« 前へ次へ »
parishes for establishing a composition of títhes, the sum
Total of 149,3921. 138. 6 d.; of this sum there has been repaid, by St. Lucia 1816
8891 16,285 incumbents, 14,9256. 88. 81d., by parishes 28,6061. 155. 4 d.;
7229 13,348 leaving a balance due to the public of 105,860l. 98. 54d. St. Vincent 1817 12,743 12,475 25,218
1831 11,216 11,781 22,997 Metropolitan Police Assessment.-Returns of the annual Tobago
7633 78.37 15,470 value of the property in each of the several parishes and
6488 12,091 extra-parochial places within the Metropolitan Police Dis- Trinidad 1816 14,133 11,411
25,544 trict, upon which the last Rate for the Relief of the Poor
1829 12,591 11,185 23,776 to the 5st of April, 1833, was assessed.
6899 1828 2510 2889
8852 St. Clement Danes. 68,043 Artillery Ground, Old 3663 St. George in the East 12:3,131 STAMPED AND UNSTAMPED PUBLICATIONS.' Barnes
7.28 St. Geo., Hanover Sq. 537,604 Battersea
26,100 St. George, Southwark . 98,280 A Mr. Joshua Hobson, it appears, has been lately cona Bermondsey ·
72,438 St. Giles and St. Geo. 227,532 victed at Huddersfield for publishing an unstamped news, Bethnal Green 76,424 St. James, Westminster 232,568 paper, entitled The Voice of the West Riding, and not being Brentford, New . 745 St. John, Hampstead . 31,372 able, or not choosing, to pay the consequent penalties, has Bromley
21,898 St. John, Southwark . 34,710 been committed to the Wakefield House of Correction for Camberwell
122,967 St. John, Wapping - 20,014 six months. Upon this event a great outcry has been Charter-house
65 St. John, Westminster • 47.718 raised by a part of the newspaper press, which is in the Chelsea 119,144 St. Katharine
9513 habit of boasting loudest both of its honesty and its logie, Chiswick
12,739 St. Luke, Middlesex 129,387 Christ Church (Midd.; 28,395 St. Margaret, Westm.
but which, on the present occasion, has not shown much of 96,968
either. Christ Church (Surrey) 36,106 St. Martin in the Fields 147,900 Clapham 30,070 St. Mary, Islington 153,775
Mr. Hobson and his associates, according to the True Clerkenwell 160,140 St. Marylebone 727,033
Sun, (see that paper for August 13th,) were led to think Ealing
25,935 St. Mary, Newington 109,533 that they might publish their unstamped newspaper with Fulham
26.208 St. Mary-le-Strand 11,119 impunity by the example of the Penny Magazine. It is Furnival's Inn
3185 St. Mary, Stratford, Bow 15,009 possible that this assertion may not be a mere rhetorical Gray's Inn
15.832 St. Mary, Whitechapel 113,319 flourish, or a falsehood. These persons being constantly told Greenwich
5.3,692 St. Nicholas, Deptford 7968 by the True Sun, and other oracles professing an equal zeal Hackney
95,071 St. Olave, Sunthwark 28,843 for the diffusion of truth, that the Penny Magazine was Hammersmith 26,162 St. Pancras, Middlesex 441,244 | allowed to be published without a stamp merely through the Kensington
93.400 St. Paul, Covent Garden 39,536 favour of the Government, may have believed ihat such was Lainbeth 28:2,380 Sr. Paul, Deprford 27,193
really the case. But when the editor of the True Sun goes Lincoln's Inn
10,799 St. Paul, Shadwell 17,860 Mile End New Town 9309 St. Saviour, Southwark , 69,635
on to say, “they saw that work established in defiance of Mile End Old Town 72,240 St. Sepulchre
12,580 the Stamp Office," we take leave to tell him that, enPaddington
. 74,447 St. Thomas, Southwark : 3645 lightener of the popular ignorance as he would be thought, Penge
793 Saffron Hill, &c. 32,045 he asserts that which is false, and which he well knows Poplar 97,401 Savoy
3685 to be false-aye, as false (though certainly not quite so inPurney
20,152 Shoreditch . no Retorn decent) as any of the quack doctors' advertisements, which Ratcliff
23,983 Sivke Newington 13,520 he also daily serves up for the edification of his readers. Rotherhithe 49,300 Sireatham
20,682 The Penny Magazine is published " in defiance of the Rolls Liberty 12.775 Touring
Stamp Office," only in the same sense in which it may be St. Andrew & St. George 109.313 Tower, Without 1855 said to be published in defiance of the office of the True St. Anne, Limehouse 30,729 Tower, Within no Returu Sun itself; the Stamp Office has nothing to do with it. St. Anne, Westminster . 58,122 Triniiy, Minories
5-158 St. Butulph, Bishopsgate 33,780, Wandsworth
It is not a publication coming under any of the statutes 16,748
which give the Stamp Office a right of interference. It The above amounts are, for the most part, those of the might as well be asserted, that Johnson's Dictionary is rack rents, but in some cases, in different proportions below published in defiance of the Stamp Office. it. It also includes the rental of premises which are excused The law on this subject is contained in the statute in the poor rate assessment, in consequence of being 60th Geo. III. chap. 9. That act imposes a stamp duty empty, or for other causes.
