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the rent be 127., from 18s. to 145.; is the rent be 131., from constitution. It is not perhaps absolutely necessary for the 198.6d. to 168.; if the rent be 147., from 218. to 18s.; if the existence of the society that any of these objects should be rent be 151., from 22s. 6d. to 20s.; if the rent be 167., from contemplated in the frame of laws and institutions by which 248. to 228.; if the rent be 171., from 23. 6d. to 24s.; and it is held together; as some thousands of convicts are kept if the rent be 181., from 278. to 268. The reduction is not in order in the hulks simply by a system of coercion, so posto extend to higher-rented houses. The relief, however, sibly may a confluence of some millions of individuals be inconsiderable as it is in each case, will be somewhat ex- restrained, at least for some time, without anything better, tensively diffused-the number of houses rented at 201. and from utter disorganization. But although not the necesunder, and paying the duty, being, in 1830, 208,794. sities of a political existence, they are its graces and its de
By this bill, likewise, it is proposed to repeal entirely the cencies, and all which render it really worth possessing: To duties now payable for male persons employed as travellers, those who object to any provision being made for these things, clerks, book-keepers, stewards, bailiffs, overseers, mana- on the ground that they are not essential, and ask what gers, shopmen, warehousemen, porters, and cellarmen. need of them, it may be answered with as much truth in An account of these duties will be found in any almanac reference to a whole people as to an individualunder the head of Assessed Taxes. Their total amount in “ O reason not the need ; our basest beggars 1831 was 295,111l., having risen to that suin from 264,755l., Are in the poorest thing superfluous : which it was in 1825, after the duty on occasional waiters Allow not nature more than nature needs, had been repealed. In 1824, it was 268,8441., after the rates Man's life is cheap as beast's." of duty had been reduced one-half. In 1822, before this To tell a people, having in their power the means of nareduction, the amount was 596,0011., which was reduced in tional aggrandizement and glory, that they ought neverthe1823, to 459,4511., by the repeal of the duty on occasional less not to attempt the acquisition, because it is merely gardeners and husbandry servants.
ornamental and not essential, is quite as shallow and stupid The next reduction proposed in the bill is that of the en- as it would be to advise a man in rags not to trouble himself tire duty on certain descriptions of carriages with less than to procure a better coat, inasmuch as it was probable that four wheels, the duties on which were last year reduced from his soul and body might hang together quite as long in his 31. 5s. to 11. 10s. The carriages in question are those kept present as in any other habiliment. The true answer which by any person for bis own use, and not for hire or profit, goes to the root of all this weak and puerile sophistry is, that drawn by one horse, and built in certain respects in a power, wherever it exists, is given to be exercised, and that manner which is particularly described in the bill. The all moral energies tend upwards by a law of nature as indeoriginal price of the carriage must not have exceeded 211., structible as that of the gravitation of material substances and it must have the christian and surname of the owner itself. Attempt to restrain the tendency, and the energy marked upon it in white letters on a black, or in black itself is impaired or extinguished. Persuade either an indiletters on a white ground, each letter being at least one inch vidual or a community to cease from all efforts to rise towards high. If such carriages have springs wholly or in part of greatness, and the very capacity of rising is lost. metal, they must be used truly and without fraud in the But take even a much lower view of the matter; consider affairs of husbandry, or in the carriage of goods, or in the it on the narrow principle laid down by the advocates of the course of trade, though employed occasionally for riding in. opinion we are controverting. We say that even the pro
Finally, it is proposed that the duty on dogs solely em- tection of life and property (allowing, for a moment, that to ployed by shepherds in the care of flocks in which they have be the only proper end of a national government) may be a direct interest shall be taken off.
most materially promoted by other institutions than those coming under the head of what is commonly called police.
The better the people are educated, for example, the more PLACES OF RECREATION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF GREAT TOWNS.
conversant they are made with humanizing and elevating
sources of enjoyment, the higher the tone of their moral Many persons hold that the single legitimate object of a feelings is raised, the less disposed will they be to idleness, government, besiiles the defence of the country from foreign vice, and crime. Carry these other methods to perfection, aggression, is to prevent people from picking one another's and let them be applied with sufficient universality, and you pockets, and cutting one another's throats. In other words, may almost expect to supersede altogether the necessity for their notion is that, with the exception of the arrangements a police. Lead the popular mind by these various opposite made for the maintenance of the national independence, all attractions away from the love and the pursuit of crime, and public institutions ought to be merely institutions of police; you need no apparatus for the detection and punishment of and that the accomplishment of whatever else is desirable, crime. It is better than punished; it is prevented. Not beyond simply the protection of life and property, should be only are offences checked and put down, offenders themleft to the exertions of individuals.
