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but they are the most material. So far as they go, they con- the return was petitioned against, and the petition ordered stitute, we think, unquestionable improvements on the ex- to be taken into consideration on the 21st of May. isting law. But the subject, we repeat, is one of very consi- The following alterations have also been made in the derable difficulty ; and it would require much consideration representation since the commencement of the session :to say what in all respects would be the most perfect mea

(vice Lord Lowther,elected sure for the legislature to adopt. It is probable that the

to sit for Westmoreinvestigations of the committee, which has just been ap- Cumberland (west) S. Irton

land, having been pointed, will be productive of some valuable suggestions in

returned for both correction of, or in addition to, those upon which the present

places. Bill proceeds.

Gloucester, city

H. T. Hope vice Hon. M. F. Berkeley. London

Ald. Waithman, dec.

Hon. W. W. Fitzwil.
ELECTION PETITIONS.

Malton
J. C. Ramsden liam (now Lord Mil.

ton). In our first number, at page 12, we gave a list of the returns Marylebone Sir S. B. Whalley E. B. Portman. petitioned against. The following is the result of the peti- Northamptonshire, Lord Milton.

- Lord Milton (now tions or the state in which they remain where they are not (north)

Earl Fitzwilliam).

Sunderland yet decided upon :

Ald. Thompson

Hon. G. Barrington.

- Hon. T. H. Foley, | 1. Barnstaple, borough-Petition abandoned.

Worcestershire (W.)

succeeding his fa. 2. Bath, city-Election affirmed.

ther, as Lord Foley. 3. Bedford, borough-Election affirmed.

Dundee

Sir H. Parnell. - G. Kinloch, deceased. 14. Bristol, city-Committee appointed, April 25. 5. Bury St. Edmund's, borough—Ballot for committee May 2.

Inverness burghs

Col. J. Baillie, by the :{

death of. 6. Carlow, county-Ballot for committee May 14. 17. Carmarthen, borough-Petition abandoned. 8. Carnarvon, borough-Sir C. Paget declared not duly elected, and the return amended with the name of 0. J. E.

ABSTRACTS OF PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS. Nanney, Esq. The return of Mr. Nanney was petitioned against, and the petition ordered to be taken into consi- shares. By a return, ordered to be printed by the House

Number of Holders of National Stock, and amount of deration on the 16th May, but has been abandoned. 9. Carrickfergus, borough-Election of C. R. Dobbs declared of Commons on the 17th of April, it appears that the total

void : the suspension of the issue of a new writ recom- number of accounts on which a half year's dividend was mended, and the serious attention of the House called to due at the last half-yearly payment thereof, on each dethe gross bribery and corruption which have prevailed at scription of public stock, and on each description of termithe last and previous elections.

nable annuities, was 279,751. The amounts of the half10. Clonmell, borough—Ballot for committee May 16.

yearly dividends, received by these holders, are classified 11. Coleraine, borough-Ballot for committee May 7.

as follows: 12. Cork, city-Petition abandoned. 13. Coventry, city-Election affirmed.

Not exceeding £ 5

87,176 14. Ennis, borough-Election affirmed.

10

44,648 15. Galway, county-Ballot for committee May 14.

50

98,305 16. town-Committee appointed April 23.

100

25.641 17. Harwich, borough-Petition abandoned.

200

14,701 18. Hertford, borough-Viscount Ingestrie and Viscount Mahon

300

4495 declared unduly elected; and, on the ground that bribery

500

2827 and treating had prevailed, the suspending of the issue of

1000

1367 a new writ recommended until after April 22 ; subse

2000 (151° are quently extended till May 2.

joint accounts, 19. Knaresborough, borough-Petition abandoned.

or of public com. 20. Launceston, borough-Petition abandoned.

panies) 417 21. Limerick, city-Ballot for committee May 14.

3000 (35 do.) 75 22. Lincoln, city-Ballot for committee May 2.

4000 (24 do.) 39 23. Linlithgow, county-Ballot for committee April 30.

5000 (10 do.)

14 24. Londonderry, borough-Election affirmed ; the petition de

Exceeding

5000 (34 do.)

46 clared frivolous and vexatious. 25. Longford, county-L. White and J. H. Rorke declared un- Gold and Silver Coinage.-In the twenty years from

duly elected, and the return ordered to be amended with 1790 to 1809, both inclusive, the amount of gold coined was the names of Viscount Forbes and A. Lefroy.