only upon periodical publications, the successive parts or
numbers of which appear at intervals not exceeding Registration of Slaves.-Number of Slares in each of the twenty-six days, and which treat of matters belonging to West India Colonies as they stood at the original and at the church or state. The words of the statute are these : All last registration, with the dates of such registrations. pamphlets and papers containing any public news, intelliMales. Females.
gence, or occurrences, or any remarks or observations there
Total. Antigua 1817 15,033 17,216
on, or upon any matters in Church and State, printed in
32,269 1827 14,066 15,773 29,839
any part of the United Kingdom for sale, and published
periodically, or in parts and numbers, at intervals not exBarbadoes 1817 3:1,354
ceeding twenty-six days between the publication of any 1829 37,691 44,211 81,902
two such pamphlets or papers, parts or numbers, where any Bahamas 18:22
of the said pamphlets or papers, parts or numbers respeca
tively, shall not exceed two sheets, or shall be published for Berbice 1817 13,802 10,747 24,549
sale for a less sum than sixpence, exclusive of the duty by 1831 11,020 9625 23,768
this act imposed thereon, shall be deemed and taken to Bermuda
be newspapers, within the true intent and meaning of 1830 2107 2264 4371
several other acts of Parliament now in force relating Demerara 1817 44,137 33,730 77,867
to newspapers, and be subject to such and the same duties 1832 31,363 31,188 65,536
of stamps," &c. The Penny Magazine does not treat of Dominica 1817
9333 17,959 matters in church or state; it does not give public news, 1826 73 2
8030 15,392 intelligence, or occurrences. The law demands a stamp only Grenada 1817 13,737 14,292 28,029 in the case of newspapers ; the Penny Magazine is not 1831 11,132 12,172 23,604
a newspaper. It is not the description of publication for Jamaica
1817 173,319 172,831 345,150 which a stamp is necessary; and therefore, and for no
1829 158,25+ 164,167 322,421 other reason, it is published without one. Montserrat 1817
6610 This appears so simple a matter that, having been stated,
6262 it is difficult to conceive that any person should not be able Nevis
9602 to understand it. Yet, strange as it may seem, it is never-
9142 theless undeniable, that not only the True Sun, but sundry St. Christopher 1817 9685 10,483 20,168 other newspapers have persisted for a very long time in
1831 9141 9944 19,085 at least pretending not to see the distinction which we
have just stated. The Examiner and Spectator in par- | the penalty of the law, and must suffer it.” Having ticular, in a manner very unworthy of the talent with which quoted these words, “ Here," exclaims the editor of the they are both conducted, have repeatedly descended to True Sun," is a salvo for the tender conscience of the Lord retail to their readers what they must have known to be Chancellor! To sell an unstamped penny publication--the the absurd imputation, of the Penny Magazine being Penny Magazine, to wit, or any other periodical to which allowed to be published without a stamp, because it was the society of Useful Knowledge may lend its countenance patronised by certain members of the Government. No is quite legal; but to sell an unstamped Newspaper (mark refutation of this wretched nonsense ought to have been the distinction, reader) is a palpable violation of Whig needed; but it so happens that the matter was some law! A publication, in short, according to the Whigs, months ago very well and clearly explained in a reply is not a ' Newspaper -and, conversely, a Newspaper, which appeared in Chambers's Edinburgh Journal to a very is not a 'publication. Now all this, though eminently extraordinary attack by the editor of the Literary Gazette, in accordance with the genius of Whig logic, does not on the illegality and unfairness of the very thing which happen to satisfy us." This, we suppose, is intended for that publication had itself been practising for many years. something very severe. If the readers of the True Sun For if the Literary Gazette was allowed to be published take it for either good sense or honest absurdity, they must without a stamp, as it is, it would certainly puzzle most be very easily gulled. people to assign a reason why the Penny Magazine should These attacks upon the penny publications, and demands not. But the worthy editor, while penning that strange that the arm of the law should be stretched out to put them effusion, seemed to have forgotten his own case altoge- down, seem to come with no very good grace from the ther. It was not a person rebuking his neighbour for quarters where they have been most eagerly urged-from a particular sin, being himself notorious for his addiction the newspapers that are most in the habit of obtruding upon to another as bad, or worse; but the very perpetrator of the the public their anxiety for the diffusion of knowledge of alleged offence coming forward with apparent unconscious- all kinds among the people. We should rather expect to ness, to address the public through an attack on his neigh- find such newspapers expressing their satisfaction, that the bour, in vehement denouncement of his own conduct. It law permitted so much information to be dispensed at a might be hard to say, indeed, whether the oblivion was rate at which the people could afford to purchase it. What real or pretended; but take it either way, the exhibition should we think of those who objected to the prohibition was an exceedingly rich one. Mr. Chambers will excuse against the importation of foreign corn free from duty, on us, if we insert a passage from his remarks on this subject : the ground that it diminished the supply of bread, were