selves are extirpated. And this, which the most perfect, We deem this to be a short-sighted and wretched miscon- is also the cheapest process by which disorders can be reception. Without any other government than a system of pressed. police to restrain offenders, a people may indeed perhaps But it is only for a moment that we can admit the procontinue to exist, and, in favourable circumstances, may tection of life and property to be the sole end worthy of being even go on increasing in wealth and numbers, and exhibit a contemplated in the establishment of a political constitution. considerable show of such prosperity as may grow up without We hold the other objects which we have mentioned to be any moral progress. But, thus associated, they can hardly abundantly deserving of being specially provided for, not be called a nation. The congregated multitude undertakes merely as means or helps towards the attainment of this, none of the grander functions and duties by which a na- but for their own sakes. The ultimate result, which is to be tional existence is constituted. For that character is not always kept in view, the exaltation of the national happito be acquired and sustained by either twenty men, or ness and virtue. The prevention of aggressions against life twenty millions of men, entering into an agreement that and property is only one element contributory to this result. none of them shall be suffered to do certain things which It may be powerfully promoted in many other ways. Whatthe majority decide to be improper or inconvenient; but that, ever these are, there is not one of them which a wisely conas for all other things, any one may do them or refrain from stituted government will neglect. It is only when a people doing them as he pleases. This is for each individual to be are united upon this comprehensive scheme that they can merely in a state of neutrality towards the rest. But to be rightly said to form a state. With institutions which exist as a nation implies the being bound together in an look no farther than to the mere security of life and property, association or league for the promotion of some positive ends. they have no more right to this name than an individual has The exaltation of the national name, honour, power, and to that of a good citizen, on the score simply of being greatness; the generation and sustenance of patriotic senti- neither a murderer nor a thief. The obligations resting ment; the diffusion of intelligence, of virtue, and of what- upon a state are extensive and multifarious as are the powers ever else contributes to the formation of manliness of cha- inherent in that assemblage of numbers to which it owes its racter; the production of a style of each of the fine arts, and origin; and the functions with which it is endowed ought to especially of a literature, which shall as it were taste of the be of the same high order with the duties it is called upon soil, or be impregnated with the peculiar genius of the to perform. It ought to be invested with the means of conpeople ; the maintenance and advancement, in one word, of centrating and calling up into exercise all the public virtue the civilization of the country--these are among the prime that exists in the community. Its institutions should make functions and purposes which belong to a proper political provision both for the most effective training and application of all the better tendencies of society, and for the escape or that a great difference still exists between the healthiness harmless display of those that are of an opposite character. of our town or manufacturing, and that of our country poWhere the good and the evil naturally contend together, the pulation. “I hold in my hand," he said, " a statement institutions of the state should interfere with their intluence showing the mortality in different places of persons under to give the victory to the former. If there be any principles twenty years of age. In a healthy country I find the num. at work, which let alone would lead to evil, the fabric of the ber of deaths to be 3700 out of every 10,000; in a marshy national polity ought to be so constructed as if possible to country 4200; in the metropolis 4500, being about four and correct them and turn them to good. In this way alone can a half out of ten. in the city of Carlisle, which is partially a great nation be built up. These views, indeed, would a manufacturing town, 5600, or rather more than five and a make political science a much larger and more complicated half in ten; in Preston, Stockport, Wigan, Bury, and other study than it is as exhibited by many of its expositors ; but places in Lancashire engaged in the cotton trade, the numthey make also all the difference that there is in this de- ber of deaths is 6000 out of 10,000, that is, six out of ten; partment of speculation between a profound and real com- whilst in Leeds, where woollen and tlax manufactures are prehension of the subject, and an ignorant and superficial carried on, the mortality is rather more than six out of ten; charlatanism. Reduced to practice, the two schemes-that so that six out of ten of the population of the manufacturing which attends to such considerations, and that which alto towns die before they reach twenty years of age." From gether neglects them-are calculated to produce effects as these facts the honourable member inferred the necessity of opposite as would probably be producer on the human frame something being done to procure for the inhabitants of our by a nice and difficult surgical operation, according as the crowded towns some greater means than they now possess knife were applied by a person learned in all the minutiæ of of occasionally breathing the fresh air, and enjoying recrea. anatomy, or by a half-taught tyro or presuming quack. If tion in the open fields during their hours of leisure. nations ever again fall into barbarism, or greatly retrograde The committee which was appointed in consequence of in civilization, it will be through their submission to the this motion, sat on eight days between the 9th of March treatment of the incompetent political doctors, who would and the 3rd of May inclusive, in the course of which they thus narrow and lower the whole science of government examined twenty-five witnesses, who gave evidence in referinto a mere affair of police.