21,493,6401, 38. 6d. The greatest amount in any one year was 26. Mallow, borough-W. J. O'Neil Daunt declared not duly 2,967,5041. 158., in 1798. The silver coined during the elected, and the return ordered to be amended by sub

same period amounted only to 12161. 158. 2d. In the twenty stituting the name of C. D. 0. Jephson. 27. Montgomery, borough-Election of D. Pugh declared void. years from 1810 to 1829, both inclusive, the coinage of gold

At the subsequent election, Col. J. Edwards was returned: amounted to 45,387,4231. 8s. 4d.; the greatest amount in 28. Newry, borough-Election affirmed.

any one year being 9,520,758l. 138. 10d. in 1821. During the 29. Norfolk, county (east. div.)—Ballot for committee May 2.

same period, 9,149,411l. 48. ld., were also coined in silver ; 30. Northumberland, county (south. div.)-Petition abandoned.

2,436,2971. 128. of which was coined in 1827. 31. Norwich, city-Election affirmed.

Milbank Penitentiary.-The annual Report of the super32. Oxford, city:—The election, as far as regarded T. Stonor, intending Committee of this establishment states that, on

declared void. At a subsequent election, W. Hughes Hughes the 31st December, 1831, the number of convicts in the was returned, and now sits.

prison amounted to 538, of whom 144 were females. On 33. Petersfield, borough-J. G. Lefevre declared unduly elected, Dec. 31, 1832, the number was 519, of whom 136 were

and the return ordered to be amended by substituting females. During the year, 178 males and 42 females had

Hylton Jolliffe. 34. Portarlington, borough-Election affirmed.

been admitted ; 24 had died, and 215 had been discharged 35. Ripon, borough-Election affirmed.

for various causes; the far greater part, namely, 132 males 36. Salisbury, city–Ballot for committee April 30.

and 29 females, having received free pardons in conse37. Southampton, town–J. B. Hoy declared undnly elected ; quence of their good conduct. The earnings of the prisoners

and the return amended with the name of J. S. Penleaze. amounted to 26831. 10s. Of this sum a proportion is reserved 38. Stafford, borough-Petition abandoned.

for the prisoners and for the officers of the establishment; 39. Stirling, burghs-Petition abandoned.

leaving a net amount, toward the expenses of the Peniten40. Tiverton, borongh-Ballot for committee May 9.

tiary, of 20121. 128. 7d. The total net expense, after deduct41. Warwick, borough-Ballot for committee May 7.

ing the above, was 17,1781. 6s. 9d. Taking the average 42. Weymouth, &c., borough-Petition abandoned.

number of prisoners at 530, this gives an expenditure of 43. Windsor, borough-Petitiou abandoned.

upwards of 321. per head per annum. The Report states, 44. York, city-Petition abandoned.

also, that the conduct of those discharged in former years Mr. C. P. Thomson having been returned for Dover and has been in general very satisfactory; that a large proporManchester, made choice to sit for the latter place. On a tion have applied for, and received, the gratuities allowed new election for Dover, Mr. Halcomb was returned, but for good conduct since their liberation ; and that greater

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exertions have been made latterly to extend moral and was the cause of the long continuance of the war, the religious instruction in the Penitentiary, and apparently inveterate enemy of the tranquillity of France. The escape with the most beneficial effects.

of that adventurer from Elba was attributed by the majority Debtors. The number of prisoners, confined for debt in of the French to a plan on the part of our government to the several prisons of England and Wales, in the year end-embroil their country anew in war; and they had little ing Michaelmas, 1832, amounted to 16,661.

confidence in the maintenance of peace on our part until Game Laws.—The number of commitments under the the year 1823, when we remained neutral after their inGame Laws, in England and Wales, from Nov. 1, 1831, to vasion of Spain; and still more in 1830, when we so Nov. 1, 1832, was 2845.

promptly relieved them from anxiety by acknowledging the title of the Orleans branch to the crown.

The public roads in France are greatly inferior to those POST OFFICE ARRANGEMENTS WITH

of this country, and the cross-roads are hardly passable. FRANCE.

