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టెలా అని

8.

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20 Against highways bill

2627 | following years the imports of foreign clocks and watches, Relating to the Scots burgh bill

67 7848 have been valued as follows; we also give the value of the For alteration of law respecting sugar-refining 12 1927

re-exports during the same periods : Complaining of abuses in corporations

128 72240 Complaining of distress

22
8137
Clocks.

Watches.
Against naval and military flogging

3 1113

Imported. Re-exported, Imported. Re-exported. For a legislative regulation of wages for hand

£. 8. d. £ 8. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. loom weaving

55 50044 | 1825 16,074 6 2 660 00 833 18 4 442 10 0 For the release of Carlile, Taylor, 'and others

1826 15,351 19 4 368 10 0 795 10 0 576 5 0 confined for libels, &c.

41 11317 | 1827 15,509 10 3

270 00 594 30 249 10 0 In favour of factories regulation bill :

129 191767 1828 23.502 14 0 620 13 6 2346 17 0 1750 15 0 Against ditto

21 2670 | 1829 24,820 13 11

720 20 3043 50 2838 15 0 Against the Bank of England charter

8

1243 1830 27,091 0 1370 14 0 2399 10 2278 00 Against the bankrupt (Scotland) bill *

7

256 1831 25,536 96 8.30 10 0 2688 2 0 2509 00 Against rating of tenements bill

8

2389 1832 25,332 6 0 1053 10 0 2298 4 0 2088 50 In favour of ditto

2

65 Against imprisonment for debt

2 113 In the same years, the declared value of British clocks exPraying for a charter to London University

8 1213 ported has been 49941., 52641., 51241., 69631., 8031l., 54091., In favour of notaries public bill

260 31681., 34841.; and the number of British watches exported Against ditto

85 has been 70981., 66971., 9258, 86031., 86331., 10,9431., and

18,678. Other miscellaneous petitions reported since the

publication of the last Coinpaniou to the Newspaper

135 14701

Debtors. — In 1831 the number of warrants for debt

against the person was, in Middlesex, 14,909; in Surrey, [ABSTRACTS OF PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS. not stated ; in 1832, in Middlesex, 13,555; in Surrey, not

stated. The number of warrants on mesne process was, in TRADE.-Wool.-The quantity of foreign wool imported 1831, in Middlesex, 11,859; in Surrey, 2461 : in 1832, in into the United Kingdom in the year 1832 was 28,142,489 lbs.; Middlesex, 10,534; in Surrey, 2263. The number of warof which 555,014 lbs. was re-exported. Of the above quantity rants on writs of execution was, in 1831, in Middlesex, 3050; imported 19,832,225 lbs.was from Germany, and 2,377,057 lbs. in Surrey, 628: in 1832, in Middlesex, 3021; in Surrey, 515. from New South Wales, Van Diemen's Land, and Swan The number of bailable processes executed was, in 1831, in River. During the same period the British wool exported was 5327; in Surrey, 1115.

Middlesex, 5373; in Surrey, 1176: in 1832, in Middlesex, 4,199,825 lbs.; and the woollen yarn 2,204,464 lbs. The

The numbers of prisoners committed for debt to the different total declared value of British woollen manufactures was

metropolitan prisons on mesne process, judgments recovered, 5,244,4781. 108. 10d. This amount was distributed as

or costs of suits, excluding crown debtors and prisoners for follows:

contempt of court, during the years 1831 and 1832, were as £

d.

follows: the account is made up to the end of December, Russia

144,997 0 0

4,966 Sweden

2 0

1832, the number in custody is that of January 1, 1833. Norway

7,694 18 9

To the King's Bench, in 1831, 1054; in 1832, 842; reDenmark

1,380 0 0 maining in custody, 393. Prussia

626 10 0 To the Fleet, in 1831, 503; in 1832, 681; remaining in Germany

816,718 12 0 custody, 255. United Netherlands

389,910 2 6 To the Marshalsea, in 1831,585; in 1832, 635 ; remaining France

43,186 12 0

in custody, 133. Portugal, Azores, and Madeira

96,625 6 0 To Whitecross Street, in 1831, 1901; in 1832, 1940; reSpain and the Canaries

62,472 14

maining in custody, 493. Gibraltar

25,681 0 0

To Whitecross Street, on processes issuing out of the 194,081 110

Courts of Requests, in 1831, 1370, the amount of whose debts Malta

8,077 10 0

2,322 Ionian Islands

0 0

was 13741, 198. 6d.; and the amount of costs 5481.; in 1832, Turkey and Continental Greece