ence to thirteen towns, comprising some of the largest in We have been led to these remarks by the appearance England; namely, London, Bristol, Birmingham, Walsall, of what we deem a very gratifying document, namely, the Hull, Liverpool, Leeds, Bradford, Blackburn, Bolton, Bury Report of a Select Committee of the House of Commons, in Lancashire, Manchester, and Sheffield. The committee which was appointed soon after the commencement of the commence their report, dated the 27th of June, by exprespresent Session, " to consider the best means of securing sing their opinion that, from the evidence which had been open spaces in the vicinity of populous towns, as public adduced before them, the following points may be considered walks and places of exercise, calculated to promote the as established, “ 1st, That during the last half century a health and comfort of the inhabitants." We hold the object very great increase has taken place in the population of here announced to offer a perfectly legitimate case for the large towns, more especially as regards those classes who interference of the state. It is one which goes directly to are, with many of their children, almost continually engaged promote, not the comfort merely, but the general improve in manufacturing and mechanical employments. 2nd, That ment and civilization of the people. It admits also of being during the same period, from the increased value of proadvocated on the ground of its tendency to aid powerfully in perty and extension of buildings, many inclosures of open the diminution of crime, and the better observance of the spaces in the vicinity of towns have taken place, and littie law.
or no provision has been made for public walks, or open In the debate (on the 21st of February) on Mr. Slaney's spaces, fitted to afford means of exercise or amusement to motion for the appointment of this committee, the honour- the middle or humbler classes. 3rd, That any such proable mover addressed to the House the following striking vision of public walks and open places would much conduce comparative statement of the increase, during the present to the comfort, health, and content of the classes in ques. century, of the different descriptions of our population. “Ition." hold in my hand," he said, " an abstract from the Popula- Upon several of the points to which the committee die tion Returns, which shows that, in the first ten years of the rected their inquiries, considerable diversity of opinion is present century-from 1800 to 1811-the increase in the expressed by the witnesses; but, among all those examined, population of England and Wales was 15 per cent.; in the only one person seems to be wholly opposed to the notion second ten years—from 1810 to 1821-—it was 17 per cent. ; that any good would be done by affording the manufacand during the third ten years – from 1820 to 1831– it was turing population additional opportunities of recreation in the 15 per cent. During the same interval, the increase of open air. In answer to the question, “Is there any open population in London was, in the first ten years, 17 per space, any public walk in a park or public gardens, open to cent. ; in the second, 21 per cent. ; and in the third, 20 per the middle and humble classes of the neighbourhood of cent. In Manchester the increase was, in the first ten Blackburn ?" his answer is, “ None whatever." He states years, 22 per cent. ; in the second, +0 per cent.; and, in the also that there is no water or stream near the town in which third, 47 per cent. I find that a proportionate increase of bathing can be had, and no place to which the children may population took place in all the great communities of the resort for any game or exercise. But when asked if it is kingdom, so that, in the course of the thirty years to which his opinion that additional facilities for exercise and walks I have referred, it appears the increase of population in four are required for the humble and middle classes, he replies, rural districts was 30 per cent.; in London it was 58 per I do not think they would avail themselves of it if there cent. ; in ten of the large manufacturing towns it was 80 were more facilities afforded;" and when the question is per cent. ; and in three of the largest manufacturing towns again pressed upon him, “ Do not you think that the more it was no less than 100 per cent., or exactly double. At decent among them, if they had places in which they could the beginning of the present century," Mr. Slaney after- walk dry, and with some shelter from the sun, in which they wards remarked, “ about one-third of the working popula- could walk in company with their wives and children, or tion was engaged in manufacturing and mechanical pur- neighbours, would be more likely to take exercise than if suits, whilst two-thirds were occupied in agricultural labour. they were obliged to walk through wet footpaths and unNow, the proportion is exactly reversed, two-thirds being drained fields ?" he still rejoins, I do not know whether engaged in manufacturing and mechanical employments, they would take advantage of that; I do not think they are and only one-third in rural occupations."