The stage-coaches are nearly as large and heavy as those

of England were a century ago; the average rate of travelThe improvements which are understood to be contemplated | ling by them does not exceed four or five miles an hour ; in the transmission of letters to and from Paris ought to while by the mail it is hardly six miles. This slow prohave taken place many years ago. The delay of them has gress arises not from the country being in general more proceeded, less from any direct obstacle, whether physical or hilly than England, nor from the want of road materials, political, than from the slowness with which an alteration in but from the insufficient care and labour hitherto bestowed on almost any department of the civil service is effected in France. the roads. There are in France no tolls or turnpikes; no “ We are very raw," said an intelligent Frenchman several road trustees; all is under the charge of government, years ago, “ in all that regards the management of civil who seldom find it convenient to make an addition to the affairs. Madame de Staël had abundant reason to affirm, sum (about 1,200,0001.) usually appropriated to this purpose except war.""In the year 1814, when the intercourse be- in Anse for det postage on letters to France, the practice tween London and Paris was re-opened, an answer to a hitherto has been to divide it; half, or nearly half, being paid letter was not obtained from one capital to the other until here by the persons despatching letters, the other half by the fifth day from the original despatch, while it is only the receivers of the letters in France. It was proposed, within these two or three years, and by means of estafettes, on the part of the French, that persons forwarding letters or couriers on horseback, that greater expedition has been either to or from Paris, should do as with letters to a country attained. The post-days, or days for the despatch of the town in Great Britain or Ireland ; either paying the whole mail, have been only four in the week, viz., Monday, Tuesday, postage, or no part of it; or lastly, continuing as at present Thursday, Friday ; omitting Wednesday and Saturday : | to pay the half. This, we understand, is not likely to be although the extent of mercantile business, to say nothing acceded to. It might be useful in particular cases; in a of political, was assuredly such as to call for a daily post as general sense, it will be less important than would be a much as between London and Edinburgh or Dublin. In reduction of the charge, the present rate (28. 4d. per letter) proof of this, we have merely to refer to the number of being considerably beyond what can be afforded by the low expresses for Messrs. Rothschild and other members of the prices of merchandise, and the diminished profits of trade in Stock Exchange, the whole of which might have been

a season of profound peace. But whether the charge be spared, had the mail been, as was perfectly practicable, reduced or not, the accelerated despatch of the mails, and conveyed from one capital to the other in thirty-six hours.

the increase of post-days from four to six a-week, will prove But if we censure the French for slowness in the intro- highly acceptable to the merchants on both sides of the duction of such improvements, we by no means attribute channel. that slowness to a feeling of repugnance or indifference in respect to connexion with England. They have long held in high esteem our commercial institutions, and have acknow

NOTICE. ledged our superiority in commerce, navigation, and the useful arts generally. Only admit to a Frenchman"

que

QUARTERLY PART OF THE COMPANION TO THE Paris brille dans les beaux arts," (that Paris excels in

NEWSPAPER. the fine arts,) and you will find him perfectly disposed The present number forms the Fourth of this work, namely, to give to England the lead in a variety of more important three regular Monthly Numbers, and one Supplement. By points. A century ago, Voltaire, after passing, some years the publication of one Supplement in each Quarter, the work in this country, apprized his readers when he returned

may be issued in a Quarterly Part, stitched in a wrapper, at to France, that we could reckon among our eminent men many besides Marlborough ; and in the present age ample

the price of Ninepence. In the first year, the quarterly issues justice has been done to us by Dupin and other French

will be as follows :men who have visited our capital, our dock-yards, and

1833, May 1st, Part I. the seats of our manufactures.

II.
Contrasting the calm

Aug. Ist, steadiness of our workmen, with the lively, but often ineffi

Nov. 1st, - III. cient bustle of the French, Dupin says, * There reigns in

1834, - Feb. 1st, - IV. the workshops of England a silent activity;" while another of It is intended, also, on the 1st of February, 1834, to publish a his countrymen, adverting to several of our minor regulations Fifth Part, price Ninepence, containing a RETROSPECT OF THE in civil matters, and explaining their origin, adds, “ We

Year 1833. This Appendix will complete the annual volume, find that, in general, the arrangements of the English

which will be sold, bound in cloth, at Five Shillings. bear the stamp of reflection and good sense." The late Jean Baptiste Say, the political economist of France, visited

(The Supplement, No.3, published April 1, is wholly devoted to the subject England in 1814, when his penetrating eye detected much

of the East India Company's Charter.) that was hollow in our imagined prosperity, and foresaw a great deal of the distress that afterwards took place ; but

LONDON :-CHARLES KNIGHT, PALL-MALL EAST. even he, unsparing as he was in animadversion, and wholly Shopkeepers and Hawkers may be supplied Wholesale by the following unaccustomed to the language of compliment, pronounced London, GROOMBRIDOE, Falmouth, Philp. Nottingham, Wright usUne nation admirablement industrieuse ;" by which Panyer-alley, Pater. Hull, Stevenson. Oxford, Slatter. he meant a nation where the division and subdivision of

Jersey, Carre, jun. Plymouth, Nettleton.