27,829 3 8

1443, the amount of whose debts was 12821. 6s. Id.; and Morea and Greek Islands

140 0 0

the amount of costs 5411. 28. 6d. The estimated annual Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Man 40,954 10 0 expenditure for the maintenance of the Court of Request East Indies and China

696,073 8 4 prisoners is 3901. New Holland

35,657 0 To Horsemonger Lane, in 1831, 339; in 1832, 332; reCape of Good Hope

41,766 10 0

maining in custody, 69. Other parts of Africa

12,890 190

To Horsemonger Lane, on process out of the Courts of British Colonies in North America

362,436 95

Request, in 1831, 1120, whose debts were 24171. 78. 5d., · West Indies

92,902 15 6

and the amount of costs 6961. 28. 7d.; in 1832, 945, United States of America

1,420,642 18 8

66,519 Foreign West Indies

5 0

whose debts were 20391. 14s. 9d., and the amount of costs

210,163 Brazil

8 0

5661. 188. 2d. The amount paid for the maintenance of Mexico, and South American States 437,762 0 0

these prisoners was, in 1831, 2081., and in 1832, 2261. Refined Sugar.—The quantity of British refined sugar exported from the port of London during the quarter ended April 5, 1833, was 53,783 cwts. 21 lbs.; and during the

LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, 22, LUDGATE STREET, AND quarter ended July 5, 1833, 35,862 cwts. 2 qrs. 27 lbs.

13, PALL-MALL EAST. Newspaper Stampe.-The number of stamps issued for

Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following all the London Newspapers, from the commencement of 1832, to March 31, 1933, was 26,588,050. The number London, GROOMBRIDGE, Falmouth, Philp. Nottingham, Wright issued in Ireland during the same period was, 5,718,600.

Panyer-alley, , Pater. Hull, Stevenson. Oxford, Slatter.;
noster-row.

Jersey, Carre, jun. Plymouth, Nettleton.

Leeds, Baines& Newsome. Portsea, Horsey, jun. Clocks and Watches.-Foreign clocks and watches are

Bath, Simms.

Lincoln, Brooke & Sons. Sheffield, Ridge. rated ad valorem, and therefore their number cannot be Birmingham, Drake.” Liverpool, Willmer & Shrewsbury, Tiboam. ascertained, nor is any distinction made between wooden Bristol, Westley & Co.

Southampton, Fletcher.

Bury St. Edmunds, Lan- Llandovery, D. R. & W. Lane End, Staffordshire, and metal clocks in the Custom-house entries. During the

Rees.

C. Watts.
Canterbury, Marten. Lynn, Smith.

Worcester, Deighton, * These are all the petitions and signatures which are enumerated. Carlisle,Thurnam& Scott Manchester, Robinson ; In the thirty-second report, the numbers are made to be of petitions Derby, Wilkins & Sun. and Webb & Simms. Dublin, Wakeman, brought from preceding report 193, signatures 23 360; but these Detonport, Byers Newcastle-upon-Tyne, - Edinburgh,Oliver & Boyd.

Doncaster,

Charnley.

Clasgow, Atkinson & Co numbers appear to have been taken by mistake from the twenty

White.

Norwich, Jarrold & Son; Aberdeen, Smith. ninth report, where the same figures appear to the petitions and Exeter, Balle.

and Wilkin & Fletcher. New York, Jackson. signatures against the beer bill, being the entry immediately below the only petition mentioned against the bankrupt bill. This error is carried on in the succeeding report,

Printed by WILLIAM Clowes, Duke-street, Lambeth,

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Booksellers :

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COMPANION TO THE NEWSPAPER.

TO BE CONTINUED MONTHLY.

No. 9.

SEPTEMBER 1, 1833.

Price 2d.

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137
138
138

139

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overcome.