likely, because we have good walks in the neighbourhood, It
appears that, owing to various causes-to the improve by the road side and path roads." He also says, when ment in the habits and accommodations of the people, as asked if he thought there were any persons in the town or well as to the advance of medical and surgical science, the neighbourhood who were likely to subscribe or make donahealth of the general population has greatly increased since tions towards the formation of a public walk for the inhabithe cominencement of the last century. From the year tants, “ No-I do not think it would be received with any 1700 to 1780, the annual amount of deaths was one in degree of favour there, I do not think it would." thirty-seven of the whole population ; from 1780 to 1790 it We have noticed the evidence of this witness thus particuwas one in forty-five; from 1790 to 1810, it was one in fifty- larly, because, while we dissent from his general conclusions, four; and from 1810 to 1820 it was only one in sixty. Not- we perceive, in what he says, an impression which we hold to withstanding the decided rise, however, that has thus taken be to a considerable extent correct, as to certain of the views place in the value of life upon the whole, it would seem entertained by the committee, and by some of the other witnesses. Several of the latter, we think, are too sanguine rally; and, without offence be it stated, of the other sex as to the immediate effects which they expect to result from also, who wear clothes chiefly as the means of gratifying the new accommodations and means of enjoyment which they that ruling passion, the love of distinction. This principle propose should be given to the inhabitants of our great pervades all ranks of the community; and the servant girl, towns. Unquestionably, it is not to be hoped for that the or daughter of the artizan, is as proud of her new riband, benefit will for some time be either fully taken advantage of as the lady of her fine equipage, or the duchess of her diaor appreciated. We fear that it will go but a very little way monds. The artizan feels a degree of pride in the decent to elevate the habits or the condition of the existing genera- appearance of his family, and he is stimulated to increased tion of our operatives. The fresh air and the fields, to those exertion that their appearance may be becoming. lf, how. who have been accustomed from infancy to their enjoyment, ever, there are no public walks for the artizans, and their are almost necessaries of existence. If they are not the wives and families to exhibit themselves in, is it not evident indispensable breath and sustenance of life, they are its that there is a drawback on that wholesome stimulus to in. light and inspiration--that without which neither body nor dustry, which operates so powerfully with so little encourage mind has its proper spring. But it is altogether otherwise ment? I happen to be a plain person myself, caring nowith him who from his birth, " in populous city pent," has thing as to the peculiar cut of my coat, or the neat fit of my been inured to the deprivation of the fair face and free ex- boot; but I know that a feeling of much sensitiveness, as to panse of nature. His tastes and habits have all been matters of this sort, operates on mankind generally, and in formeil and fashioned in accommodation to his prison-house; all countries. I will not insist further on this part of my he has become attached to those amusements and relaxa- subject, but I am satisfied that it is not a matter of little tions exclusively with which alone he has ever been familiar. importance. I recollect that late able and eloquent statesPublic walks, however inviting, can hardly be expected to man, Sir James Mackintosh, said :-* You begin with nelure many who have been so trained from the public house, cessaries ; you proceed to what are called artificial neces. nor the sports of the green from the social board within saries, and then to luxuries ; and those things which are doors. To the labourer living in the heart of an immense necessaries to one class are luxuries to another. For intown, indeed, the house must always have many advantages, stance, a watch-riband, which would be considered a luxury in the way of attraction, over the fields. The one is close by the workman, is an article of necessity to the gentleman." at hand; the other must be often at such a distance as to But whatever of truth there may be mixed up with this demand the greater part of his short leisure to get to it. sanguine speculation, we fear the good effects anticipated The comforts of the one are the same in all weathers and in are not likely to be realized by the mere formation of publie all seasons; the other, during half the year, cannot be re- walks, nor until a good many years shall have passed away, sorted to at all either in the morning or the evening; and and other causes shall have produced a material change in a rainy day may at any time divest them of all their plea- the condition of our labouring population. It ought never santness. Either a walk or a game out of doors requires an to be forgotten, while we are considering this subject, that exertion which is given with some reluctance after the toils at present at least, and in the beginning of the plan, the of a laborious day. The enjoyments of the beer-shop are people will require to be wooed to the appropriation of its all of an easy, indolent kind, which, even when they most advantages. The difficulty will be to get them to relinexcite the mind, leave the body in repose. Here, too, are quish the other enjoyments to which they have been accusvarious enjoyments which the fields never can have to offer, tomed, for this new enjoyment. Until they have acquired at least in the same perfection, and all of a sort congenial tastes which they have not at present, everything must be done to the tastes which are formed by a town life-the exhila- which is possible to throw the utmost attraction around the rating beverage-the social talk or game-- the newspaper, rural pleasures in which they are to be invited to indulge, with its weekly or daily freight of fresh excitement. To the and no feature, whatever may be its other recommendations, man habituated to spend his evening leisure among these ought to be introduced into the scheme, which may have the things, the purer pleasures to be gathered under the eye of chance of augmenting an indifference, which in too many nature in the fields, are comparatively insipid and without cases is likely to be considerable enough at any rate. On allurement.