“ For our own part, we most emphatically remonstrate they to clamour incessantly for a tax upon the importation against this system which the London Literary Guzette, of foreign beef, if that also were an article of large consumpand other papers above sixpence in price, have adopted, tion among the people? Would not their conduet appear of denouncing to the stamp laws all literary sheets pub- to be rather inconsistent, and hardly to be explained upon lished below that standard of money. The stamp laws say, any other supposition, except that they had some private as plainly as words can speak, that all sheets which publish interests of their own to serve, for the sake of which they news and occurrences, and comment upon matters of church were willing enough that a blow, no matter how heavy, and state, shall pay duty. But the papers above sixpence should be given to those of the public? The newspapers give another reading to the law, and say, that all sheets which profess to wish for the diffusion of knolyledge, and published at a cheaper price than theirs shall be liable to yet desire a law to put down the cheap non-political publiimpost. We had thought the law severe enough, since it cations, are equally inconsistent. The people at prosent prevented the people from getting news and politics without are not allowed to have political information without a tax, duty ; but the severity of the law is liberality itself to the unless they receive it in the way which our own work pseudo-liberal newspapers, which would urge the Govern- supplies it-at an interval of a month. If this be an evil, ment, against its own will, to tax the dissemination of it is surely some mitigation rather than an aggravation of it, general knowledge also. The case is exactly the same that they may have all other knowledge duty-free. This is ludicrous one, as if the muslin mercer were to denounce something for patriots and philanthropists to rejoice in, not war against the clothier for attracting customers to purchase to rail against." But both philanthropy and patriotism are his more substantial articles, to the neglect of gauzes and sometimes apt strangely to forget themselves. crapes. It is a mere commercial war, in which a regard to It appears that the greater number of informations against self has completely blinded the assailing party to those very the dealers in unstamped newspapers have been laid by principles of justice and truth which they affect to advocate common informers for the penalties. This, we should apzealously in general questions."
prehend, would be decisive upon the question of liability to Unstamped periodicals, however, are no new thing among prosecution to any but the most prejudiced. The unstamped us. We have had many others, besides the Literary newspapers are clandestinely sold by very humble shopGazetle, for years past. This being considered, it does seem keepers. The Penny Magazine, and similar publications, extraordinary that the outery should have been raised such as the Saturday Mugazine, and Chambers Journal, are on the subject which we have recently heard. Why, what sold not only by hawkers and small dealers, but by the most ever the above-mentioned newspapers may pretend, they, respectable booksellers in the metropolis and every provinand all the world, must have known perfectly well long ago, cial town. If their sale were any violation of the law, why that periodical works, not giving news, nor discussing matters are the persons who cán pay the penalties not informed in church or state, might be published by any body without against? Informers are in general a sharp-sighted race. a stamp. Has not the well-known little work called The But we have a word to add upon this matter. We comMirror, for instance, been so published for many years : plain not that the Government has been too severe with the Had we not The Olio, The Casket, and dozens of other dealers in unstamped newspapers, but that they have not similar unstamped publications, long before the Penny been severe enough. We complain that they have left the Magazine was ever heard of? Were these all specially matter too much in the hands of informers. “As long as the protected by their connexion with his Majesty's Ministers; | law exists imposing a stamp of fourpence upon “pamphlets or would not any body in those days have been laughed at and papers containing any public news," that law should be for asserting that such either was or possibly could be the rigidly enforced. Our own opinions have been already excase? Yet, now we have our public instructors gravely pre pressed as to the impoliey of that law. Its evasion, howtending not to be able to account on any other except such ever, by the publishers of unstamped newspapers lets loose a monstrous and perfectly ridiculous supposition, for the upon us a great many of the evils that some persons dread impunity of the unstamped Penny Magazine. They never from the licentiousness of the press, without any of the adbefore heard of such a thing, forsooth, as a publication of vantages of the cheaper, and therefore more extended, difthat cost issued without a stamp—and they cannot conceive fusion of political knowledge. how it can be done in the present case, except in the way that has been mentioned.