CONTENTS.

instanced. Let but a bill involving a new principle reach a PAGE

PAO second reading in either house, and its speely passage into The Session of Parliament. 129 Reforms in the Court of Chan.

a law is sure. Indeed, by the usage of Parliament, the Reduction of Taxation

131
cery

principle of the measure when it has got this length is conRepeal and Reduction of As. New Municipal Corporations

sidered as having been acquiesced in by the House, and sessed Taxes

132 Public Petitions . Places of Recreation for the In. Abstracts of Parliamentary

after that the only pretence of opposition lying in objections habitants of Great Towns

to the details is soon overcome. Such will be the case, we 133 Papers Duties on Tea

136 Stamped and Unstamped Pub- may anticipate, with the Local Courts Bill, which the Apothecaries' Act and Royal

lications

143 | Lords threw out this session on the third reading. They College of Surgeons 137

will probably pass it the next. And, generally, if any proposed innovation really deserving of adoption shall only

have commanded so much attention as to have been once THE SESSION OF PARLIAMENT.

formally debated, that is a point, and a great point, gained In the preceding pages of the Companion to the Newspaper for it. The vote, even on this first hearing, may be against will be found ample accounts of nearly all the leading sub- it; but the argument may possibly for all that be in its favour; jects that have engaged the attention of Parliament since it and at any rate it is no longer something new and strange, to commenced its deliberations; but now that the long and be regarded with indifference or contempt by most, -- by laborious session whose progress we have accompanied is some, perhaps, with the exaggerated aversion or dread inabout to close, it will be desirable that we look back upon spired by the distant and unknown :-it has been, as it the ground over which we have passed, and endeavour to were, introduced—it has acquired what may be called a place before ourselves and our readers, in one distinct and standing custom has made it familiar to those who most comprehensive view, the whole amount of what has been shrunk from it-it may, in one word, have divers other obdone by the legislature in the period of nearly seven months stacles to encounter, but the first and most formidable are to which its labours have extended. Such a retrospect on the present occasion claims no common importance. The Secondly, we would say, in reference to the cry that has session, whose course we are about to review, is the first been raised on the subject of the moderation of this first reproduce of the Reform Act; it is the only experimental test formed Parliament, that this is the very last complaint which we yet have of the character of that measure. It is also the any considerate friend of the Reform Bill will make. An opfirst in which the present ministry have had an opportunity ponent of that measure might be conceived to lament that it of carrying into practical exemplification any of the other has not been yet followed by any symptoms of the precipitaprofessions, except that of parliamentary reform, upon which tion and recklessness in the remodelled legislature which be they accepted office. It may be regarded, therefore, as had expected, and perhaps confidently predicted, would be its affording us the means of judging, both of their sincerity in immediate consequences. To him it might have been gratithese professions, and of their capacity for the government fying to see changes in every department of the state urged of this great nation. It is extremely interesting, considered by our new representatives with so iinpetuous a hand, as to in either of these two points of view.

threaten, by the rapidity with which it was made to revolve, But before proceeding to our summary of the work of the to set the whole machine in a blaze. There was, no doubt, session, we would submit one or two general observations. reason to apprehend that some tendency of this kind might

It has happened in the course of the present sessions, as it show itself. The Parliament might have been animated has usually done heretofore, that a good many measures have by a spirit similar to that which rages in some of our newsbeen brought under the notice of Parliament, and have met papers for constant movement and indiscriminate destrucwith more or less of acceptance, which yet, owing to various tion. The awakened popular strength that had accomcauses, have not been carried through the two Houses. In plished the great pull, might have been unable to restrain some cases the bill has been withdrawn, that it might be in- itself when it got to the top of the ascent, and might have troduced in another session, with modifications, or in circum- dashed furiously on, breaking every thing to pieces, till it stances giving it a better chance of success. In other cases, had been arrested by mere exhaustion, or the universal after having been allowed to pass through some of its stages, ruin it had made had stopped its further progress. If the it has been thrown out on a subsequent one by a vote of the first session of the reformed Parliament had exhibited any House. Now what we would remark is, that these efforts, thing like the commencement of such a course as this, whose though they do not terminate in actual legislation, are by alone would have been the triumph ?—Their's, undoubtedly, no means to be reckoned as going for nothing in the busi- who in speeches, in pamphlets, in newspapers, in caricaness of reforming the laws and institutions of the state. tures, prophesied incessantly that this very thing would hapIn working a great effect, it is not the last blow only that pen. And whose would have been the gain ?-Their's only tells. A bill which after making its way through one of the whose plans of private advantage are formed upon the two houses is rejected in the other, is lost indeed for the prospect of public confusion—that is, of the greatest, bepresent; but for the present only. Its success eventually cause involving the greatest number of sufferers, of all may be counterl upon as certain. Who doubted, for ex- national calamities. For those who indulge in no such ample, that Catholic Emancipation would be carried after profligate speculations, it is far better that iinprovement for the lapse of a few years through both houses, from the day a time should even move with somewhat of a tardy pace, when the bill was first read a third time in the House of Com- than that such a risk should be incurred. It is but the loss