this account, we would set ourselves altogether against the The case being so, we would deprecate as altogether un- notion urged, or suggested by some of the witnesses, of wise and unadvisable certain recommendations which we making the people pay for admission to the places of recre find to have been laid before the committee. In the first ation which it is proposed to open. Let the sum demanded place, we do not think that public walks are exactly the be ever so trifling, we are confident that its exaction would thing that is wanted; and we hold it to be rather unfortu- be utterly fatal to the success of the measure. Do not let nate that the title of the Report should be such as to convey the semblance of anything private and exclusive be given to the notion that this is what is principally contemplated a place which is intended to be the general resort of the Walks will be almost useless without large open spaces, like whole public. It ought to be as free as a common. In this our parks in London, which the people may traverse in all way only will it ever draw to it the great body of the labourdirections, and in which there may be room for the games ing population-those for whose use and benefit it is espeof childhood, and the manly sports of maturer age. The cially instituted. The demand of money for liberty to walks might be frequented on Sundays, but they would enter it, perverts it at once from this its proper character, never be resorted to at any other time. To appear on a into a place of formality and restraint, which the people will public promenade is an affair of display-a thing which the never learn to visit habitually. While there, and going thither, working man would only do when he had dressed himself every man should feel as if he stood on, or were proceeding in his best.
to his own grounds. And in the same spirit we object to Some of the witnesses, and especially the honourable the institution of any particular apparatus of police for premover and chairman of the committee, reckon much upon serving order in these places of amusement. We do not the pleasure and pride the poor man may be expected to believe that anything of this kind will be at all necessary. On have, when these walks are formed, in exhibiting himself the contrary, we think that a system of rigid surveillance, and his family there in better attire than he would otherwise offensively obtruded upon the notice of the persons present, have been tempted to purchase. There is one point of would be the likeliest thing in the world to beget a tenview," said Mr. Slaney in his speech, "_and to this part of dency to disturbance and other sorts ef misconduct. The my subject I beg the attention of my right honourable friend, ordinary means which exist, or ought to exist, in every the Vice-President of the Board of Trade)-in which I think large town for securing the public tranquillity, would be that the opening public walks would be very advantageous. found, we are certain, quite sufficient for the preservation I mean, that it would be a stimulus to industry, and would of order here, as well as elsewhere. lead to an increased consumption of finer articles of clothing
The witness whose evidence we have quoted abore apthan are generally worn by our artizans. What I mean by pears to consider it unlikely that many wealthy persons public walks being a stimulus to industry is this:-and he would be disposed to come forward with their assistance is little acquainted with the workings of the human mind, in providing the funds necessary for the formation of these who supposes that clothes are worn merely as articles of public walks, and other places of recreation; and several of covering. A plain man, like myself, or like my noble friend, the remaining witnesses concur with him in this opinion. the Chancellor of the Exchequer, might, to be sure, wear Others, however, express a very confident belief that large coats and waistcoats for no other purpose than covering, or sums of money would be forthcoming in this way, if Parliato keep him warm. But this is not the case with nine- ment would grant the requisite facilities, and remove the obtenths of the members of this House, or of mankind gene- stacles which under the present state of the law, and of the
municipal institutions of many towns, exist to prevent such In this state of things, no question, we think, can be en. improvements being properly effected. Speaking of the town tertained as to the desirableness of establishing such means of Manchester, Mr. Potter, the member for Wigan, says, “I of recreation for the inhabitants of our large towns as the think a large subscription would be raised. I have heard se- present Report recommends. Our chief apprehension is, as veral gentlemen say that they would subscribe." “ I think," | we have stated above, that the long-established habits of he afterwards adds, that those who have become rich in that this part of our population will make it not a little difficult, place of trade, and having been so long in business, ought for a considerable time, to induce them in any great degree in a very great extent to contribute ; and I might mention to avail themselves of the proposed facilities, were they to that Mr. Heywood, the late member for the county, did be put in their way. But the design ought not on this propose to make a public bath in the neighbourhood of account to be given up. What it may not be possible to do Manchester, but there were some difficulties which after for the existing generation, ought to be done for their chilwards prevented him." We agree with Mr. Potter, indren and their grandchildren. The obstacle that has been regarding this as a case in which the wealthier classes created to the immediate operation of the benefit has arisen ought to come forward liberally with their contributions. from its having been too long withheld. This ought