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reports of the debates, as given in the newspapers, ought to mony is gone through in the presence of both Houses, the be acquainted with. Our paper may, therefore, be consi- Commons appearing at the bar, whither they have been dered as an introduction to the debates.

summoned by the Usher of the Black Rod. They then return The Parliament, in the language of the law, consists of to their own House to elect their Speaker, while the Lords the King, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. proceed one by one to take the oaths at the table. The The consent of each of these three bodies is necessary to the Lord Chancellor is usually appointed by the Crown as the making of every act of Parliament. In ordinary speech, Speaker of the House of Lords, in which quality he takes however, the Parliament means only the Houses of Lords and his place on a seat immediately below the throne, com- } Commons. The House of Lords, in its original constitution, monly called the woolsack. His duties, however, differ is not a representative body; but since the union with considerably from those of the Speaker of the House Scotland, in 1707, the representative principle has been of Commons. He is not in particular invested with authopartially introduced into its composition. It now consists, rity to preserve order in the House, and he is accustomed to in addition to the peers of Great Britain and the prelates of take a part in the debate, which the Speaker in the House England, of sixteen peers of Scotland, elected by the whole of Commons does not. Formerly it was the custom for the body of the nobility of that country, and of twenty-eight person chosen to fill the high office of Speaker of the Irish peers elected by the nobility of Ireland. The remain- House of Commons, to manifest the greatest apparent ing Scottish and Irish peers, as such, have no seats in the reluctance to take the chair, and not to suffer himself to House of Lords; but many of them have been made British be conducted to it without the exertion of considerable peers, and sit in that capacity. An Irish peer, also, being force. A passage from the self-disparaging speech proregarded as a commoner in Great Britain, may be elected a nounced by Sir Christopher Yelverton, on his being elected member of the House of Commons on renouncing his right Speaker in the year 1597, may amuse the reader : Your of voting for the Irish representative peers; but a peer of Speaker," said he,“ ought to be a man big and comely, Scotland cannot. The Scottish representative peers are stately and well-spoken; his voice great, his carriage maelected only for one Parliament; those of Ireland for life. jestical, his nature haughty, and his purse plentiful and A vacancy in the number of the former, therefore, may be heavy. But, contrarily, the nature of my body is small, occasioned either by the death of an individual, or by his myself not so well-spoken, my voice low, my carriage lawelevation to a British peerage; in that of the latter, a yer-like, and of the common fashion ; my nature soft and vacancy can be occasioned only by death. The Irish bishops bashful; my purse thin, light, and never yet plentiful." are also represented by four of their number, who serve only 1 Of late, however, this affectation has been quite disconfor a single session, and sit by rotation. At present the tinued; and although in case of two individuals being proHouse of Lords consists of

posed for the office, each usually votes against himself, the Princes of the Blood Royal, (all Dukes) 4

one who obtains the majority of suffrages no longer either Other Dukes

21

professes any reluctance to assume the chair, nor, after he Marquesses

19

has been seated, goes to anything like the old excess in unEarls

109

derrating his own qualifications. After being chosen, he Viscounts

18

must have the approval of his Majesty ; for which purpose Barons

181

the House is again summoned to the Bar of the House of Peers of Scotland

16

Lords, where the requisite form (for it is nothing more) is gone Peers of Ireland

28

through, and the new Speaker, on behalf of himself and his English Bishops

26 Irish Bishops

fellow-members, lays claim, by humble petition, to the free

exercise of all their ancient and undoubted rights and priviMaking in all 426

leges, more especially, freedom of debate, freedom of arrest

for themselves and their servants, and free access to his Maof the twenty-eight Irish representative peers, nine at jesty whenever occasion may require. The Commons then present enjoy British titles, The House of Commons is entirely a representative as-chair, and the members take the oaths of allegiance and

return to their own House, when the Speaker assumes the sembly, every member deriving his right to sit from the supremacy in successive groups at the table. This must be election of a larger or smaller body of the people. Since the Jone between the hours of nine in the morning and four in passing of the late Bill of Reform it is composed of

the afternoon; and during that period of the day, whatever English County Members

143

other business the House may be engaged with, must be Universities

4_471 Cities and Boroughs.