Who supposed that the Reform Bill could be effec-of a little time. If the direction in which things are pro-tually resisted by the Lords, after the other house had given ceeding is the right one, it is but a little matter, however it. it their sanction? And so it will be, for example, with the be viewed, that a certain change, or number of changes, bill for the removal of the disabilities of the Jews, which was which might apparently have been effected this year, should this year lost in the Lords after having passed the Com- be deferred till another; whereas, on the other hand, the mons. In the next, or in some early session, the measure rite of the progress being comparatively of no importance, will force its way through both houses. Nay, the same its certainty and its safety are everything. ultimate success, though perhaps later in arriving, may be If the reform that has been effected in the representation confidently predicted even for some of the other reforms be good for anything, it will inevitably carry us forward in attempted in the course of the present session, which did time through all other reforms, provided it shall not itself rot make quite so much progress as the one we have just break down or be overturned. This is the only danger, Of VOL. I.

(WILLIA: Clowes, Printer, Duke Street, Lambeth.)

mons ?

K

great political changes it may almost be said, that none 1 spondence, and negotiation in other forms, with public which come suddenly are good, and none which come gra- bodies out of doors. But what is the character of the new dually are bad. The degree of preparation by which they arrangements that have been made in the case of each ? have been preceded is the most important of the elements That is the important point. Are these arrangements of that determine their character. Let the best constitution a liberal or of an illiberal complexion? Do they carry us that human wisdom can devise be given to a people not ripe forward, or send us a stage back, or only leave us where we for it, and it will be a curse instead of a blessing. No con- were, in the career of improvement and civilization? It stitution indeed can be called good or bad abstractedly, and is not to be denied, that they one and all at least advance us without reference to the condition of those among whom it in the right direction, as far as they go. Some might is to be established. To set this in a strong light, let any wish that they had gone farther; but even those who one think what would be the result of the experiment of in-object most to the small quantity of the change will not troducing such a constitution as that of Great Britain into object to its quality. The Irish establishment has been New Zealand. Indeed, from the nature of the thing, a re- reduced so as to be considerably more in proportion to the presentative government can only be advantageous when numbers of the population connected with it; one of the most the public to be represented is intelligent and virtuous. In irritating of the imposts, too, by which it was supported, the other circumstances a despotism is better than a free consti- vestry cess, has been abolished. In the new East India tution. The one form of government is as natural and as Charter, the monopoly of the China trade has been taken beneficial in an early, as the other is in a later stage of from the Company, the right has been secured to every Bria civilization. And the same thing is true of the different tish subject of visiting and residing at any of the presidencies, degrees of freedom. One degree may be the best now; a and the native and the European have for the first time higher fifty or a hundred years hence. Such changes may been declared equal before the law. In the terms upon be unwisely forced on, as well as unwisely kept back. De- which the Charter of the Bank is to be renewed, the rate at sirable as they might be on other accounts, they may be which it is paid for the management of the national debt rendered pernicious by being premature.

is to be reduced ; provision is to be made for securing the Besides, there is this peculiarity attending all changes in regular publication of its accounts; and that part of its national arrangements, that while the benefits by which they former monopoly, or supposed monopoly, which gave it the are compensated are for the most part removed to some dis- power of preventing the establishment of banks of deposit tance, or only to be fully gathered in a long course of time, having more than six partners within sixty-five miles of the inconvenience which they produce (and they always pro- London, is to be taken from it. The West Indian negro duce some inconvenience, often a great deal) is immediate. is not to be immediately made absolutely free; but he is to It is a heavy outlay to be undergone, long before there can be immediately released from some of the hardest and most be any returns. Hence the evident impossibility of a degrading distinctions of his present condition, and a period country standing a multitude of changes operated all at is fixed, which a few years will bring round, when he is to once. The remote advantages may be ever so great, but be as free as we are in England. All children of slaves the present pressure of the cost at which they are to be ob- now under six years of age, and all who shall hereafter be tained cannot be borne. It is the case of an individual who, born, are declared already free. in order to give himself a chance of some prospective good, What then is the spirit in which all these measures are should involve himself in a present expenditure which brings conceived ? Is it not that of reform and a liberal policy? úpon him utter ruin, and thereby puts it out of his power When before, indeed, was so much gained for the cause of ever to pursue the speculation upon which he had entered. humanity and right government, in any single session since In the same manner, by the attempt to change too many England had a legislature ? things at the same time, a nation might occasion such ex- But many matters of great public importance, in addition tensive derangement in the relations of society, that total to these chief ones, have received the attention of Parliament anarchy would overtake it before it could reap any of the during the present session. First of all are to be mentioned advantages which it had promised itself from its various the measures that have achieved the pacification of Ireland. refurms. These things must therefore be proceeded with as For we do not use language too strony, when we say that, the country can bear the cost. Order and gradual progress, strenuously and obstinately as these measures were resisted which are so indispensable to the success of all other great in their passage through Parliament, they have effeciually operations, must not be disregarded here, or a fearful rush accomplished their purpose, and are at this moment reof mischief's will soon avenge the rash and presumptuous garded as having been the salvation of the unhappy country experiment.