not to It is an opportunity which, for their own sakes, they should be made an argument for still further delay in providing it. be eager to seize. The benefit to be conferred is one which We must refer to the Report itself, or to an article in the the mass of the population are to enjoy; and never can the last Supplement (No. 90) of the “ Penny Magazine,” for a upper orders have a fairer occasion of showing their interest particular account of the recommendations of the Committee. in the welfare and happiness of those around them, and in specifying the additional places of public resort and reearning the goodwill of their countrymen by a munificent creation which they would propose to form or to throw open, gift graciously bestowed. These are the acts by which they have confined themselves to the metropolis and its vithose who are in the enjoyment of opulence and a superior cinity, in regard to which alone the evidence collected was station may, notwithstanding the elevation that separates sufficiently precise. The walks and fields open to the public, them in place from the bulk of the community, preserve which they enumerate as already existing in and near themselves in secure union with the basis and real strength of London, are St. James's Park, the Green Park, Hyde Park, the political fabric to which they belong, and most effectually and Kensington Gardens, in the west; the Regent's Park cement all its parts together. They have the deepest in- and Primrose Hill, in the north; and, on the south side of terest both in gaining the attachment, and advancing the the river, Kennington Common, and the Terrace Walk near intelligence and morality of the humbler orders; and here Lambeth Palace. There is also another short walk on the is an opportunity presented to them of doing much to secure north bank of the river, near the Penitentiary. both these objects. “I have no hesitation in saying," It is evident that, except for those residing in the west one of the witnesses examined by the Committee observes, end of the town, there is no sufficient provision here of the " that no gentleman who has been on the Continent, but means of healthy exercise. The inhabitants of the eastern, finds the poor labouring classes more content and healthy and of the north-eastern districts in particular, are without than the labouring classes are here ; and it arises in a any open fields which they can get at, except by travelling great measure from their having those places for recre- for some miles along the high road. They may be therefore ation." This same witness, (George Offör, Esq., one of the considered as, in point of fact, cooped up in the midst of the magistrates for the town limits), whose evidence presents noise, and dust, and smoke of the city, except for a rare oca curious detail of the successive encroachments that have casional holiday, from the beginning of the year to the end been made in the metropolis within the last half century of it. upon the places of recreation that were wont to be enjoyed If there are still a few fields in different directions, the by the public, does not hesitate to describe the present property of individuals, which the public are allowed to enter, state of the labouring classes, thus driven from all their they enjoy this advantage only on sufferance, and they are former haunts of innocent amusement and healthy exercise, losing it every day. The progress of building is fast shutting as “ a very fearful one." And the following is the descrip- them out from all their old haunts of this description. Some tion given of the condition of the working classes in Man- of the witnesses examined by the committee state a number chester, by Dr. Kay, an eminent physician of that town: of curious particulars as to spots which were open to every“The operative population of Manchester enjoys little or body some years ago, and are now covered with houses, or no leisure during the week, the whole available time being on other accounts shut up. absorbed by their occupations. The few hours which in- To meet the evil as far as possible, the committee propose tervene between labour and sleep are generally spent either that the space, consisting of about fifty acres, called Copenat the tavern, or in making some necessary family arrange- hagen Fields, should be purchased and secured to the ments. On Sunday the entire working population sinks public; that public walks should be formed on Hackney into a state of abject sloth or listless apathy, or even into Downs, otherwise called Bonner's Fields; and that the emthe more degrading condition of reckless sensuality. It is bankment along the river-side, from Limehouse to Blackimpossible to produce, by any process whatsoever, a sudden wall, called the Mill Wall, should be improved and extended. change in the manners of the people, and therefore it is They also strongly recommend for consideration the advanvain to hope that the artizans will speedily be induced to tages which might be derived to all parts of the metropolis frequent the places of worship. It would be very grateful from the formation of public walks along the banks of the to see them preferring healthful exercise in the open air river. There are some reasons for believing that a conto their present gross and degrading pursuits, and through siderable space on both sides of the river belonged origithis process they must pass ere they will listen to the in- nally of right to the public, and that the private erections structions of their public teachers. At present the entire by which both banks are now almost everywhere covered labouring population of Manchester is without any season are illegal encroachments. of recreation, and is ignorant of all amusements, excepting that very small portion which frequents the theatre. Healthful exercise in the open air is seldom or never taken by the