Leeds, Baines& Newsome. Portsea, Horsey, jun. industry was better understood and practised than in any Bath, Simms.

Lincoln, Brooke & Sons. Sheffield, Ridge. other.

Birmingham, Drake. Liverpool, Willmer & Shrewsbury, Tibnam.
Bristol, Westley & Co.'

Southampton, Fletcher. With such favourable impressions of the state of produc- Bury St. Edmunds, Lan- Llanduvery, D. R. & W. Lane End, Staffordshire, tive industry in this country, the public in France will receive with pleasure the assurance of a more speedy and

Canterbury, Marten. Lynn, Smith.

Worcester, Deighton.

Carlisle, Thurnam& Scott. Vanchester, Robinson; frequent intercourse between the two capitals. They will Derby, Wilkins & Son, and Webb & Simms. Dublin, Wakeman. regard it as a further ground for the expectation of con

Devonport, Byers. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, - Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd.
Doncaster,

Charnley.

Clusgow, Atkinson & Co tinued peace between the two governments, a point on

Norwich, Jarrold & Son; Aberdeen, Smith. which they were for many years in doubt, so deeply had Exeter, Balle.

and Wilkin & Fletcher. New York, Jackson. Buonaparte impressed them with the notion that England

Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES, Stamford-street,

Booksellers :

noster-row.

Sunith.

kester.

Rees.

C. Watts.

Brooke

&

White,

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78

80
80

CONTENTS.

assigns, for two years, who shall take the said slave, and PAGE

PAGE Crime in London. No. II. 65 Inquest on Robert Calley

96 give him bread, water or small drink, and refuse meat; and West India Question -69 Public Petitions

cause him to work, by beating, chaining, or otherwise, in Proposed New Laws relating to Dra. Election Petitions

79 such work and labour as he shall put him, be it never so matic Literary Property and The- Abstracts of Parliamentary Pa. vile. And if such slave absent himself from his master within atrical Performances

70
pers

79 the term by the space of fourteen days, he shall be adjudged Bill for the Relief of the Jews 71 Counsel to Prisoners

by two justices of the peace to be marked on the forehead The Banking System of Great Bri- Notice

or the ball of the cheek with a hot iron, with the sign of tain. No. II. 72

an S, and shall be adjudged to be slave to his said master

for ever; and if the said slave shall run away a second CRIME IN LONDON.-No. II.

time, he shall be adjudged a felon." We are now to present a few notices illustrative of the It is not by regulations of this description that even so diminution or disappearance of certain descriptions of crime important an object as the repression of crime can ever be in the metropolis, and of the causes by which the change attempted in a country pretending to the possession of any has been brought about.

portion of liberty. The remedy is a thousand times more In the most flourishing times of the Saxon kings a very dreadful than the disease. It would brutalize the commustrict system of police seems to have existed in England, nity, and crush out the life of the social principle, much which is said to have operated with remarkable effect in more completely than would the prevalence of mere disreducing the amount of crime. Under the institutions order and licence to any extent to which they have ever established by Alfred the Great, by which all the individuals spread under the most relaxed and feeble forms of governcomposing a tithing became securities for the good conduct ment. But fortunately there are other means which may of each other, the law, if we may believe some of our old be applied to effect the same end, and upon the success of writers, was maintained in almost unviolated authority. which, in so far at least as some of the most flagrant violaThe songs of Moore have made every reader familiar with tions of the law are concerned, sure dependence may be the golden age of Ireland, when, under the renowned Brien placed. A comparison, in regard to some particulars, of Boromhe, a solitary female, attired in richest and rarest the present with the past state of London will put this in a jewels, might have passed unharmed and without danger clear light. from one end of the country to the other,

In the year 1285, the 13th of Edward I., a statute was on she went, and her maiden smile

passed, of which the following is an extract :-“ Whereas In safety lighted her round the Green Isle.”