suspended when any member presents himself to take the 324

oaths. No member can vote on any question, except the Welsh County Members

151 Cities and Boroughs

29

election of the Speaker, before going through this ceraScotch County Members

30

mony, under severe penalties; and there have been even

53 Cities and Borough,

recent instances in which, members having done so by Irish County Members

64

mistake, it has been found necessary to pass a special University

2 105

Act of Parliament to relieve them from the pains and Cities and Boroughs

39 )

disabilities they had incurred. In all other respects, how

ever, except as to the privilege of sitting in the House and Making in all . . . 658

voting, a person returned to Parliament is a member from The power of calling together, or summoning the Parlia- the moment in which his return is signed by the proper ottiment, is lodged in the king; and the form is by a writ, or He is no longer, for instance, liable to arrest, and letter, issued out of Chancery, addressed to each peer indivi- (provided his election has taken place within forty days from dually, and to the sheriffs of counties for the election of the the day appointed for the return of the writ) he may frank members of the House of Commons. We may here notice, letters before he leaves the hustings. There is no introthat, at the same time with the new Parliament, the Houses duction of members to the House at the beginning of a new of Convocation of the clergy still continue to be called parliament; the clerk merely, after each has taken the together, and to go through the form of commencing their oaths, introduces him to the Speaker, who shakes him by sittings; but since the year 1717, they have been uniformly the hand; but when a member is returned at any other prorogued before they could proceed to business. It is part time than at a general election, he must be led up from of the royal prerogative to prorogue Parliament, that is, the bar to the Speaker by two other members, and must to put an end to its sittings, and also to dissolve it, at plea- make three obeisances or bows on the way, that he may be sure, as well as to convene it. But no Parliament can be the better known to all present. continued longer than seven years; and few last nearly so After the swearing in of the members in both Houses bas long. If, however, the death of the king should take place been completed, or nearly so, which generally takes several between the dissolution of one Parliament and the election days, it is customary for his Majesty either to come down to of its successor, the old Parliament again meets immediately, the House of Peers in person, and, the Commons having and may remain in being for another half-year.

been summoned to the bar as before, to deliver a speech from The two Houses must be both prorogued and dissolved, the throne to the assembled legislature, or to depute certain as well as convened, at the same time. When the day lords, as his commissioners, to read such a speech in his appointed for their meeting arrives, the king either proceeds name. A royal speech is likewise delivered at the opening m person to the House of Lords, or empowers certain peers, of every succeeding session. It is usual for both Houses to as his commissioners, to open the parliament. This cere- | take this speech into consideration the same evening, with

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a view to frame a reply to it, called the Address; but they | one who first catches the eye of the Speaker, is named are not bound to make it the first matter upon which they by him, and is usually permitted to address the House. deliberate; and both Houses are accustomed to have a bill But his being named by the Speaker gives him no right relating to some other matter previously brought in and read, of precedence, if the House should think that another by way of asserting their right. The address, which is had risen, or on some other account has a right to be usually an echo of the speech, is moved and seconded by two heard, before him. Any member may move that another members, selected by the ministers for that duty, and who member shall be now heard; and if that motion be earappear on this occasion either in full dress or in uniform. ried, the Speaker's selection goes for nothing. This, When the address has been voted, it is sent up to his ma- however, is an expedient which, for obvious reasons, has jesty by a deputation, who, on their return, report to the been very rarely resorted to. A member may speak from House the terms in which it has been received, called His the gallery as well as from the body of the House, and Majesty's Answer.