to which they have been applied, by all men ihere whose We hold, then, that in the sobriety which has distinguished party passions do not make them blind and insensible to the first reformed House of Commons, a point has been the most obvious considerations of common sense, as well gained of the very first importance, both for the country, and as to everything that is passing before their eyes. The for the character of the measure of Reform itself. The Act for the Suppression of Disturbances bas indeed taken country has been carried in safety through a crisis of no from the people of Ireland for a time some political rights little difficulty and danger; and the Reform Bill has been of which they were nominally in the possession : but they in si far vindicated from the heaviest charge which its op- were rights, the free exercise of which had been long before ponents brought against it. Although, however, none of completely prevented by a tyranny far worse than that of the the precipitancy that might have been apprehended has been most despotic law. That tyranny is now put down, and the displayed by the new Parliament, the operations of the ses- country has been brought to a state in whiclı it is possible to sion have neither been few nor of slight importance, as we live in it-in which families may retire to rest at night shall now proceed to show.

without the apprehension of being called up before dayIn the first place, four of the greatest questions that break by the light of their burning roofs, and the yells of a ever came before the legislature have been all settled in crew of savages come to batter out their brains, or to cut this one session. If nothing more had been done, the ses- their throats, in the midst of the flames. But coercive sion would have been one of the most remarkable on record. measures are not the only ones that have been applied to An extensive reform effected in the Irish Church-a new Ireland. In addition to the reform of the church already government given to India—the terms of a new charter mentioned, both her grand and her petty jury systems have arranged for the Bank of England - and a termination been amended and liberalized, and both tribunals brought assigned to West Indian Slavery, these are the measures in their functions, as well as in their inode of election, more that will make the first session of the first reformed Parlia- under the control of the public voice. ment for ever memorable. The questions that have been Passing now from Ireland to England, we here find a thus set at rest, are all questions that had been long and crowd of salutary changes in the law, either effected in the warmly agitated)--that were encompassed with difficulties- course of this session, or so far advanced towards accomin regard to which, powerful private interests were opposed plishment, that their speedy completion may be looked upon to the charges demanded by the public voice. The plans as certain. Besides the bill already noticed for the emancia for their settlement, brought forward in Parliament by pation of the Jews, which, after the discussion it has underMinisters, and supported in all their leading provisions by gone, and the large majorities by which it was carried the majority of both Houses, were debated, at every stage through the House of Commons, cannot be long prevented through which they had to pass, with unusual keenness and from passing into a law, we have to add to the victories o pertinacity; and, except that for the reform of the Irish religious liberty, which the last few years have witnessed, Church, were also each of them the subject of much corre- the admission of the first member of the Society of Friends into Parliament, his affirmation at the table being accepted business. There certainly has been a good deal of oratory, instead of the usual oaths; and the two bills for giving the and some perhaps that could have been spared; but there force of an oath in all cases whatever to the affirmation of has been a great deal of hard working too, and much actual Quakers, Moravians, and Separatists. A bill for the per- legislation of a most useful and important kind. Indeed, if mission of the marriages of Roman Catholies by their own the charaeter as well as the amount of what has been done clergymen in England, and another for the repeal of certain be taken into consideration, we believe the present session old penalties affecting clergymen of that church in Ireland, may be favourably compared with any of its predecessors. which, after having passed the Commons, are now in the House of Lords, are also to be reckoned as coming under the same head.