many evils, as murders, robberies, and manslaughters, have In the same age, the tenth century, our own historians been committed heretofore in the city by night and by day, state that the protection of person and property was equally and people have been beaten and evil-entreated, and divers perfect in England. Brompton, for instance, affirms that other mischances have befallen against his (the king's) in Alfred's time, although gold bracelets were wont to be peace; it is enjoined that none be so hardy as to be found hung up at the meeting of several high-roads, no man durst going or wandering about the streets of the city after touch them. Other authorities state that the robbery of a curfew tolled at St. Martin's-le-Grand, with sword or traveller in any part of the country was a thing altogether buckler, or other arms for doing mischief, or whereof evil unknown. This degree of security, however, was obtained suspicion might arise, nor any in any other manner, unless by a system of universal interference and restriction quite he be a great man, or other lawful person of good repute, or incompatible with the existence of anything like freedom, their certain messenger, having their warrants to go from in the modern sense of the term, or even with that of a pro

one to another, with lantern in hand." gressive civilization. It was, in fact, as has been remarked,

How different is the picture here presented of the state of exactly the same system which has prevailed from time London, at this remote era, from the comparative quiet and immemorial in China ; and proceeded mainly upon two security with which nearly every part of it may now be traprinciples,—first, that already mentioned, of holding each versed both by day and by night! It is curious, however, individual security for his neighbour; and, secondly, that of to observe up to how recent a period its streets retained no fixing down every man for life to the place in which he was small part of the dangers in which they abounded in the born, and preventing all removals from one district to thirteenth century. Even not much more than a hundred another. So long as the people could be made to submit to years ago, it seems to have been considered unsafe to venthis system of government, it probably answered its end of ture out after dark on horseback or in a coach. Who, keeping down crime tolerably well; and there is reason to exclaims Gay in his Trivia, published in 1712, believe that it held together longer than is commonly sup

" through night would hire the harnessed steed? posed. We have, indeed, some remnants of it even at the And who would choose the rattling wheel for speed ?" present day in the still surviving provisions of the law of In the same poem, also, occurs the following passage :-settlement, and in the custom by which the hundred, in case of the destruction of property by riots, is made liable

“ Where Lincoln's Inn, wide space, is railed around,

Cross not with venturous step : there oft is found for the damage. It is interesting and instructive, however,

The lurking thief, who, while the daylight shone, to remark the evidences, which present themselves in the Made the walls echo with his begging tone; latter days of this system, of its constantly-increasing un- That crutch, which late compassion moved, shall wound suitableness to the state of the country. We will only quote, Thy bleeding head, and fell thee to the ground. as one example of the severe measures to which it was at Though thou art tempted by the linkman's call, last deemed necessary to resort, in order to uphold so much Yet trust him not along the lonely wall; of it as had not then entirely passed away, the following

In the mid-way he'll quench his flaming brand, atrocious act, of the reign of Edward VI.

And share the booty with the pilfering band. * “ If any person shall bring to two justices of peace any

Still keep the public streets, where oily rays, runagate servant, or any other, which liveth idly and loiter

Shot from the crystal lamp, o'erspread the ways.” ingly by the space of three days, the said justices shall The Square of Lincoln's-Inn-Fields is now, perhaps, as cause the said idle and loitering servant or vagabond to be safe at all hours as any part of London; but, for a good marked with an hot iron on the breast with the letter V, many years after this time, it continued to be notorious for and adjudge him to be slave to the same person that brought the dangers which Gay describes. This arose in a great and presented him, to have to him, his executors, and measure from its vicinity to a nest of profligacy, occupying VOL. I.

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the space now lying between the Great and the Little Turn- offenders that were in it; and appeared with cutlasses, bludstiles, on the south side of Holborn, where a formidable geons, and pistols, and through the windows of the said crew of the most abandoned and desperate characters were round-house gave in arms to the prisoners that were in it; congregated together, forming a body which the arm of the and then began a formidable attack both within and without, law hardly dared to touch. When this colony of criminals which gave so great an alarm that a party of horse-grenawas rooted out, and the square was properly lighted and diers and foot-guards were sent for, and four of the villains watched, the dangers for which it had been so long infamous were taken, and brought before Sir Thomas de Veil

, and, were at an end.