DUTIES ON TEA. artizans of this town, and their health certainly suffers con- The proposed opening of the China trade renders it necessiderable depression from this deprivation. One reason of sary that some new arrangements should be made for the this state of the people is, that all scenes of interest are remote sale of tea, and the collection of the duties upon that article. from the town, and that the walks which can be enjoyed Hitherto the trade in tea has been exclusively in the hands by the poor are chiefly the turnpike-roads, alternately dusty of the East India Company; and the importation has been or muddy. Were parks provided, recreation would be confined to the Port of London. No duty has been received taken with avidity, and one of the first results would be a upon the article at the Custom-House; but that which has better use of the Sunday, and a substitution of innocent been payable, being an ad valorem rate, or rate proportional amusement at all other times, for the debasing pleasures to the price, has been collected by the excise upon the sales now in vogue. I need not inform you how sad is our la- made by the Company. The subsequent removal of packbouring population here. The health of the lower classes is ages from one place to another has also been regulated by much depressed by the combined influence of municipal permits granted by the Excise. evils, and their own corrupted manners and constant toil; but the total absence of all honest sources of amusement, of tea into all the principal ports of the kingdom, it becomes
It being now, however, proposed to allow the importation, and the neglect even of healthful exercise, are features in necessary to transfer the collection of the duties upon it which I would fajn hope we are singular."
from the Excise to the Customs, and also to change the
duty from one ad valorem to one of fixed amount. These bers, has received 19,776l. 58., being at the rate of five are the objects of a bill which is at present on its way guineas for each diploma. The remainder, amounting to through the House of Commons. It provides, in the first 57,6831. 48., has been applied for the general purposes of place, that tea may, after the 234 of April, 1834, being the the college. The number of diplomas granted during the day on which the present charter of the East India Company ten years therefore must have been about 3746, or about expires, be imported into the United Kingdom “ from the 374 per annum; and the whole sum paid upon each Cape of Good Hope, and from places eastward of the same diploma about 201. 128. 9d. The largest sums received in a to the Straits of Magellan, and not from any other place." year, were 96011. in 1827, 96147. in 18:29, and 99291. in 1830; This enactment, it will be observed, goes to prohibit the im- and the smallest, 60881. in 1823, 60231. in 1824, and 60651. portation of tea into this country either from the United in 1831. The amount received in 1832 was 76251. States of America or from the continent of Europe. It may The total amount received in the same ten years by the be considered as introduced by way of protection to the con- Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin, has been 20,050l. ; templated free trade with China, which, at least in its com- being for diplomas, 7500l.; fees for registry of pupils on being mencement, may be thought to require such absence of bound apprentices to members or licentiates of the colcompetition. By a subsequent enactment the duties are lege, to qualify them to obtain diplomas, 11,400l.; and from proposed to be fixed, according to the different descriptions licentiates on being elected members, 11501., each paying a of tea, at one shilling and sixpence the pound on bohea, fee of thirty guineas. The average yearly amount received two shillings and sixpence on congou, twankay, hysonskin, for diplomas, therefore, by this college, is 7501.; but the acand orange pekoe, and at three shillings on souchong, count supplies no means of arriving at ihe annual number flowery pekoe, hyson, young hyson, gunpowder, imperial
, of diplomas granted. The number of pupils annually reand other sorts not enumerated. These duties, the collection gistered, however, would appear to be about 108. In this of which is to be under the management of the Commis- college the members perform the various duties of presisioners of Customs, are somewhat under those which have dent, examiners, &c. without fee or reward; and even the usually been received on the East India Company's sales; late secretary had only received an occasional remuneraand therefore if the private traders shall be able to import tion to the amount of about 6001. in all for his services their tea at the same cost at which the article has hitherto during the period of fifty years. The above-mentioned sum been imported by the Company, its price to the consumer of 20,0501. has been exclusively applied to the erection, may be expected to be lowered under the new state of the preservation, and repairs of the buildings of the college; the trade. The rem nder of the bill consists of regulations for formation, augmentation, and preservation of the museum ; carrying the proposed changes into effect, and for the the purchase of books for the library; and the payment of management of certain matters during the intermediate wages to servants, and salaries and gratuities to the houseperiod. The last provision is, that the Lords of the Treasury keeper, registrar, and curator of the museum. No statemay discontinue the practice of requiring permits for the ment is given of yearly income and expenditure. removal of tea, and establish in their stead any other re- The account of the funds, income, and expenditure of gulations, either of Customs or Excise, which shall appear the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh is made out to be necessary for the security of the revenue.