· When the case of Hobson was mentioned in the House of Commons, the Solicitor General explained the law just as we
LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, 22, LUDGATE STREET, AND have stated it. He said, “ that if the man had been imprisoned
13, PALL-MALL KAST. merely for selling an unstamped penny publication, then undoubtedly the punishment was illegal, but if the offence was the selling of an unstamped newspaper, he had incurred
Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES, Dule-streel, Lambeth,
Private Bills of the Session of
make it the most attractive of all our colonial dependencies
PAOK for the great mass of emigrants. If it be compared, for inLast Year's Emigration to the The New Beer-Houses
stance, with New Holland or Van Diemen's Land, the deCanadas
Abolition of the Monopoly of the Public General Acts 148 East India Company.
mand for labourers may be as great in the two latter settle
156 General Education.
ments; but, being so much more distant than the Canadas, Parliament, 1833 .
they must, on that account alone, fail to draw anything like an equal share of the general emigration from the mother
country. If the Canadas did not exist, the Australian coLAST YEAR'S EMIGRATION TO THE lonies would be much sooner peopled. The former may be CANADAS.
regarded as a station placed half way on the road to the In the course of the late Session of Parliament a paper was latter, which intercepts nearly all that might otherwise have printed by order of the House of Commons, consisting of passed on. Copies or Extracts of the Correspondence between the Se- For this reason, in fact, until the Canadas shall have recretary of State for the Colonial Department, and the Go- ceived nearly all of our surplus population which they can vernors or Lieutenant-Governors of the British Colonies in absorb, there can be no voluntary and unaided emigration North America and Australia, since the last returns, in as to Australia on an extensive scale. Our colonies in that far as relates to the question of Emigration. We propose, quarter can only be supplied with labourers by the employin the present article, to lay before our readers some of the ment of some extraordinary stimulus to force emigration ; most interesting facts communicated in this document, with such as the banishment thither of certain descriptions of a few such remarks as the subject suggests, or seems to criminals, or the bribing of persons to go out, by the colony call for.
or the government undertaking to defray the expenses of Emigration, conducted properly and in the most advan- the voyage, or to make them grants of land, or to secure ta geous circumstances, dispenses its benefits at once in three them some other similar advantage. Now such encouragedirections. It improves the condition of the emigrant him- ments, it is sufficiently obvious, never can be applied except self, of the country from which he is removed, and of the to a very limited extent. It is not to be imagined that we other country in which he settles. It is a process, therefore, ever shall be able to draft off in this way such considerable which each of these three parties is interested in promoting, numbers of our surplus labourers as shall sensibly ease the and it may be often worth while that it should be carried on pressure occasioned by their excess. The subject of Ausby the co-operation of them all.
tralian emigration, therefore, is one of quite a different deA case of this description, in all respects, seems to present scription from that of emigration to the Canadas. It is one itself in the relative circumstances of two countries so sic in which we in this country are comparatively but little intuated as Great Britain on the one part and Canada on the terested, except only in so far as the prosperity of our Ausother. In the former, at present, we have a superabundant tralian colonies may be interesting to us. It is in the main labouring population, with the natural consequences of that their concern, not ours. New Holland and Van Diemen's state of things—a general depression of the wages of labour, Land may be benefited by the few hundreds of British laand a wide-spread and most burthensome pauperism. In bourers that may by any means be annually induced to rethe latter there is a scarcity of labourers, with a consequent sort to them; but neither will the condition of the great high price of labour, and plenty of employment for all who body of British labourers be at all bettered by this slight want it. The transference of a portion of our population to diminution of their numbers, nor can any relief be thence Canada would at once, to a certain extent, adjust and rec- looked for to the general community of this country. , tify all these inconveniences. The persons so transferred For the present, therefore, we propose to confine our atwould exchange a scanty and precarious subsistence, or tention to that portion of the returns before us which relates a degrading dependence upon public charity, for bread to the emigration that has recently taken place to the Brienough and to spare, made sweet by the reflection that they tish colonies in North America. The information which is bad worked for whatever they consumed, and been liberally presented upon this subject is chiefly contained in a report rewarded for their work. Instead of pining and withering addressed to Lord Aylmer, the governor of Canada, by Mr. away in an overstocked or exhausted soil, they would go to Buchanan, chief agent for the superintendence of emigrants strike root and flourish in one full of nourishment, and where in that colony, and in various documents forming an apthere was ample room for all. The market of labour in pendix to that communication.