Hatsell says often does; but of late years very few inWe shall now throw together a few notices (chiefly selected stances of this practice have occurred. He must not, howfrom Mr. Hatsell's great work on “ Precedents") of what may ever, it seems, speak standing in any of the passages or be called the every-day forms of the House of Commons, from behind the clock. It is sometimes said, that a memmany of which are matter of constant allusion in the ber has a right to have any act of parliament or other public reports of the debates. On the Speaker making his ap- document he pleases to call for, while speaking, read by the pearance a few minutes before the hour of meeting, as soon clerk ; but this is a mistake. The House may object to as prayers have been read by the chaplain, he proceeds to the proceeding if they choose; but if no objection be made, count the members present, until (including himself if ne- the Speaker orders the paper to be read. No member, we cessary) he has reckoned to the number of forty. If that may here add, can vote on any motion affecting his own number be present, business proceeds; if not, the Speaker private interests, or can even be present while it is discussed, only takes the chair for a moment to adjourn the house Although the public are now admitted to witness the detill the following day. A House, as it is termed, having been liberations both of the House of Lords and of the House of once formed, business may be continued, though there Commons-to the former by the order of a peer, to the should be fewer than forty members present; but any mem- latter either by a member's order, or by the payment of Ler may demand that the House be counted, and if there half-a-crown to the door-keeper,—the debates of the one are not forty present the House is adjourned. The members, house, as well as of the other, are still supposed to be carried in general, have no particular seats. At the opening of a on with closed doors. The order directing the Sergeant-atParliament, however, the four members for the city of Lon- Arms to take into custody all strangers who may be scen don are accustomed to place themselves at the head of the within the House is still passed by the House of Commons front bench, or that which stands on the floor, at the right at the commencement of every session, and may at any time hand of the Speaker. On other occasions, this bench be enforced by a member to the clearing of the gallery: is usually occupied by the ministers, and is called the Whenever a division takes place, all strangers are obliged Treasury Bench. It is, however, merely conceded to them to withdraw, and the doors of the House are locked. The by courtesy. Formerly, it used to be reserved for those newspapers lately noticed some remarks that were made in members who were Privy Councillors ; and it is related that the House respecting one of the sessional orders, commanding Mr. Pulteney, when the leader of the opposition, during the the back-door of the Speaker's chamber to be shut every administration of Sir Robert Walpole, always used to day at twelve o'clock; when the Speaker, in answer to the speak from this bench. Any other member, who wishes to inquiry of an honourable member, who expressed himself secure to himself a particular seat, may do so, but only for anxious to know where the said door was, was reported to that one evening, by going down in the morning, and fixing have stated that he believed it was no longer in existence. a paper with his name to the back of the bench. But even This order was first passed on the 5th of March, 1662, on after having done this, he loses his seat if lie should be information received by the House that several persons, not absent at prayers, or leave the House to attend the Speaker members, had come by the door in question into the Speaker's to the Lords. He also loses it if he goes out to the lobby chamber, and thence made their way into the gallery; and on a division; and Mr. Hatsell intimates that the num- it has since then been regularly repeated at the commencebers on divisions are known to be sometimes affected by ment of every session. If the back-door, however, be now the operation of this rule. Members who have held the really built up, as is understood, it would seem that its great offices in the ministry, are often allowed to keep the ancient and long-remembered offences might at last be same seat without coming down to take it; and a member safely permitted to rest in peace. having received the thanks of the House in his place, is The exertion by a member of his privilege to clear the considered to be entitled to the same seat, at least for that House of strangers has frequently given rise to a vehement parliament.

debate; and some efforts have even been made to get the While the Speaker occupies the chair, there is said to be standing order in question repealed or modified, but hitherto a House; when a member is appointed to preside, the without success. Those opposed to the exclusion have House is said to sit in Committee. These two states are sometimes attempted to meet it by resorting to the expedient further indicated by the gilded badge called the mace of moving repeated adjournments, and thus preventing bubeing in the former laid upon, and in the latter under, the siness from proceeding, till the public have been re-admitted. table at which the clerks sit. The rules of proceeding are Females, as everybody is aware, are not now admitted to the in some particulars different in Committee, from what they are gallery; but it is not so generally known, that the practice when there is said to be a House. In the latter, a member by which they are excluded is comparatively a recent innocan speak only once (except to explain) upon the same vation. It appears to be not more than fity or sixty years motion; in the former, he may speak as often as he since ladies were accustomed to appear both in the gallery pleases. The sitting in committee, indeed, seems anciently and in the space below the bar. Mr. Hatsell himself was to have been considered as merely a conversational con- present at the last occasion on which they were admitted. sultation :-frequently, the members appear to have de- An interesting debate was expected; and both ladies and livered their sentiments without rising. Again, in com- gentlemen were in attendance in great numbers. Many lamittee, the members divide by going, the ayes to the one dies, not having been able to obtain seats, it was ordered that side of the House, and the noes to the other. When not in the House should be cleared of the men strangers, which committee, those on one side of the question remain in the was done; when the ladies entered in such numbers as comHouse, those on the other go out to the lobby-the general pletely to fill both the galleries and the seats below the bar. rule being, “ that those that give their votes for the pre- In this state of things, a member, irritated by the expulsion servation of the orders of the house, should stay in; and of some gentlemen for whom he had procured places, dethose that give their votes otherwise, to the introducing of manded that the House should be cleared of all strangers. any new matter, or any alteration, should go out." The enforcement of the standing order was a matter of (Journals of 10 Dec. 1640.) But the rule is embarrassed with course. But the officers found their duty of turning out many intricate exceptions, and a good deal of time has fre- the fair intruders no easy work; a violent and determined quently been lost in determining which side ought to go out. resistance was offered to them; and for nearly two hours the With a view of avoiding this inconvenience, it was resolved House was kept in a state of the most extraordinary ferment by the House, a few days ago, that on any division, those and commotion. Ever since this singular scene, females who question the decision of Mr. Speaker do go forth.' have been rigorously excluded from the House. The only