REDUCTION OF TAXATION. Among the general improvements again that have been The reduction of the government expenditure to the lowest effected in the law, may be enumerated the bill for amount consistent with the public interests, is important in securing to the author of a dramatic piece a share in the various other ways, as well as in an economical point of profits of his own performance; the bill by which a power is view. It operates to diminish government patronage, and, given to the judges to regulate and reform the rules of as much as any thing else perhaps that can be done, to pleading in the common law courts; that for diminishing satisfy popular feeling.. A very interesting and valuable the expense of commissions of lunacy, and the better care statement upon this subject has lately been laid before the of lunatics; the Solicitor General's five bills for the amend public, in the corrected report of a speech delivered in the ment of the law of real property; those for the amend- House of Commons on the 16th of July, by Mr. Spring ment and consolidation of the highway laws, and the sewer Rice, one of the secretaries to the Treasury, in which the laws; that for the better regulation of the police magis right honourable gentleman took a comprehensive, and, at tracy of the metropolis ; and that for the diminution of the the same time, a very minute review of all the reductions, expense of the metropolitan police, by throwing a part of it both in expenditure and in taxation, that had been made upon the consolidated fund, or the general incomie of the since the peace. The account comprehends, of course, not country. All these either have passed into laws, or are only what has been done in the present session, but all that certain to receive the sanction of the legislature before the has been effected by the present ministers since they came session breaks up. Other measures of the same descrip- into office, compared with what had been effected by their tion, that have been lost or withdrawn for the present, predecessors. but which have been so supported this session that their The Finance Committee, which sat in 1817, estimated the success in another may be reckoned upon as almost cer- lowest amount to which the votes in supply for the army, tain, are the bill for the repeal of the Foreign Enlistment navy, and miscellaneous expenditure could then be reduced, Act, that for the regulation of dramatic performances, at 17,350,0001. It was some time, however, before the that for the admission of evidence to the truth of the amount actually voted was brought down to this limit; and, statement complained against in defences against pro- indeed, from having, for 1818, been 18,970,9591, it rose to secutions for libel, that for the remodelling of the patent be, for 1820, 19,673,7171. For 1822, it was for the first law, that for the establishment of a general registry of deeds, time below the estimate, being only 16,679,6331.; and for that for the repeal of the Apothecaries' Act, that for the 1823, it was only 15,878,313!. But by 1827, it had risen abolition of imprisonment for debt, and that for giving again to 18,745,360l.; nor was it again so low as the estimate to prisoners charged with felonies the aid of counsel in till 1830, for which year it was 16,648,7621. For 1831, it making their defence. To these add the very important was 17,782,4871.; but for 1832, it was only 15,411,5711.; bill already mentioned, for the establishment of local and the amount voted this year has been still lower, being courts, which it is to be hoped another session will not elapse only 14,622,2191. This is a reduction below the estimate without seeing passed into a law. Several most valuable of the Finance Committee of no less than 2,727,9817., and improvements of the laws and institutions of the northern below the amount voted for 1820, of more than five millions. part of the island have also been the work of this session, Even upon the last two years it is a reduction of above three or will be completed before its close. We may mention in millions. particular the acts for the reform of the royal burghs, and for The whole actual government expenditure of last year the election of magistrates and councils in the parliamentary was 44,922,0001. ; but of this amount 32,949,0001. went to pay burghs; that for the establishment of a police in the towns the interest on the national debt, and what is called the dead of Scotland, and that for the establishment of small debt weight, being the annuity paid to the Bank in return for courts. Reforms of the Court of Session of the Bankruptcy which it undertakes to defray the half-pay of the army and laws, of the Sheriff courts, and of the system of entails, have nary, and the retired and superannuation charges for civil also more or less engaged the attention of the legislature, officers. The whole sum, therefore, upon which reductions and have formed the subject of bills, which, after having could be made, amounted to somewhat less than twelve been advanced some stages, have only been withdrawn for millions of net revenue: or, adding the expense of collecthe present to be introduced again in another session. tion, to about 12,800,0001. This is the whole sum upon