We shall endeavour to England would be relieved from part of the pressure that comprise, under a few distinct heads, the principal facts to now keeps it down, the situation of the body of labourers be collected from these statements. who remained at home would be made more comfortable, It appears that the number of the emigrants who arrived and the weight of the poor-rates upon the rest of the com- in Canada from all parts (except the United States) in the munity would be lightened. In Canada the woods would course of the last year, was 51,746. The arrivals take place be cut down; the ground would be tilled and sown; towns during the seven months from about the beginning of May to and villages would be enlarged and multiplied; civilization the end of November, being the season during which the naviwould be carried out over many parts that are now unin- gation of the St. Lawrence is open ; but they are very few habited wastes; arts and manufactures would be gradually in number after the middle of October. Last year, in the introduced; the wealth of the colony, and of all classes week ending the 19th of May, there were 6072 arrivals, and in it, would be increased; and along with that both its in that ending the 9th of June there were 10,599. Of the value to the mother country, and its power of maintaining whole number, 46,246, or more than eight-ninths, had taken its rights against attacks, whether from thence or from any place by the 11th of August, or in the first fourteen of the other quarter. In short, what is a load upon us would be twenty-eight weeks of which the season consists. The ada support to it, and it would derive its best strength from vantage to the emigrant of arriving in the country with a what is a source of weakness to us,
considerable part of the summer before him, instead of at Two incidental advantages which Canada holds out as a the commencement of the inclement winter of that climate, receptacle for the surplus population of Great Britain, are is sufficiently obvious. Mr. Buchanan remarks, in one of the identity of the language generally spoken there with the weekly notices appended to his general report, that the our own, and the comparative shortness of the voyage which emigrants who come out even so late as towards the end of takes an emigrant to its shores from ours. It is the latter July and August, generally belong to a poorer class than of these circumstances which must, for a long time to come, those who make their appearance earlier. All who have VOL. I.
(WILLIAN CLOWIS, Printer, Duke Street, Lambeth.)
sufficient command of resources to enable them to make | grants into Upper Canada, who come by way of New York the voyage when they please, instead of being obliged to and Philadelphia ;" so that “ it will be found that the number wait till they can, will of course time their movements so as of emigrants arrived this year, and actually settled in the Cato secure the greatest advantages.
nadas, will vary little from 55,000." Of the 51,746 wbo It had, it seems, been the general opinion in the colony came from other places than the United States, 19,830 were that the arrivals of 1832 would very greatly xceed in grown up males, 17,052 were grown up females, and 14,864 number those of the preceding year. It was thought they were children under fourteen years of age. might probably amount to 80,000. Mr. Buchanan, however, The next important point of inquiry is, to what description states that he always expressed his opinion that this would of persons the emigrants generally belong, and whether be found a fallacious calculation ; his conclusion being those of last year appear to have been of a class inferior or “ principally," as he says, “drawn from the fact that great superior to those of preceding years. In the first place, of pains were taken by some persons opposed to the introduc- the whole number, 4988 were persons who had obtained the tion of British emigrants into the Canadas, to circulate un- means of emigrating from their landlords or their parishes. founded reports respecting the extent of distress endured by These pauper emigrants, as they may be designated, were them on arrival, and of a general want of employment in chiefly from the counties of York, Norfolk, Suffolk, Bedford, every part of the country." It turned out that the increase Northampton, Kent, Sussex, Hants, Somerset, and Glouupon the number of the preceding year was very insignifi- cester. Mr. Buchanan intimates, that those of them who cant. In 1829 the arrivals were 15,945; in 1830, 28,000; receive their allowances of money previous to their embarkaand, in 1831; 50,254; but here the progressive increase tion, occasionally squander it on board the ship, or avail stopped, or at least was reduced to little more than one-themselves of it after they have landed, to enable them to thirtieth of its former rate, the actual increase on the year, live for a short time at Quebec or Montreal, in idleness, inas already stated, being not quite 1500. In the arrivals stead of immediately exerting themselves to procure emfrom Ireland there was a great falling off, the number for ployment. He suggests therefore that, instead of its being, 1831 having been 34,133, while that for 1832 was only as at present, left optional with the parish authorities, it 28,204. of this difference, however, by far the smallest should be made compulsory upon them to adopt the plan of portion was occasioned by the declension of emigration from transmitting funds for the use of their emigrants recomthe most civilized parts of the island. The ports of Dublin, mended by the Commissioners for Emigration in