 1833.
time before, for that of “ Lord-Lieutenant."
On what law
ful authority this was done, and why the English ambas self and his children for ever. They again quote from the sador at the Austrian court acquiesced, as he did, in this same law,change, does not appear.
And further, when it happens that the sovereign of Before he left Vienna, however, Don Miguel wrote to these realms of Portugal shall succeed to any larger kingthe King of Spain, requesting that monarch to restrain the dom or lordship, he shall always be bound to reside in this; rebellious proceedings of the Marquess of Chaves—his and having two or more male children, the eldesť shall sucbosom friend, who had proclaimed him king!
ceed to the foreign kingdom, and the second, to this one of On his arrival in England, Miguel pledged himself to Portugal." George IV. to execute in all points the dispositions of his And again, continuing to draw from the same source, brother Pedro regarding Portugal, to maintain the constitu- they say, that the instrument provides that in case the king tion, &c. &c. He induced the late Lord Dudley, then Secre- has but one son, then Portugal shall be separated, and go tary for Foreign Affairs, to hasten the final acts connected to that son's children on the conditions before-mentioned; with the resignation of the Portgueuse throne by his brother, and in case the king leaves only daughters, then the eldest and to delay the withdrawing of the British forces from Lisbon. daughter shall succeed to Portugal, on condition of marryHe contrived to raise the sum of 200,0001. in London, and ing a native Portuguese selected by the Cortes. And if then set sail for Lisbon, where he landed on the 22nd of such daughter do not fulfil this condition, then the Cortes February, 1828, with fresh protestations of loyalty and shall elect a native Portuguese for their king. constitutionalism on his lips. Yet, within a very few days Having summed up all these arguments, Don Miguel's after his landing, Sir F. Lamb, our ambassador, saw such supporters maintain, that both the letter and spirit of these grounds for doubting the intentions of the prince, that he fundamental laws are decidedly in favour of that princeboldly withheld from him the sum of money that had been that the dominions of Portugal having been, during the raised for him in England.
lifetime of John VI., split into two distinct and independent We hasten over the hurried events that followed—they realms, Don Pedro, as elder son, and his descendants, inhave nothing to do with the question of right. Miguel was herited Brazil, or the foreign kingdom; and that Don Mireceived with raptures by what was decidedly the strongest guel, as younger son, was legitimate successor to the throne party in the Portuguese nation, and he recalled the Marquess of Portugal. of Chaves, and his adherents, who had found a friendly asylum in Spain. In the conclaves of the devotees his affairs were soon settled, and this under the very nose of the
PUBLIC PETITIONS. English army that had been sent by Mr. Canning for the Sıx Reports on Public Petitions have been issued since our support of constitutional freedom. In a very short time the last publication, numbered from 29 to 34. In the following press of Lisbon teemed with eulogiums of Miguel, who was abstract the number of petitions and signatures is the total likened to the archangel Michael; and his right to the amount during the session, unless the contrary is specified. throne of Portugal, to the exclusion of his niece and affianced bride, Donna Maria, was openly asserted. At the same
Petitions. Sigs. time the pulpit, infinitely more influential than the press in
Parliamentary, Portugal, resounded with his praises, and with denunciations For vote by ballot
44 25421 of the whole Masonic, i.e., the Constitutional party. So Against the septennial act
19 9889 early as the 26th April, Miguel received addresses from Complaining of proceedings at the Preston election
6491 sundry assemblies of absolutists, inviting him to assume the Relating to the borough of Warwick
743 crown ; and the prince, in a reply in which he used the Against the operation of the Scotch reform act 1
168 royal style for the first time, called these “faithful ad
Ecclesiastical. dresses." He then convoked, by a royal circular, the ancient For the better observance of the sabbath
1159 276082 Cortes of the country, ordering the different electoral pre- Against the sabbath observance bill
22 2915 sidents to refuse the votes of all those suspected of being For better regulating the established church in inimical to the true principles of legitimacy, or admirers of Wales
7 2997 new institutions, and to permit the election of those only Against Irish church temporalities
119 11206 “ who had in view the service of God and of the Throne." For removal of religious disabilities
120 23851 Such a Cortes did all that was expected from it, and Don Against lay patronage in Scotland
154 67161 Miguel ascended the throne not merely as king, but as For appointing in Ireland clergymen who speak ABSOLUTE king, in less than two months after his landing For abolition of tithes in Ireland
54 at Lisbon.
46 17796 We now take up the cause of Don Miguel as represented For abolition of tithes in England
20 6469 by his advocates. According to their
showing, Don Pedro Against tithes commutation bill
10 had no right to the throne himself, and consequently no fa- For reform in church of England
8 5235 culty of remitting it to his daughter Donna Maria. To prove Against removal of disabilities from the Jews 5 282 this they quote the laws of the Cortes of Lamego- the fun- Against tithe composition act (Ireland)
3 damental act of the Portuguese monarchy-which expressly provide that none but a Portuguese can inherit the crown of
Taxes, Portugal. To shape their facts to meet this ancient law, For repeul of the corn laws
22 26322 they assert that Don Pedro, by accepting the separate so- Against alteration in corn laws
3 783 vereignty of Brazil, and by declaring and waging war against For repral of the malt tax
124 41223 Portugal, as he has done in America, has lost his nationa- Against the house and window tax
124 69255 lity, and ceased to be a Portuguese. Further, they appeal Against taxes on knowledge
19 13392 to a more modern, but not less fundamental law of Por- Against tax on soap
128 tugal. This last law was promulgated by the King and the Agaiust alteration in timber duties
Against the assessed taxes
47 three estates of the realm, at the establishment of the king
19921 Against stamps on receipts
24 dom under the house of Braganza in 1640, when (which Against the tax on carts
22 3360 they do not state) the motives which induced the limiting Against various other taxes-none of these are of the succession arose from fears that the crown of Por
included in any former enumeration
14 6542 tugal might again revert to Spain, the country which is now most urgent in support of a law which was meant
Ireland. for the perpetual exclusion of its princes from the Portuguese Against the new system of education
16 1548 throne. The instrument referred to confirms the resolutions In favour of ditto of the Cortes of Lamego generally, and the question of suc
In favour of grand juries bill
468 cession is explicitly determined in these words“ The suc
For introduction of poor laws
20 3422 cession of this kingdom shall not, at any time, come to a
Miscellaneous, foreign prince, nor to his children, notwithstanding they For the abolition of slavery
4986 1302110 may be the next of kin to the last king in possession."
5 Against renewal of East India Company's charter
2516 These words, say Don Miguel's advocates, seem to have Against the retail beer act
30084 been devised on purpose to meet the exact case. They In favour of ditto
17 14246 insist that Don Pedro, though next of kin to John VI., has For alteration of criminal laws
25 7638 made himself a foreign prince, and thereby excluded him- Against general register bill