When two or more members rise at once to speak, the relaxation of the prohibition is the practice, that has been

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introduced within the last few years, of admitting a small to a period when the house will not be sitting. In these number of ladies to a place called the Ventilator, above circumstances of course it falls to the ground. Sometimes the ceiling, through the apertures in which they both hear the motion is made for the next reading being taken this and see very well what goes on below. Twenty-five tickets day three months, or after any shorter interval that will for this apartment are issued every night by the Sergeant- carry it over the prorogation. at-Arms. Ladies are also now admitted into the new gallery Call OF THE HOUSE.- Very great difficulty has always which has been formed in the House of Lords. They used been experienced in securing the regular attendance of formerly to place themselves behind the curtains on each members. It is, however, in the power of any member, side of the throne. In ancient times, however, they seem upon giving previous notice, to insist that the house shall to have appeared more openly. In 1675, Lord Shaftesbury be called over on any particular day, when those who do is recorded to have complained to the House of “those not answer to their names are ordered to be taken into cusdroves of ladies that attended all causes :" “it was even tody by the Sergeant-at-Arms. The chief inconvenience come," he said, “ to that pass, that men even hired, or bor- which this subjects them to consists in the fees which they rowed of their friends, handsome sisters or daughters to must pay before they can be liberated, and which are of deliver their petitions." At this time, again, ladies seem to considerable amount. have only contrived to get admission into the House of Commons occasionally, and by stealth. Hatsell quotes from Grey's Debates a curious notice in proof of this, which is not

THE AFFAIRS OF BELGIUM. calculated to give us a very high idea of either the dignity | The events that have taken place since the revolution which or the decorum by which the proceedings of the House were separated Belgium from Holland, have been of great imin those days characterized,

portance to all European states, and the condition of affairs in those countries still continues to excite considerable in

terest. The narrative of those events is long, and calculated PARLIAMENTARY TERMS.

to give rise to more questions than there is space here to disUNDER this head we propose to notice, from time to time, cuss. But it may, nevertheless, be useful to give some such terins, connected with the proceedings of Parliament, account of the causes which led to the revolution ; for the as occur in the reported debates, and may not be intelligible first consideration in regard to the Belgian question is, to every reader.

whether that revolution was justifiable—or, in other words, ADJOURNMENT. .-The adjournment of either house is whether it was morally right. This can only be determined the continuance of its sittings from one day to another, ge- by reference to the peculiar circumstances of the case; for nerally to the next, but sometimes to that day fortnight, or whilst every revolution is in itself an enormous evil, yet, even longer. Either house adjourns at its own pleasure, when the public grievances are too heavy to be borne, and and independently of the other. A member may move the the redress of such grievances is otherwise impracticable, adjournment of the house at any time, and repeatedly in the resistance to an oppressive government may become even course of the same evening; for a proposition for adjourn- more than excusable. An individual cannot break the ties ment at one stage of the proceedings is considered to be a which bind him to his family, or his friends, without pain different question from the same proposition made at another and inconvenience, but cases do sometimes arise in which it stage. Were it regarded as the same question it could not is desirable to sever even domestic and social ties. So it is be put in the same evening, or even in the same session. with nations. Cases have not unfrequently arisen where a Sometimes only the debate is adjourned, the house conti- struggle against an obnoxious dynasty has been far from nuing to sit, and proceeding with other business.