London, Belfast, Londonderry, and Newry, which sent out 19,579 according to which, while the paupers have their necessary emigrants in 1831, still sent out 17,402 in 1832, exhibiting expenses paid, up to their arrival at the place of their ultià decrease of only about eleven per cent.; while the decrease mate destination, they are not allowed to have the disbursefrom the ports of Waterford, Ross, Cork, Limerick, and ment of any money themselves until they are fairly located. Sligo, was from 11,948 to 8440, or very nearly thirty per The late Secretary for the Colonies, Lord Goderich (now cent. From the whole of Scotland there was a small increase Earl of Ripon), however, we observe, expresses himself as of 144; the number for 1831 having been 5356, while that opposed to this suggestion, chiefly on the ground that its for 1832 was 5500. The sources of the emigration, how- adoption "would create a responsibility and multiplication ever, from that part of the island, had shifted considerably. of duties, which no establishment that the government could From Greenock, for instance, there only arrived 1716 per- conveniently support would be adequate to meet." It would sons in 1832, instead of 2988, which was the number the appear, therefore, that this which the Commissioners have preceding year; and from the ports of Dumfries, Ayr, In- recommended as the best plan, is, after all, one which it is verness, and Grangemouth, which in 1831 sent out 644, there wished should be followed in as few instances as possible. It were no arrivals at all in 1832. On the other hand, those seems to us that government either ought not to undertake from Leith had increased from 664 to 1145; those from the business of managing this matter at all, or ought to be Dundee from 249 to 439; those from Aberdeen from 158 to prepared to perform to its full extent the task it has imposed 478; and there were 906 persons from Campbelton, Stran- on itself. But we do not imagine that there would be reraer (that, we suppose, is what is meant by Strancour), quired for this purpose any such considerable extension of Isla, Annan (if that be the Aunon of the list), Alloa, Leven, existing establishments as Lord Goderich appears to have and Irvine, from none of which places were there any ar- apprehended. The funds required for the use of all these rivals the preceding year. But although the emigrants pauper emigrants, while proceeding to their new settlements, sailed from new ports, it does not follow that there was a might probably be transmitted through the government change to the same extent in the districts from which they offices without giving much more trouble than is occasioned came. From England the number of arrivals in 1831 was by the partial transmission which takes place at present. 10,343, and 17,481 in 1832. Hull is the only port from Another division of the emigrants are those who pass which the numbers for the two successive years exhibit any under the denomination of Commuted Pensioners, being old considerable decrease on the second, the arrivals thence in soldiers who have been induced to resign their pensions for 1831 having been 2780, and only 1288 in 1832. From a grant of land in the colony. From their previous habits, Liverpool there was 2261 the former year, and 2217 the and also from their time of life, this class of persons are in latter; the only other ports, the successive numbers from general, it may be apprehended, by no means the best suited which exhibit a decrease, are Southampton, Gloucester and for making their way in a new country, or engaging in an Frome, Carmarthen, Worthington, and Whitby, the aggre- enterprize in which industry, sobriety, and prudence, togegate amount of arrivals from these places having been 925 ther with health and vigour of body, are indispensable to in 1831, and the following year only 482. From London, in success. They are not likely, in general, to benefit either 1831, there were 1135, and in 1832, 4150; from Plymouth, the colony or themselves. The experiment of sending out 474 the former year, and 1398 the latter ; from Bristol the these pensioners, accordingly, may, we believe, be consinumbers were successively 764 and 1836; from Whitehaven, dered as having failed, both in Canada and elsewhere
. The 138 and 795; from Maryport, 421 and 884; from Sunder- number sent to Canada in 1832 was 1700; and Lord land, 86 and 206 ; from Yarmouth, 514 and 793 ; and from Goderich, in his letter to the governor, states, that probably Shoreham, Portsmouth, Newport, Dartmouth, Torquay, no more will be sent out. Exeter, Padstow, Milford, Swansea, Aberystwith, Llanelly, The great body of the emigrants of last year, according Scarborough, Stockton, Colchester, and Lynn, from all of to Mr. Buchanan, were of a description above the average which together only 30 persons came in 1831, there came no of preceding years. Many respectable and wealthy famifewer than 2396 in 1832. In the latter year there were 9 lies," he says, came from all parts of the United Kingarrivals from Hamburgh and Gibraltar, 6 from Demerara, dom; and the extent of property and actual specie brought and 546 from Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New Bruns into the country by them has been exceedingly great, fully wick, from none of which places had there been any in 1831. amounting to from 600,000l. to 700,0001. sterling;" He Mr. Buchanan, however, states “ that although the re- afterwards speaks of one gentleman who had brought with corded number of persons arrived this year (1832) exceeds him 40001.; and of another who had a credit at the Quebec that of last by 1492, yet owing to the abuses in violation of bank from a London banking house to the extent of 16,0001. the Passenger Act last year, by some shipmasters, in Of those who had no such wealth as this the majority seem making short reports of the number on board, the total num- to have been in easy circumstances, ber of emigrants by the St. Lawrence, arrrived in the Ca- We will now proceed to state the manner in which the nadas in 1831,