after an examination of near five hours, were committed to | This is an example of one of the expedients which may be Newgate." applied with the greatest efficacy in the suppression of crime. In consequence of the alarm excited by this state of It is a disgrace to the authorities of a great city, or to the things, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, on the 13th of Octosystem of its government and police, that there should be ber, went up with an address to his Majesty, in which they suffered to exist in it any spot or district which is notorious stated “ that divers confederacies of great numbers of evilas the retreat merely of the profligate and lawless part of disposed persons, armed with bludgeons, pistols, cutlasses, society. There are unfortunately several places--for instance, and other dangerous weapons, infest not only the private a place called Field Lane-which still insult and defy the lanes and passages, but likewise the public streets and places sovereignty of the law in the heart of modern London. of usual concourse, and commit most daring outrages upon Field Lane is a wild tract lying in the way between two the persons of your Majesty's good subjects, whose affairs important sections of the town, which is never to be crossed oblige them to pass through the streets, by terrifying, robwithout precaution and some danger. Such a place ought bing, and wounding them; and these facts are frequently long ago to have been swept away, simply because of its perpetrated at such times as were heretofore deemed hours injurious effects upon the moral health of the city. If there of security : that the officers of justice have been repulsed are at present in London other places as bad as Field Lane, in the performance of their duty; some of whom have been no considerations of expense ought to prevent the adoption shot at, some wounded, and others murdered, in endeavourof the requisite means to obliterate such ulcers from the body ing to discover and apprehend the said persons ; by which of our social system.

means many are intimidated from duly executing their We must now, however, proceed to another head. “On offices, and others put in manifest danger of their lives." Wednesday last,” says a notice in the Evening Post of the On this a proclamation was issued, offering a reward of 16th March, 1716,“ four gentlemen were robbed and stripped 1001. for the conviction of any street robber; and others, to in the fields between London and Marylebone." These the same effect, followed in 1748 and 1751. But the evil fields are now covered by some of our most populous streets, does not appear to have been thereby abated, if we may in which the notion of four gentlemen being stripped is judge from the following statements of Fielding, written in sufficiently ridiculous; but in those days things nearly equally the last of these two years :-“ The great increase of robbold were attempted every day in the heart of the metropolis. beries within these few years is an evil which to me appears About 1728 it is recorded that street robbers had become to deserve some attention.

In fact, I make no extremely numerous and daring ; and “ their audacious vil doubt but that the streets of this town, and the roads leading lany," says Maitland,“ was got to such a height that they to it, will shortly be impassable without the utmost hazard; formed a design to rob the queen in St. Paul's Churchyard, nor are we threatened with seeing less dangerous gangs of as she privately returned from supper in the city to the rogues among us than those which the Italians call the palace of St. James's, as confessed by one of the gang when banditti.

What, indeed, may not the public under sentence of death. But those execrable villains being apprehend, when they are informed, as an unquestionable busily employed in robbing Sir Gilbert Heathcote, an alder- fact, that there are at this time a great gang of rogues, man of London, on his return in his chariot from the House whose number falls little short of a hundred, who are incorof Commons, her Majesty luckily passed them in her coach porated in one body, have officers and a treasury, and have without being attacked." This attempt, it is added, produced reduced theft and robbery into a regular system! There are so general and strong an alarm, that the magistrates applied of this society men who appear in all disguises, and mix in themselves with unusual energy to the remedy of the evil; most companies. Nor are they better versed in every art of and the consequence was that the streets were soon cleared cheating, thieving, and robbing, than they are armed with of the desperate characters by whom they had been infested, every method of evading the law, if they should ever be many of whom were taken and executed.

discovered, and an attempt made to bring them to justice. About this time, indeed, the evil seems to have suddenly Here, if they fail in rescuing the prisoner, or (which seldom grown to a height greatly transcending the degree in which happens) in bribing or deterring the prosecutor, they have, it had for some time before prevailed. In one of their pre- for their last resource, some rotten members of the law to sentments, we find the Grand Jury of 1729 characterizing forge a defence for them, and a great number of false witit as “ a wickedness that, till within these few years, was nesses ready to support it." And afterwards,-" How long unheard of among us." They attribute its prevalence to the have we known highwaymen reign in this kingdom after unusual swarms they had of late observed of sturdy and they have been publicly known for such! Have not some clamorous beggars; and they add that, unless this nuisance of these committed robberies in open daylight, in the sight be put down, “ many quiet and inoffensive people will hardly of many people, and have afterward rode solemnly and venture to stir out of their houses on their lawful callings, triumphantly through the neighbouring towns without any for fear of being saucily importuned in the day and auda- danger or molestation? This happens to every rogue who ciously attacked and robbed in the night."