censurable, although accompanied by many calamities and Order of the Day.The order of the day is the list sufferings ; and amongst such cases the Belgian revolution of the matters appointed to be discussed on that day, as appears deserving of being numbered. It is seldom, indeed, printed in the paper called the “ Votes," which is now is- without powerful reasons that any nation has broken the sued every morning. When it is moved, therefore, to read bonds which united it to the existing order of things, and the order of the day, the meaning of the proposition is that has thereby put in jeopardy its industry, its commerce, its the house shall pass from the consideration of the question wealth, and almost its very existence. then before it, and take up the business mentioned in this By the treaty of Vienna, the allied powers united Belgium list. The adoption of the motion is a way of avoiding the to Holland, giving to the new state the title of Kingdom of coming to a decision upon the question in hand. The order the Netherlands. It does not seem that the wishes of either of the day, however, can only be moved while the house is people entered much into the consideration of the allies, the proceeding with some question not set down in the list. object being the stability of the peace of Europe, by pre

The Previous Question.—This is another contriv- venting Belgium from becoming a province of France. ance for escaping from the necessity of coming to a decision There were indeed many grave objections to the union,upon an inconvenient question. A motion is sometimes which may well have been called an unnatural marriage. For, made to which abstractly there is no objection, but which in the first place, the Belgians are Roman Catholics, whilst yet, from the time at which it is brought forward, or the the Dutch are almost all Protestants, so that their views in special bearing which it is intended to have, is felt by some regard to religion were certain to be opposite. Holland is a member or members, to be one which it would be improper commercial, Belgium a manufacturing and agricultural to assent to. In these circumstances those who are opposed state, so that their wishes in regard to taxation, and proto its being carried put to the house the previous question, tecting duties, could not be very united. Their languages, shall a vote be taken upon it at all ? Instead, however, of habits, and feelings were dissimilar, and there was a marked moving (as would seem most natural) that the question antipathy of each to the other. under consideration be not now put, it is the usage to move The extent of Holland was estimated at 2,860,888 hectares “ that that question be now put;" in dividing upon which of about 2ļ acres each; that of Belgium at 3,337,249. The the mover votes against his own motion. Thus, for instance, population of Holland in 1815, was 2,046,885; that of Belwhen Mr. Hume moved, on the 14th February, that the gium 3,377,617. By the new constitution of 1815, (which existence of sinecure offices was inexpedient, the result is was rejected by the majority of the Belgian notables, who recorded in the Votes in the following form :—“ The previous had been assembled for the purpose of sanctioning the question being put, .That that question be now put :' the union,) 55 members were assigned to each nation, as its house divided,—Ayes, 138 ; Noes, 232.", Here the mover share of the representation, notwithstanding the superiority of the previous question, and all those who were of opinion of Belgium in population and extent; and the large debt of with him, that Mr. Hume's resolution should not be put, Holland, and the comparatively small debt of Belgium, were voted in the majority, against the motion. The question, charged equally upon the two states. The Belgians were however, which has been quashed in this manner is only got attached to trial by jury; but, without their consent, it was rid of for the present; and may be brought forward again summarily abolished in Belgium, and the Dutch mode of on any future day. The previous question cannot be moved criminal procedure substituted. The publicity of judicial when the house is in committee.

proceedings in its most important branch, the examination This Day Şıx Months. It is frequently moved, in of witnesses, was also abolished, and by, protracted delay, order to defeat a bill before the house, that be read again the law providing that the judges should not be removed, this day six months. This motion is made with the inten- was rendered nugatory. Great partiality began to appear in tion, and, if carried, has the effect, of deferring the next the patronage of the court, the ministry, and the army. In reading of the bill till after the prorogation of Parliament, or | 1816, of eight ministers of state only one was a Belgian; of