have exceeded that of the present season by emigrants were disposed of after their arrival. A circumabout 5000.” But " the excess," he adds, “will be more than stance which last year occasioned extraordinary difficulties counterbalanced by the influx of British and German emi- both to the emigrants themselves, and to the authorities appointed to superintend their distribution and settlement, the progress of which was interrupted by the want of artiwas the appearance in the colony of the cholera, early in ficers and other labourers. Another fact which is noticed is June. The first cases having occurred among the emi- very gratifying. “A very considerable number of labourers, grants, the inhabitants not unnaturally looked upon them servants, and mechanics," says Mr. Buchanan,
“ found as the importers and propagators of the disease, and for profitable employment in Quebec and Montreal, and the some time could hardly he persuaded by any inducement to accumulation of wealth by them, in general, is a certain afford them a night's shelter. On this account many of the proof that their industry has met a fair reward; and I have unhappy strangers were exposed to the greatest privations, latterly witnessed a very great disposition among the and they fell victims to the scourge in considerable num- working emigrants of last, and the preceding seasons, to bers. There were 2350 of them in all carried off. The loss find opportunities to get transmitted their little earnings to of their natural protectors made it necessary for a good many the United Kingdom, to aid their friends coming out to widows and orphans to be sent back to England. The join them." There cannot be desired any better proof than number of persons thus returned upon the mother country, this of the improved circumstances in which these persons including about a hundred of the pensioners, and a few find themselves in their new country. Comparing their lazy characters, of whom nothing could be made, was 850. previous with their present condition, they are so completely To these deductions are to be added 3346 individuals who convinced of the superiority of the latter, that they not only went to the United States. The remaining 45,200 settled wish their friends to join them, but are even willing to in the Canadas; but in very unequal portions in the two advance the funds necessary to enable them to make the great divisions of the country ; 35,000 having proceeded to adventure. It is a proof that the earnings of the settlers Upper Canada, and only 10,200 having remained in the are more than sufficient for their support, that they are lower province. Of the latter, the city and district of Quebec able to spare a portion of them for this purpose. Theiv absorbed 4500, and Montreal 4000.
willingness to make the loan, also, shews how perfectly Mr. Buchanan's report, and the documents by which it is satisfied they are that those by whom the money is accepted, accompanied, are extremely interesting and valuable on ac- should they come out, will soon be able to pay it back. count of the authentic information they supply respecting The facts that have been stated, we think, completely the rates of wages in the colony, and other particulars inti- make out the advantages that are within the reach of those mately affecting the prospects of the settlers. In Upper of our labouring population who are willing to emigrate to Canada, particularly, the labourers who went out last year Canada, and whose steadiness and enterprize, as well as their are stated to have received from all classes a hearty welcome. time of life, fit them to make their way in a new country. All the information, Mr. Buchanan says, that he has re- The evidence also that we have of the capabilities of this ceived from the several districts to which they principally colony to receive annually large importations of new comers proceeded, speaks loudly in favour of their prosperous con- without inconvenience, derived from the numbers which it dition. He adds, “ The demand for all classes of working has already absorbed, is exceedingly encouraging to the people has never been exceeded in the Canadas, particularly scheme of relieving our own overstocked market of labour since the abatement of the cholera, and I can assure your by sending a portion of the commodity thither, where it is so Lordship, that during my late tour through the districts and much more in request. A letter from an inhabitant of settlements in Upper Canada, I did not meet an industrious Quebec, which is appended to Mr. Buchanan's Report, says, emigrant who could not meet with employment; the num- The demand for labourers and mechanics is much greater ber of that class arrived this year is not adequate to supply here than it is in Europe. The emigrant Irish population of the demand created by the more wealthy emigrants. This Quebec, and the townships in the immediate neighbourhood, was particularly felt in the western and London districts of I should incline to estimate, at present, about 13,000. In the upper province; where the want of labourers was so my opinion there are fewer pauper emigrants in Quebec and great, that it was found necessary to encourage a number to the province now than in former years.