is become eminent for his audaciousness, and is thought to But a good many years after matters seem to have been be desperate ; and is in a more particular manner the case no better. In 1744 it is stated that the street robbers used of great and numerous gangs, many of which have for a to go to the houses of the peace-officers, and make them beg long time committed the most open outrages in defiance of their pardon, and promise not to molest them; while the the law. Officers of justice have owned to me that they lives of other officers, who had particularly distinguished have passed by such, with warrants in their pockets against themselves by their activity, were conceived to be in such them, without daring to apprehend them; and, indeed, they danger, that they dared not show themselves in the streets. could not be blamed for not exposing themselves to sure Mr. Jones, the Deputy-Marshal of the city, having one day destruction ; for it is a melancholy truth that, at this very met a fellow of the name of Billingsby, a well-known offender, day, a rogue no sooner gives the alarm, within certain purendeavoured to seize him; “ but twelve villains," says Mait lieus, than twenty or thirty armed villains are found ready land, “ armed with cutlasses, and two with pistols, came up, to come to his assistance." crying, We know what you have been about, but defy all Fielding's pamphlet, from which we quote this statement, power, and directly attacked Mr. Thomas, a constable, giving appears to have produced a great effect on the public mind. him several wounds, and fired their pistols at Mr. Jones, who From this time, partly through certain new measures of received a slight wound in the forehead; but firing a pocket police, and partly by means of the more resolute determinablunderbuss amongst them, loaded with duck-shot, wounded tion awakened in the public generally to put down the evil, several, and at last they dispersed." “ On Saturday, the the robberies, both by footpads and mounted highwaymen, 28th of April," again writes the same historian, under this which had been so frequent on various roads in the vicinity year,“ near twenty desperate thieves and gamblers assem- of the metropolis, began rapidly to decline. Sir John Fieldbled themselves before St. Martin's round-house, about 11 ing informed the Committee of 1772 “ that for twenty years o'clock in the morning, in order to rescue some notorious a footpad had not escaped ; that highwaymen cannot escape, upon account of the early information given to the aforesaid | assailants either of person or property, and rendered peroffice (that of Bow Street), and the great number of prose- fectly safe to every one passing along them, at all hours of cutors who always appear against them, which he thinks the day and night. must in time put an end to the evil.” These causes, and Now this great change for the better has not certainly the greater extension which was afterwards given to the been brought about by the establishment among us of any police establishment of the metropolis, eventually brought oppressive system of inquisition and espionage, but simply about the result here anticipated, -in regard, at least, to the by the abatement of universally-acknowledged nuisances, more daring order of these violators of the law. In his and by other regulations of police and civic economy, for amusingly characteristic, but still interesting and valuable, which we have paid no other penalty but the money-tax evidence, given before the Committee of 1816, Townsend, necessary for carrying them into effect. Ancient London, who had at that time been a Bow Street officer for thirty- for example, abounded in places legally, or claiming to be four years, makes the following statement :-" There is one privileged, where not only debtors but felons of every descripthing which appears to me most extraordinary, when I tion sought an asylum from the law, to which from these remember, in very likely a week, there should be from ten retreats they offered, in their banded numbers, the most to fifteen highway robberies. We have not had a man com- daring defiance. Such sanctuaries, as they were called, were mitted for a highway robbery lately; I speak of persons on in fact nothing else than permanent nurseries of crime. horseback; formerly there were two, three, or four highway- Besides the celebrated Whitefriars, or Alsatia, of which the men, some on Hounslow Heath, some on Wimbledon Com- pages of Scott have given us a picture so full of life, and mon, some on Finchley Common, some on the Romford road. Whetstone Park, already mentioned, to the north of LinI have actually come to Bow Street office in the morning, coln's-Inn-Fields, there were the sanctuaries of St. Martinand while I have been leaning over the desk, had three or le-Grand, of the Minories, of Salisbury-court, of Ram-alley, four people come in and say, I was robbed by two highway- of Mitre-court, of Fulwood's-rents, of Baldwin's-gardens, men, in such a place; I was robbed by a single highway- (Gray's-Inn-Lane,) of the Savoy, of the Mint, of the Clink, man, in such a place. People travel now safely by means in Southwark, and others. These nuisances, strange as it of the horse-patrol that Sir Richard Ford planned. Where may be thought, although attempts had repeatedly been are these highway robberies now ? as I was observing to the made to regulate them, were not finally suppressed by the Chancellor (Lord Eldon) at the time I was up at his house legislature till 1697, nine years after the Revolution. Nay, on the Corn Bill. He said, Townsend, I knew you very it was a good many years later before they were all effecwell so many years ago.' I said, “ Yes, my Lord, I remember tually rooted out. your first coming to the bar, first in your plain gown, and Again, it is not yet quite a century since the streets of then as King's Counsel, and now Chancellor. Now, your this great capital could be almost said to be lighted at Lordship sits as Chancellor, and directs the executions on night at all. Until the year 1736, there were only a thouthe Recorder's report ; but where are the highway robberies sand lamps hung out throughout the whole city, and these now?' And his Lordship said, “Yes, I am astonished.' were kept burning only till midnight; and, for one half of There are no footpad robberies or road robberies now, but the year, namely, from Lady-day till Michaelmas, were merely jostling you in the streets. They used to be ready never lighted at all : nay, even during the winter months, to pop at a man as soon as he let down his glass : that was there were ten nights every moon, from the sixth day after done by bandittis." So the late Sir Richard Birnie, in his full to the third day after new moon, on which, however evidence given in 1828, says, “There has not been a mounted cloudy 'the sky, not a wick lent its feeble aid to dissipate highwayman these thirty years."