The principal legislative measures of a commercial cha- which must be saved the difference between the votes in racter, which have been passed during the present session, supply for the last and for the present year, which is very are ten bills introduced by Mr. Rice, being chiefly additions nearly eight hundred thousand pounds. That is to say, the to and completions of as many consolidation acts, passed in reduction which has been made in one year upon the whole 1825. Their titles are,-1. To regulate the trade of the reducible expenditure of the country, is at the rate of nearly British possessions abroad; 2. For the registering of British six per cent., or about a sixteenth part of the whole. vessels ; 3. For granting duties of Customs; 4. For the From another of the tables given in Mr. Rice's speech, it management of the Customs; 5. To grant certain bounties appears that the whole net amount of taxes repealed, exand allowances of Customs; 6. For the general regulation pired, or reduced, from 1814 to 1832, was 39,931,8561. ; and of the Customs; 7. For regulating the trade of the Isle of that the amount of the additional imposts proposed to be reMan; 8. For the warehousing of goods ; 9. For the prevention realed in 1833, is 1,545,0001.; making a total of 41,476,856l. of smuggling; and 10. For the encouragement of British Meanwhile the taxes imposed have amounted only to shipping and navigation. These bills, although they intro- 5,813,1181.; so that the actual amount of relief given has duce no important innovations into our commercial law, are been not less than 35,663,738l. This is the difference beextremely valuable as codifications of several large branches tween the annual pressure on the public at the close of the of it. The measure of the session, of course, by which the war and at present. commerce of the country will be most affected, is the bill for Of this diminution of taxation, a portion amounting to opening the trade to China. We may also, however, men- about 3,335,0001. has been effected since the present minis. tion under this head the bill for permitting sugar to be im- try came into office, or within the last three years. This ported into this country duty free and warehoused, in order sum has been remitted in the shape of a repeal of the duties to be refined for exportation, which has passed both Houses. on printed cottons, coals, and slates; candles, tiles, fireThe reductions of taxation that have been effected during the insurances of farming stock, small receipt stamps, land-tax session we have noticed in another place.

on personal estates, pamphlets, travellers or riders, clerks, This rapid statement, in which of course many minor bookkeepers, officemen, overseers, managers, shopmen, matters are omitted, is enough, we think, to vindicate the warehousemen, cellarmen, tax-carts, and horses of marketlegislature from the charge frequently brought against it, of gardeners; and by a reduction of those on hemp, drugs, having, during the long period it has sat, done little real marine-insurances, advertisements, soap, cotton, wool

, and

the houses of shopkeepers, licensed victuallers, and those habit of asserting. It is true that the Government and the rented from 101. to isl. The only tax imposed by the Parliament have not carried their zeal for the diminution of present ministry has been one on cotton wool, yielding a re-expenditure so far as either to violate national engagements, venue of 300,0001. We give Mr. Rice's separate statement to destroy the efliciency of the public service, or in any other of the reductions that have been proposed by the Chancellor way to injure the interests and the honour, which is one of of the Exchequer during the present session :

the first interests, of the country. If this be what any perTiles

£37,000 son means by economy, le may possibly not be satisfied Marine-insurances .

100,000 either with what has been done, or with the disposition that Advertisements .

75,000 has been shown. Those, for instance, who, acknowledging Assessed-taxes and farming stock 440,000 the claims of the national creditor, are fond of recommend Cotton wool

300,000 ing what they call an equitable adjustment,--that is, in Soap

593,000 plain language, the substitution for the actual terms of the

bargain between the two parties, of some other terms dica Total

£1,545,000 tated merely by the will of one of them,-and those who, The reductions which thus appear to have been made by proceeding upon a simpler principle, would at once sponge the present government are to be considered, he it remem- out the debt altogether, will doubtless look upon the retrenchbered, in connexion with the circumstance that they have ments of the present ministry as very superficial work. been made in the comparatively narrow field for economy But with others it will be their recommendation, that they left to them by the reductions of preceding administra- have not cut into the vitals of the state. The operation of tions. Upon this point Mr. Rice remarks-" The late go- getting rid of what is either morbid or superfluous has evivernment (that of the Duke of Wellington), in its disposition dently, at any rate, been conducted without any wish to towards economy, carried reductions in many departments spare that of which governments are usually most tender, as far as, under the circumstances, and at that time, it their own emoluments and patronage. After the sweeping might be considered prudent or proper to go. I have reductions that have been made in the public offices, it is never undervalued the reductions of the late government; hardly to be expected that much more can be accomplished but the bolder were their economical measures, the greater, in this department. The number of persons employed is of course, the difficulty of effecting further reductions; and, probably already as low as the necessities of the duties to be therefore, when the merit of the late government in this performied will permit

. But other sources remain, from which particular is fully admitted, I trust that, without presump- we may look for a gravlual reduction of the national burtion, I am entitled to take credit, on behalf of those with dens. As the holders of such sinecures as still exist drop whom I serve, for the additional merit of carrying these eco- ofi, their places will not be filled up; and in all other nomical principles into fuller effect."