from Lammas, (the 1st of August,) 1822, to the same day
in the year 1832. The whole number of diplomas granted APOTHECARIES ACT AND ROYAL COLLEGES during that period of ten years has been 1632; the annual OF SURGEONS.
numbers in their order being 114, 138, 147, 156, 199, 169,
201, 162, 195, 151. The total amount of the fees received When we sent to the press the ticle in our last Number upon these diplomas has been 87721. 138.; of which sum on the bill for the repeal of the Apothecaries Act, it had | 17191. 18s. has been paid to the examinators, and the reescaped our notice that the bill had been for the present maining 70521. 158. has gone to the general funds of the withdrawn ; and we are obliged to the kindness of an anony- college. The whole fee on each diploma, therefore, apmous correspondent for calling our attention to the circum-pears to be about 41. 58. 6d., of which one guinea is paid to stance. On the 9th of July a resolution was reported from the examiners. The total regular income of the instituthe committee on the bill to the following effect : “ That be- tion for the ten years in question appears to have been fore any bill to amend the laws for regulating the practice 18,4891. 158. 11d., (in these accounts the diversities of naof apothecaries throughout England and Wales shall be tional character are curiously illustrated by the reckoning passed into a law, it is desirable to inquire more fully into even of farthings by the Scotch, the omission of pence by the subject than can effectually be done during the present the English, and the disregard of every denomination save session of parliament." This resolution, in consequence of pounds by the Irish,) of which sum the principal items are, which the bill has been for the present session withdrawn, from diplomas, as above, 70521. 158., entry money of fellows was come to in consequence of the opposition of the Edin-57671. 158. 3d., fees of indentures 16041. 168. 9d., and diviburgh College of Surgeons to the clause by which it was dends on property 3295l. 28. 14d. At Lammas, 1822, there proposed that their graduates should still be subject to an
was an accumulated fund of above 10,0001., to which 21001. examination by the Company of Apothecaries before being was afterwards added by the sale of the Society's old hall. allowed to practise in England. The graduates of the The regular annual expenditure for the whole ten years universities, it may be recollected, were to be released even has been 95961. 188. 0}d.; besides which, 74971. 78. 4d. has from the necessity of undergoing this examination, as well been laid out on the collection and preservation of a muas from that of serving the five years' apprenticeship. seum, and 19,0601. 5s. 114d. on the erection and fitting-up Whatever opinion may be entertained as to the claims of of a new hall. The accumulated money had in this way the graduates in surgery to a like exemption with those in been reduced to 76311. 158. 5jd. on the 1st of August, medicine, we think the bill, even although it did not concede 1832. this point, would have formed a great improvement on the present law; and therefore we regret that it has been withdrawn. But there can be no doubt that it will be again
REFORMS IN THE COURT OF CHANCERY. brought forward either in the same, or in an amended form We have noticed, in another place, the large reductions which next session ; and it is in the meanwhile a great point gained have been made in the several Government offices by the that the most objectionable of the existing regulations, that present Administration, in addition to similar reforms, also requiring the five years' apprenticeship, appears to be given of considerable extent, effected by their predecessors. In up on all hands. We believe the Company of Apothecaries order, however, to have a complete view of the length to themselves will not attempt to resist the abolition of this which the application of the principle of economy in the absurd and oppressive part of their present monopoly. abolition of useless places has been carried, we subjoin a
We take this opportunity of subjoining an abstract of a statement of the reductions that have been made in the paper which has been lately printed by order of the House Court of Chancery, from a speech which has just been deof Commons, containing accounts of the sums received dur-livered in the House of Commons by the Solicitor-General. ing the last ten years for diplomas by the several Royal From the newspaper report, it might seem that the offices Colleges of Surgeons of London, Dublin, and Edinburgh. alluded to by the learned gentleman were only about to be By this paper it appears that from 1823 to 1832 inclusive, abolished by the bill, the third reading of which he was then the London college received for diplomas the sum of moving; but the fact is, that they are already abolished by 77,4591. 98., being at the rate of about 7,7451. per annum. another act which was passed last year--the 2 and 3 Will. Qf this sum the court of examiners, consisting of ten mem- IV. c. 111. That statute provided that the several offices in