the obscurity. In fact, the thousand lamps were only kept But highway robbery is only one of many descriptions of bụrning for about seven hundred and fifty hours in the crime and immorality, characterized by a portion of the same course of the year. The streets of a town left in this state audacity and violence, which are now likewise entirely or were necessarily delivered over, during a great part of nearly suppressed. Forty or fifty years ago there were every twenty-four hours, to the uncontrolled dominion of numerous establishments in the metropolis where swarms robbers and other violators of the law. of the most lawless characters openly congregated, and might The paving and widening of many of our most crowded be said to enjoy entire security from even the approach of thoroughfares, and the removal of many impediments by the wretched police which then existed. The names of some which passage through the streets used formerly to be of these haunts of profligacy were the Bull in the Pound, interrupted, are other improvements which have all matethe Apollo Gardens, the Dog and Duck, the Temple of rially contributed to the same result. The establishment Flora, &c. “A dreadful society of vagabonds," said Sir (in 1792) of the several police-offices, and that of the horseJohn Fielding, who remembered them well, when examined patrol, imperfect as they both are, have nevertheless unin 1816, were certainly collected together in those places." doubtedly been the means of maintaining, throughout the Thence issued the bold ruffians by whom highway robberies space over which their jurisdiction extends, a measure of were perpetrated to such an extent in those days. “ The order and general security greatly exceeding what had character of the highwayman," continues Sir John," is cer- previously prevailed. And, lastly, the recent substitution tainly less heard of since the putting down those two infernal of the new police in the room of that long-tolerated nuiplaces of meeting, the Dog and Duck and the Temple of sance the old parochial watch, will now be confessed, we Flora, which were certainly the most dreadful places in or believe, even by the greater number of those who were at about the metropolis." Again, down to a much later period first most opposed to the change, to have been an improvethan that here referred to, it is stated to have been a generalment of the very highest value and importance. practice in the metropolis for the lower orders to amuse The grand result, as we have said, is, that in so far as themselves by the brutal diversion called bull-hanking, London and its vicinity are concerned, all those descripand driving the bulls about the streets. Indeed, this practions of criminals who were wont to inspire the greatest tice continued to be known in certain districts of London terror have not indeed been entirely extirpated, but have till within the last few years. The following statement was at least been forced to withdraw from the systematic purmade by the Rev. Joshua King, the clergyman of the parish suit of their lawless courses. A burglary, a robbery on the of Bethnal Green, in his examination by the Committee of highway, a murder, still occasionally occur ; but those 1816 :-" Every Sunday morning, during the time of divine bands of marauders who used to make our streets and service, several hundred persons assemble in a field adjoining roads constantly unsafe at certain hours, are broken up the churchyard, where they fight dogs, hunt ducks, gamble, and no longer exist. The law, which was formerly kept in enter into subscriptions to fee drovers for a bullock : I have check by these ruffians, is now master and keeps them in seen them drive the animal through the most populous parts check. "They may sometimes escape its vigilance, but they of the parish, force sticks pointed with iron up the body, put dare no longer offer it open defiance : when they succeed peas into the ears, and infuriate the beast, so as to endanger in breaking through its mandates, it is by running away the lives of all persons passing along the streets." Such from it, not by bearding it. The substitution of this state enormities as this, we presume, are now entirely put an of things is an immense gain. It is a step forward in end to. And so are such systematic atrocities as those civilization, and an actual advantage of vast amount. said to have been committed in former times by the Mohocks While the leagued enemies of the law intimidate the (whom the readers of the Spectator will remember), and by law itself, society can hardly be said to be consolidated. the infamous associations of the Cutter-Lads, and others of In a perfect condition of society, crime would not exist a similar description. All our great thoroughfares at least at all ; it would not require even a law to suppress it. At may now, indeed, be said to be effectually cleared from open this ultimate limit of all improvement we certainly have

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