cases, in which the legal or equitable claims of the present But the most interesting part of Mr. Rice's statement is possessors have prevented any interference with emoluthat which relates to the extensive reductions in the esta. ments that might otherwise have been withdrawn or reblishments of the several public offices, which have been duced, the principle of retrenchment will eventually be as made within the last few years. As the details which he fully applied as it las already been in other cases not submitted as to this matter were derived from accounts sheltered by any such claim of exemption. But the chief which have since been printed by order of the House of process to which we must look for any considerable lightenCommons, we have given the official document referred to ing of the load of taxation, is the reduction of the expenses among our Abstracts of Parliamentary Papers.

of the army and navy. The domestic circumstances of the It appears that since 1821, the number of persons em country, and especially the state of Ireland, have hitherto ployed in the public offices has been reduced by no fewer made it necessary to keep up a military establishment of îhan 5689, occasioning an annual diminution of expense to certainly large amount for a time of peace; but we may the amount of 1,206,189. In this work the present ministry hope that the permanent restoration of tranquillity, and the are shown by Mr. Rice to have at least equalled their pre- supremacy of the law, will ere long allow a large part of decessors in zeal and activity. The reductions made in the existing apparatus of coercion to be dispensed with. 1828, 1829, and 1830 comprehended 909 persons, with sala- This would be economy too; but it would be also something ries amounting to 106,1771.; but those made in 1831 and still better than economy. 1832, comprehended 1263 persons, and salaries to the amount of 219,9681. per annum. While the arerage salary of the persons dismissed by the late Government, therefore,

REPEAL AND REDUCTION OF ASSESSED was only 1161. 16s. ld., that of those whose places have

TAXES. been abolished by the present Government has been Most of our readers are, no doubt, aware that a bill was 2261. 75. 8d.-showing that the present Government is that, some time ago brought into the House of Commons by the by which appointments of high or considerable value have Chancellor of the Exchequer for the reduction of certain been most liberally sacrificed. This is further proved by of the duties on dwelling- houses, and the entire repeal of another paper to which Mr. Rice refers-a separate return certain other of the Assessed Taxes. It has since been of the reductions that have been made within the last three intimated by Lord Althorp that, in compliance with the years on salaries amounting to 10007. and upivards. This strongly expressed desire of the public, the government will return comprehends the Treasury, the Exchequer, the Secre- next year, if the state of the revenue shall permit, consent to taries of State, the President of the Council, the Board of the total repeal of the house and window taxes; but it is, Trade, the Board of Control, the Privy Seal, the Admiralty, nerertheless, important in the mean time, that the nature and officers in the Customs, Excise, Post Office, Stamps, and amount of the reduction which it is at present proposed and Taxes, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and various to make should be accurately understood. By an act passed other great offices. When the present ministry entered in 1823, persons in trade were already partially relieved office, the annual salaries derived from these oflices amounted from the window-tax, no charge being made upon them to 315,649l.; of this sum 148,9061. has since been reduced, for any number of windows not exceeding three in any being not far from one-half of the whole. To this is to be shop or warehouse, in the front, and on the ground story added a saving of 50,0001. per annum on the diplomatic ex- of any dwelling-house occupied by them, provided that penditure of the country, which has within the same period any goods, wares, or merchandise were exposed to sale in been reduced from 178,000!. to 127,0001. Altogether, there- such shop or warehouse. It is now proposed to be enacted fore, these higher salaries have been diminished full 40 per by way of additional relief, that from the 5th of April, cent., or by an annual sum of little less than 200,0001. 1833, where persons in trade occupy part of any tenement

Again, in the collection of the revenue, according to Mr. as a place of residence, and carry on their trade in Rice, between the years 1820 and 1833, a saving has been another part of it, the latter being a shop or warehouse, effected to the amount of half a million annually ; and, by such as is referred to in the act of 1823, they shall be exempted further reductions, which are at present under consideration, from half the entire duty chargeable by the present law on it is expected that 76,4901. more will be saved.

the rent, or aumual value of ihe tenement, provided that These facts sufficiently prove, that the pledges of economy their names be conspicuously and legibly painted on or with which the present ministers came into office have not affixed to the front. It is also proposed that, after the same been so entirely forgotten by them as some of our public date, the duties on all other descriptions of houses, if the cènsors, speaking from vague general impressions, or in rent be 107., shall be reduced from their present amount of utter ignorance of what has been done, have been in the 15s. to 10$. ; if the rent be 117., from 16s. 6d. to 128.; if

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