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28 diplomatic agents, one ; of 244 ministerial officers in civil | Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, in un-
departments, 65 ; of 85 generals, 16. The officers of the dertaking the arbitration of the differences between Holland
king's guard were all Dutch, and so were three-fourths of and Belgium, had to decide upon a just and permanent
the artillery. The Belgians were taxed for Dutch objects, settlement, with the deep responsibility laid upon them of
and the mode of taxation was particularly obnoxious. For thus guarding and preserving the peace of Europe. Upon
instance, the mouture, or tax on meal, and the abattage, or the first view of the case, it might appear that the Belgians
tax on cattle slaughtered, were serious grievances, inasmuch were not likely to receive any great countenance from three,
as no man could grind his own corn, or kill his own pig, at least, of the arbitrators, who, for many reasons, would not
without the intervention of the revenue-officers. The king be especially inclined to favour the authors of any revolu-
of the Netherlands took into his own hands the control of tionary movements. If, therefore, in the enforcement of its
education, and deprived the heads of families of the sacred decisions the Conference has found it absolutely necessary
right of bringing up their children in the way they thought that the citadel of Antwerp should be taken out of the hands
best. Particular teachers and methods of instruction, and of Holland by an issue at arms, it may be fairly supposed
books printed in Holland and drawn up on the Dutch sys- that this measure of warfare was not resorted to, except under
tem, were imposed by authority, with the view of infusing the conviction of an imperious necessity which even the
into the minds of the young Belgians, religious and political especial friends of Holland could not deny. The labours of
opinions incompatible with those of their fathers. A college the Conference for two years would have been futile indeed,
was established at Louvain, called the Philosophical College, if the arbitrators had possessed no power to compel the ob-
to which, instead of the ancient colleges, every Catholic servance of their decisions.
Belgian educated for holy orders was compelled to resort, in It has been the fashion to stigmatize the Belgic revolution
order to receive instructions from professors of an opposite as a bad imitation of the three days of Paris, and it may be
persuasion to his own. This was sufficiently galling to true that this was the spark which set fire to the powder in
Catholics; but the Belgians were interfered with, not only Belgium. But if the Belgians suffered for fifteen years all
in the exercise of their religion, but also in the use of their that could hurt the moral, political, religious, and intellectual
own language. Incredible as it may seem, in a country feelings of a nation, there is surely sufficient cause for the
where French was the language of literature, of conversa- effect, without ascribing it merely to the revolution of
tion, of the bar, and where the Flemish and Walloon France. The Belgic revolution was foreseen, and foretold ;
tongues were the only others in use by the common people, and the king had ample warnings to which he shut his eyes
a decree was issued declaring the Dutch to be the national until it was too late. It has also been the custom of some
language. The Belgians were forbidden from defending to praise the high degree of physical happiness which ex-
their interests in the States-general, in the Courts of Jus- isted in Belgium under the Orange dynasty; but it is a great
tice, or by any public acts, except in Dutch. The father of mistake to suppose that where the land is well cultivated,
a family was obliged to make his will in a language which and the people active and industrious, they have nothing more
he did not understand; and barristers, notaries, professors, to wish for." Belgium flourished externally in spite, and not
and even judges, were compelled to relinquish their situations, by reason of the measures of her government; and if that
not merely from disgust, but from inability to hold them. government may claim the merit of advancing her industry,
Such an accumulation of grievances naturally produced it is but little excuse for the violation of sworn faith and
general discontent, and this discontent, as might be ex-established laws, or the obstinate disregard of the rights of
pected, began to find a vent in the public press. Then com- its subjects.
menced a series of prosecutions against the Belgic press, The population of Belgium, according to the official census,
and the writers who presumed to give their opinions on was on the 1st of January, 1831, 4,082,427. It now consists
public affairs. Penalties of imprisonment and banishment of the following provinces : viz.
were inflicted in gross violation of justice on some of the

Antwerp,

347,590 most upright men in Belgium. In December, 1829, a final

Brabant,

556,046 blow was levelled at the press, which would effectually have

West Flanders, 603,214 suppressed it, for it intricted imprisonment upon the expres

East Flanders, 733,938 sion of any disapprobation, or, as it was termed, calumnia

Hainault,

608,524 tion of the intentions of the existing government; and no

Liege,

371,568 less than thirty prosecutions against the press were com

Limburg,

338,395

Luxembourg, 311,608 menced in the course of one month. Thus the Belgians

Namur,

211,544
were goaded for fifteen years; and when denied a free
press--tried by dependent judges—and governed by irre-

4,082,427
sponsible ministers-it would indeed have been wonderful if
they had not murmured.

The population of Holland, according to the “ Almanac
Such were the grievances which led to the revolution of that of Belgium, as above stated. But the province of Lux

de Gotha," is 2,444,550, being little more than one half of August, 1830, whereby the Belgians threw off the yoke of the King of Holland, and broke the bonds of the treaty of embourg is included, according to some statistical tables, in Vienna. They proceeded to frame a new constitution, and the Germanic Confederation. For further information in after much discussion, determined that Belgium should be a

Foreign Quar

regard to the Belgian revolution, see the constitutional monarchy. Among several candidates, the terly Review, No. 10, article 1;" same “Review, No. 12, choice first fell upon the young Duke de Nemours, second art. 9;" “ A Letter on the Belgic Revolution," London, Han

sard, 1831; son of the King of the French, for King of Belgium; but

Edinburgh Review, No. 112, art. 6." There the French King thought it his duty to refuse his son's been but little read in this country.

are numerous foreign publications on the subject which have acceptance, and, after an intermediate regency, the crown was offered to Prince Leopold of Saxe Cobourg, who accepted it in July, 1831, and is now the reigning sove

BANK OF ENGLAND. reign. From the moderation and discretion which charac-| During the last session of Parliament, a Committee of terize this prince, there appears every hope that he may be Secrecy, consisting of thirty-two members, was appointed to suited to so distracted a country as Belgium has for some inquire into the expediency of renewing the charter of the time been—that he may tranquillize its factions-compose Bank of England, which will terminate on the 1st of August, its troubles--and rule it in quietness and peace.