The come over from Ohio and Pennsylvania.” The settlement of greater the emigration, the more cleared the country will almost every portion of Upper Canada, indeed, is stated to become; markets thereby will be better supplied, and less be going on with great rapidity; villages rising, and build-chance will there then be for bad harvests or scarcity of proings extending, in all directions. It is the simultaneous visions. The prospect for able-bodied labourers and meinflux of labour and capital that is thus turning the wilder-chanics cannot be better, if we but a moment consider ness into the home of civilization and busy industry. Either the various improvements taking place in the cities and alone would be equally inefficient to produce the change. country parishes. As long as the trade of the Canadas is Without capital, which is merely the accumulated results not impeded or interfered with, by restrictive policy in of past labour, the present labour that is necessary to the mother country, the accommodations of the ports of operate the transformation could not be procured or 'sus- Quebec and Montreal must become more enlarged every tained. If there were no such thing as capital to do its year, the revenue consequently must increase, and the inpart in the process, such a country as Canada, it may be ternal improvements, both in town and country, be carried safely affirmed, would remain uncultivated to the end of on on a more enlarged scale, thereby affording the emigrant time. In climates where the earth yields its increase almost on his arrival immediate employment-his grand, and it spontaneously, or with comparatively slight solicitation, ought to be impressed upon him, his only protection against labour may begin its work, and carry it on for some time, poverty in the winter.” And other accounts speak in equally without the aid of capital created by previous labour ; but unqualified terms of the certainty that the colony for many in these rugged and inhospitable regions, the tiller of the years to come will continue able to receive large annual ground would perish before the seed he had sown had additions to its population from the mother country. On its begun to germinate, if his only dependence, in the mean- part, however, the latter may do much to assist and accelewhile, were upon the proffered bounty of nature. In other rate a process in which it has so deep an interest. Parishes words, the labourer would be as helpless without the capi- may apply the money that maintains their paupers at home talist, as the capitalist would be without the labourer. in idleness to pay their passage to America, and by só
In 1832, at Quebec, the wages per day of masons are doing get rid of them for ever. Of course, the emigration in stated to have been from 38. 6d. to 6s.; those of carpenters, all cases must be voluntary. No individual must be sent for whom there was a great demand, and whose wages away without his own consent. It is one of the dishonest rose accordingly, from 4s. to 58.; those of smiths, from 38.6d. cries (for it could hardly have been raised in mere ignorance) to 4s. 6d.; and those of miners, and common labourers, by which it has been attempted to throw discredit upon from 2s. to 28. 6d. Labourers at the cove, had from 38. 6d. pauper emigration, to assert that it was proposed to force to 58.; boom men, 58.; broad-axe men, from 58. to 78. 6d.; the paupers to leave their native country whether they narrow-axe men, from 48. 6d. to 58.; and sawyers, 68. 6d. wished to do so or not. There never was a more unfounded Labourers on board of ships had from 38. 6d. to 58. per calumny. Such a course was never suggested or thought day, and were found on board with the best of every thing. of. The simple ground on which the supporters of the plan In Quebec, Mr. Buchanan states, at no time throughout have rested their expectations of its success has been, that the year, was the slightest inconvenience felt from the in- the pauper, convinced that he was likely to be a gainer by crease of numbers, or the accumulation of emigrant the change, would, in a great many cases, be willing and labourers and artificers; but, on the contrary, a very general desirous to emigrate if the parish would supply him with difficulty was experienced by master tradesmen and con- the means. In such cases only has it been proposed that tractors, in getting hands to carry on their work, at an parishes should relieve themselves from their paupers by advanced_rate of wages. He mentions several buildings, sending them out of the country. The amount of the pro