1834, upon a twelvemonths' notice to that effect being given The allied powers, whose intervention was first solicited by the government; and also to examine into the system of by the King of Holland, have occupied themselves down to banking, particularly that of banks of issue, adopted in the present time in arranging the terms of separation and England and Wales. Some of the Bank Directors, many peace between the two countries. The Conference of Lon- eminent bankers, and other persons possessing knowledge don has laboured long and laboriously to effect a pacification and experience of the subject, were examined before this and amicable settlement of differences, but its task appears, committee, and the accounts of the Bank of England were even yet, not brought to a close. It is impossible here to also submitted to their inspection. detail the numerous proceedings and protocols of the Confer- The points to which the attention of the committee was ence; but it would be very wrong in those who do not principally directed, werethoroughly understand its operations, to deny it the high Ist, Whether the paper circulation of the metropolis should merit of having laboured strenuously for the preservation of be confined, as at present, to the issues of one bank, and peace. The five great powers, as they are called, namely, I that a commercial company, or whether a competition of

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different banks of issue, each consisting of an unlimited | Allowing for possible omissions, the whole amount may be number of partners, should be permitted.

taken as not exceeding 800,0001. This is the official ac2ndly, If it should be deemed expedient that the paper count; the authorities for its accuracy have not yet appeared. circulation of the metropolis should be confined, as at present, According to law, the whole income of every benefice to the issues of one bank, how far the whole of the exclusive both in England and Ireland, for the first year after it has privileges possessed by the Bank of England are necessary become vacant, belongs, under the name of First Fruits, to to effect this object.

the Crown, which, however, has in both countries made over 3rdly, What checks can be provided to secure for the the revenue thence arising to special purposes connected public a proper management of banks of issue, and especi- with the ecclesiastical establishment. In Ireland the First ally whether it would be expedient and safe to compel them Fruits are paid to a Board appointed for their management; periodically to publish their accounts.

and are applied in the first instance to the repair of churches, An immense mass of documents and evidence was collected and, after that object has been satisfied, to the augmentaelucidatory of these points, and, on the 11th of August, tion of poor livings. Were the First Fruits exacted accord1832, reported to the House, by whom they were ordered to ing to the actual value of the benefices, they would produce be printed. An early opportunity will be taken to give a a considerable sum; but, in point of fact, they are exacted complete analysis of this report in a Supplement to the according to a valuation made in the reign of Henry VIII., “ Companion to the Newspaper.” In the mean time, it nearly three hundred years ago, when the nominal income, may be stated that Lord Althorp has intimated his intention at least, of every living was greatly below what it is at preto bring in a Bill, without proposing a new Committee, on sent; and consequently they yield only a very trifling prothe subject of the renewal of the Bank Charter.

portion of what the law originally intended they should

amount to. It has been sometimes proposed to fulfil the EAST INDIA COMPANY

original intention of the law by ordering a new valuation, In February, 1830, a Select Committee of the House of real income ; but however equitable this re-adjustment may

and rating each benefice for First Fruits according to its Commons was appointed to inquire into the affairs of the East India Company,

and the trade between Great Britain, seem, it is liable to various objections on the ground of expethe East Indies, and China. This Committee has been re- of taxing an individual on his entry into a living (the

diency. We shall mention only one-the obvious hardship appointed in each successive session since that time, and time when his necessary expenses are most heavy) to the has examined a great number of witnesses, and collected an immense body of evidence on these subjects, which have without diminishing the just amount of the tax, to lay it on

extent of the whole of his year's income. Ministers propose, been at different times reported to the House and ordered to in a less oppressive form. Instead of the whole amount of be printed. These Reports, three in number, have now the income for one year, they propose to exact a percentage, been published. The first contained an examination of the commercial relations of the Company with China, as well as five, to fifteen per cent ; livings under 2001. a year pay

or portion, of it every year. This proportion is to vary from the state of the British trade generally with that country, ing nothing, those of more value paying not only a larger and also that of the Americans and other foreigners. The second was principally directed to the territorial possessions the hands of one individual

, the aggregate amount of the

sum but a larger rate; and, where several benefices are in of the Company in India, and to points connected with the whole being taken as his living, so that, however small his government, laws, productions, and commerce of that country. The third, which consists of a volume of report and severai preferments may be individually, he shall, as he clearly volumes of evidence, several others being prepared, and in the incomes of the bishops are to be subjected to this tax as

ought, pay the high rate appropriate to his large revenue. the hands of the printer, is miscellaneous, and embraces well as those of the inferior clergy; but in the case of the every other topic connected with the subject. As the ap- former it is not to be levied upon any that do not amount to proaching termination of the East India Company's charter, 40001. a year; those of that amount are to pay five which expires in April 1834, as well as the importance of the subject, cannot fail to render an epitome of these reports per cent.; those between 40001. and 60001., seven per interesting to the public, an early Supplement will also be cent; those between 6000

and 10,0001. ten per cent. ; those devoted to that purpose.

between 10,000 and 15,000, twelve per cent.; and if there are any above the last-mentioned amount they are to pay

fifteen per cent. This tax, let it be observed, is to be imTHE IRISH CHURCH.

posed immediately, upon the actual incumbents of the several Among the subjects which have engaged the attention of sees and other livings; and the income of the bishopric of Parliament since its meeting, one of those which have ex- Derry is besides to suffer an immediate reduction from its cited the greatest public interest is the reform of the Irish present amount of 12,6591. to 8000l. which the proposed Church. The views of the Government upon this subject tax will further reduce to 72001. were explained by Lord Althorp to the House of Commons, The tax thus imposed, it is calculated will produce about on the 12th February, on asking leave to bring in the 69,0001, a year; and the management of this revenue it is bill for carrying them into effect. It will be the object intended to give to a Board of Commissioners consisting of of this article to present a brief but comprehensive out- members of the Established Church, so appointed as to be line of the proposed measures, drawn up in such a manner entirely independent of the government. They are to apply as may place their amount and character, and the reasons it

, and the other funds committed to their administration, upon which they are founded, in the clearest light before all to the following objects; the augmentation of poor livings, our readers.

the building of glebe-houses, the dividing of unions, and There are at present twenty-two dioceses in Ireland, or the building of new churches whenever a certain porfour archbishoprics and eighteen bishopries, the gross tion of the expense shall be subscribed by private indiviamount of the revenues of which, according to Lord Althorp's duals. A fund being thus provided for these purposes, it is statement, does not exceed 150,0001., producing, after de proposed that the tax upon the people of Ireland, commonly ducting the expenses of collection, a net revenue of 130,0001

. called the vestry cess, or church-rates, by which they have Of this sum, about 100,0001. arises from the rents of lands. I been hitherto met, shall be immediately and entirely aboThe whole revenue of the deans and chapters is 23,6001.; lished. This is a measure calculated to remove one of the but this is burdened with a necessary expenditure amounting strongest causes of popular dissatisfaction and irritation conto 21,4002.; leaving a remainder for the deans and chapters nected with the present condition of the Irish Church. The of only 22001. There are, in fact, very few prebendaries in vestry cess, although paid by all the inhabitants of the parish, the Irish Church whose income is derived from the funds of is imposed only by those of them who belong to the estathe chapter alone. The number of the other benefices is blishment; so that it sometimes happens that fewer than 1401, the whole income of which, as nearly as can be ascer- half-a-dozen members of the Church of England have the tained from returns which are not yet quite complete, is power of assessing at their own pleasure, and for the excluabout 580,0001., or at most, 600,0001. The entire revenue sive purposes of their own communion, several thousands of of the Irish Church, therefore, may be stated as follows:

their" Catholic fellow-parishioners. According to a stateRevenue of Bishops' sees .

£130,000

ment subsequently made in the House, the pecuniary relief Revenue of Deans and Chapters, as such 2,200

thus conferred upon the people will really be to an extent not Revenue of other Benefices

600,000

much short of 90,0001. per annum. But this is, after all,

perhaps, the least part of the benefit which the new arrangeTotal 732,200 ment will bring along with 't.

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